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Retention: General

Patterns of constipation in urogynecology: clinical importance and pathophysiologic insights.
Soligo M, Salvatore S, Emmanuel AV, De Ponti E, Zoccatelli M, Cortese M, Milani R
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul;195(1):50-5. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

OBJECTIVE: We have analyzed the prevalence and patterns of constipation in women with urinary symptoms and/or genital prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Seven hundred and eighty-six consecutive urogynecologic patients underwent a questionnaire and structured clinical assessment. Comparison between constipated and nonconstipated women was made. Fisher exact test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analysis (P < .05 for significance). RESULTS: Thirty-two percent of women were constipated (172 difficult stool passage, 13 reduced stool frequency, 64 both). A genital prolapse > or = 2 degree Half Way System (HWS) was present in 44% of women. A posterior colpocele was more frequent in constipated women (35% vs 19%; P < .0001), resulting in a risk factor for constipation (OR 2.31; 95% CI 1.63-3.27). By contrast, higher degrees of anterior colpocele appeared to protect against constipation (OR 0.80; 95% CI 0.66-0.96). No differences in prevalence of constipation were observed for urinary symptoms or urodynamic diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Bowel dysfunction correlates exclusively with posterior aspects of the pelvic floor support.


Postoperative urinary retention after surgery for benign anorectal disease: potential risk factors and strategy for prevention.
Toyonaga T, Matsushima M, Sogawa N, Jiang SF, Matsumura N, Shimojima Y, Tanaka Y, Suzuki K, Masuda J, Tanaka M
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006 Mar 22;.

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the incidence of and risk factors for urinary retention after surgery for benign anorectal disease. METHODS: We reviewed 2,011 consecutive surgeries performed under spinal anesthesia for benign anorectal disease from January through June 2003 to identify potential risk factors for postoperative urinary retention. In addition, we prospectively investigated the preventive effect of perioperative fluid restriction and pain control by prophylactic analgesics on postoperative urinary retention. RESULTS: The number of procedures and the urinary retention rates were as follows: hemorrhoidectomy, 1,243, 21.9%; fistulectomy, 349, 6.3%; incision/drainage, 177, 2.3%; and sliding skin graft/lateral subcutaneous internal sphincterotomy, 64, 17.2%. The overall urinary retention rate was 16.7%. With hemorrhoidectomy, female sex, presence of preoperative urinary symptoms, diabetes mellitus, need for postoperative analgesics, and more than three hemorrhoids resected were independent risk factors for urinary retention as assessed by multivariate analysis. With fistulectomy, female sex, diabetes mellitus, and intravenous fluids >1,000 ml were independent risk factors for urinary retention. Perioperative fluid restriction, including limiting the administration of intravenous fluids, significantly decreased the incidence of urinary retention (7.9 vs 16.7%, P<0.0001). Furthermore, prophylactic analgesic treatment significantly decreased the incidence of urinary retention (7.9 vs 25.6%, P=0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Urinary retention is a common complication after anorectal surgery. It is linked to several risk factors, including increased intravenous fluids and postoperative pain. Perioperative fluid restriction and adequate pain relief appear to be effective in preventing urinary retention in a significant number of patients after anorectal surgery.

Successful Voiding After Trial Without Catheter Is Not Synonymous With Recovery of Bladder Function After Colorectal Surgery.
Chaudhri S, Maruthachalam K, Kaiser A, Robson W, Pickard RS, Horgan AF
Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Apr 5;.

PURPOSE: The need for monitoring postoperative urine output and the possibility of lower urinary tract dysfunction following colorectal surgery necessitates temporary urinary drainage. Current practice assumes recovery of lower urinary tract function to coincide with successful micturition after removal of urethral catheter. The aim of this study was to analyze the recovery of bladder function following colorectal surgery. METHODS: Patients undergoing colorectal operations underwent preoperative and postoperative uroflowmetry and residual urine estimation. All patients were catheterized suprapubically at surgery. Uroflowmetry and postvoid residual volumes were recorded postoperatively until recovery of bladder function was complete. RESULTS: Thirty consecutive patients underwent suprapubic catheterization, 25 of whom completed the study. Seventeen (68 percent) patients were able to pass urine within 72 hours of surgery. Recovery of lower urinary tract function was delayed in patients undergoing rectal vs. colonic resections (median, 6 vs. 3 days, P = 0.0015). Postvoid residual volumes greater than 200 ml were noted in three (20 percent) patients following rectal resections beyond the tenth postoperative day, with complete emptying achieved by six weeks. CONCLUSIONS: Apparent successful micturition following rectal resections does not always indicate recovery of bladder function. The use of suprapubic catheters, in addition to being safe and effective, allows assessment of residual volumes postoperatively and smoothes the path to full recovery of lower urinary tract function.


Urinary retention during sacral nerve stimulation for faecal incontinence: report of a case.
Michelsen HB, Buntzen S, Krogh K, Laurberg S
Int J Colorectal Dis. 2006 Jan 13;:1-3.

Sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) was proposed for the treatment of patients with urologic symptoms in 1967 but was not used until 1981. SNS has also proven to be a promising treatment in idiopathic faecal incontinence when conventional treatments have failed. The modality has been used for faecal incontinence since the mid-1990s. Eighty percent of the patients who were selected for percutaneous nerve evaluation (PNE) because of faecal incontinence report an improvement in the symptoms and qualify for a permanent implantation. Accordingly, SNS is now used for faecal incontinence and urologic symptoms. Reflex interactions between the bladder and the distal gastrointestinal tract are well known. The present case shows that SNS for faecal incontinence may significantly influence bladder function.