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Prolapse: Gynecology

Abdominal sacrohysteropexy in young women with uterovaginal prolapse: results of 20 cases.
Demirci F, Ozdemir I, Somunkiran A, Doyran GD, Alhan A, Gul B
J Reprod Med. 2006 Jul;51(7):539-43.

OBJECTIVE: To report the results of abdominal sacrohysteropexy with polypropylene mesh in young women who wish to retain their uteri following uterovaginal prolapse. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty young women underwent abdominal sacrohysteropexy and concomitant reconstructive surgery. The preoperative and postoperative protocols included a urogynecologic history, physical examination, voiding diary, 1-hour pad test, cough stress test, multichannel urodynamic studies and administration of a validated, prolapse-specific symptom inventory and quality of life instrument. RESULTS: Of the 20 patients with marked uterovaginal prolapse, 13 had urodynamic stress incontinence. Anterior and posterior vaginal wall prolapse and urodynamic stress incontinence recurred in 1 of 20 patients (5%) at a mean follow-up of 25 months. Nineteen patients stated that their sex life had improved, although 3 of them had dyspareunia. One patient was dissatisfied owing to persistent dyspareunia. The postoperative values on the symptom inventory and quality of life scores were significantly lower than the preoperative values. The low scores suggest satisfaction and no symptoms of prolapse. CONCLUSION: Abdominal sacrohysteropexy is effective and safe in the treatment of uterovaginal prolapse in women who wish to retain their uteri. It maintains a durable anatomic restoration, normal vaginal axis and sexual function. The success rate is excellent for correcting prolapse, and the complications are minimal.

Feasibility and patient satisfaction with pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence day surgery.
van der Vaart CH, Lamers BH, Heintz AP
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Aug 24;.e-pub

We performed a prospective cohort study to characterize the feasibility of urinary stress incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse surgery in day care. Two hundred and one women were prepared for day surgery by a standardised protocol; 132 women underwent a single Tension-free Vaginal Tape/Tension-free Vaginal Tape-Obturator procedure, and 69 women had additional or only pelvic organ prolapse surgery. The main outcome measures were complications, satisfaction score and recommendation to others, recorded after 3 days and 6-10 weeks. We found that it is feasible and safe to perform pelvic organ prolapse and urinary incontinence surgery in day care. Patients' satisfaction is high in all aspects of care and the majority would recommend it to others. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only dissatisfaction with the care provided by the staff of the surgical ward was significantly associated with a negative recommendation to others (odds ratio 7.3, 95% confidence interval 1.6-33.5).

Collagen-coated vs noncoated low-weight polypropylene meshes in a sheep model for vaginal surgery. A pilot study.
de Tayrac R, Alves A, Therin M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Aug 29;.

The aims of this study were dual. First, to evaluate the feasibility of a sheep model as an animal model for vaginal surgery with meshes. Second, to compare host response to two low-weight polypropylene (PP) meshes, a noncoated (Soft Prolenetrade mark, Gynecare, Ethicon) and a coated mesh with an absorbable hydrophilic film (Ugytextrade mark, Sofradim). Thirty-six 20x20 mm polypropylene meshes (18 coated and 18 noncoated) were surgically implanted by the vaginal route in 12 adult ewes. Meshes were implanted in the anterior (n=12) and the posterior vaginal compartments (n=24). Animals were killed 1 (n=6) and 12 (n=6) weeks after surgery. Postimplantation evaluation included macroscopical examination, histological and immunohistochemical analysis and histomorphometrical measures of the distance between the meshes and the vaginal epithelium. The experimental procedure was feasible in all cases. Vaginal erosions were observed twice as frequently with the noncoated-PP meshes (6/18, 33.3%) as with the coated-PP meshes (3/18, 16.7%), even if that difference was not significant (p=0.4). However, no differences were observed between the two meshes in terms of shrinkage, tissue ingrowth, inflammatory response, and position of the mesh in the vaginal wall. The mechanism involved in the reduction of vaginal erosion could be due to the lesser adhesion of the coated mesh on the vaginal wound during the early postoperative period.

Mesh augmentation during pelvic-floor reconstructive surgery: risks and benefits.
Baessler K, Maher CF
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;18(5):560-566.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Synthetic meshes are increasingly used in the surgical management of stress urinary incontinence and pelvic-organ prolapse in an attempt to improve success rates and increase the longevity of repairs. This review describes and analyses complications following pelvic-floor procedures employing synthetic meshes. RECENT FINDINGS: Type I monofilament polypropylene mesh with a large pore size is currently the mesh of choice. Chronic inflammation is a typical host response, whereas acute inflammation and predominant CD20+ lymphocyte infiltration represent an adverse host reaction and may result in defective healing. Mesh properties influence the performance and complication rate. Mesh-related complications after midurethral slings and mesh sacrocolpopexies with monofilament polypropylene are rare. An up to 26% mesh erosion rate and up to 38% dyspareunia rate with vaginally introduced mesh for pelvic-organ prolapse repair has been reported. Concurrent hysterectomy seems to increase mesh erosion rates. SUMMARY: Surgeons should be aware of the potential complications of synthetic meshes. Until data on the safety and efficacy of synthetic mesh in vaginal reconstructive surgery emerge, its routine use outside of clinical trials cannot be recommended.

Repair of vaginal vault prolapse and pelvic floor relaxation using polypropylene mesh.
Mourtzinos A, Raz S
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;18(5):555-9.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Innumerable techniques have been described for vaginal vault prolapse and enterocele repair including abdominal (open, laparoscopic, and robotic) and vaginal techniques. Recently, the use of surgical mesh in pelvic floor surgery has become increasingly popular due to the high incidence of recurrence with primary repairs and no surrogate material. The increasing variety of available materials and techniques, combined with a lack of well conducted clinical trials, make the choice of repair to use difficult. RECENT FINDINGS: This article provides an update review on the different procedures available to the urogynecologist and female urologist for repair of vault prolapse. We will also discuss a new surgical technique for the repair of vault prolapse, which recreates the sacrouterine-cardinal ligament complex and reconstructs the pelvic floor with mesh. SUMMARY: The best approach to vaginal vault prolapse remains unknown. Surgeon comfort and preference as well as proper patient selection remain critical. The use of graft materials in pelvic floor reconstruction should have limited use in a carefully selected patient population. There is a need for well powered, controlled, long-term, randomized studies with patient generated quality-of-life questionnaires comparing the short and long-term outcomes of these techniques.

Roles of sex steroid receptors and cell cycle regulation in pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse.
Chung da J, Bai SW
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;18(5):551-4.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The cause of pelvic organ prolapse is multifactorial and many inciting, promoting and decompensating factors play a role in developing pelvic organ prolapse. Various clinical parameters have been studied quite extensively, but estrogen and collagen metabolism and cell proliferation and apoptosis have not been widely evaluated. This review focuses on assessing the roles of estrogen and its receptor, relationship with collagen metabolism and cell proliferation and cell apoptosis in development and progression of pelvic organ prolapse. RECENT FINDINGS: Differential expressions of sex steroid receptors in various suspensory ligaments of prolapsed uteri have been studied. How different subtypes of estrogen receptor play a role in inducing and aggravating pelvic organ prolapse has yet to be defined. The role of estrogen in collagen metabolism and cell proliferation related to development of pelvic organ prolapse is still under study. Studies on the proliferation of fibroblasts in ligaments of pelvic organ prolapse have yielded conflicting results. SUMMARY: There is still a need for additional research on precise roles of sex steroids, their receptors and cell cycle regulatory proteins and cell proliferation in pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse. Some of them could be the cause of pelvic organ prolapse and some of them the direct result of tissue trauma in pelvic organ prolapse.

Remodeling of vaginal connective tissue in patients with prolapse.
Alperin M, Moalli PA
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;18(5):544-550.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pelvic organ prolapse is a common disease that negatively affects the lives of women. To date, basic science research into the pathogenesis of prolapse has been limited. The vagina and its supportive connective tissues provide one of the primary mechanisms of support to the pelvic organs. This review summarizes our current understanding of the alterations in these tissues in women with prolapse. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research suggests that the vagina and its supportive tissues actively remodel in response to different environmental stimuli. The literature has many shortcomings due to restricted access to tissue, absence of longitudinal data, and limited animal models. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that within prolapsed tissue metabolism of collagen and elastin is altered. Thus, not only the synthesis of those structural proteins but also the balance between the activity of the major proteolytic enzymes that degrade them and the inhibitors of proteolysis are important components to consider in studies on the pathogenesis of pelvic organ prolapse. SUMMARY: Biochemical studies of the vagina and its supportive connective tissues have improved understanding of the contribution of altered connective tissue to the pathogenesis of prolapse. It is important to continue research in this area, as the knowledge gained from these studies will allow for the development of innovative reconstructive procedures and the establishment of preventive measures.

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Incidence of concomitant surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in patients surgically treated for stress urinary incontinence.
Hart SR, Moore RD, Miklos JR, Mattox TF, Kohli N
J Reprod Med. 2006 Jul;51(7):521-4.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the concomitant incidence of surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in patients undergoing a surgical procedure to correct stress urinary incontinence in both an academic and private urogynecology practices. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients undergoing surgical correction of stress urinary incontinence over a 1-year period at 2 centers. RESULTS: Among 150 surgical procedures for stress urinary incontinence in the academic practice, 116 (77%) patients underwent at least 1 additional procedure for a pelvic support defect, and 72 (48%) patients required 2 or more concomitant reconstructive pelvic procedures. In the private urogynecology practice, 182 surgical procedures for stress urinary incontinence were performed, 153 (84%) patients required at least 1 additional procedure for a pelvic support defect, and 86 (47%) patients required 2 or more concomitant reconstructive pelvic procedures. CONCLUSION: Women who require surgical correction of stress urinary incontinence have a high incidence of concomitant pelvic support defects that require surgical repair. The incidence of concomitant surgery for pelvic organ prolapse between the 2 sites was not significantly different.

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A 2-year anatomical and functional assessment of transvaginal rectocele repair using a polypropylene mesh.
de Tayrac R, Picone O, Chauveaud-Lambling A, Fernandez H
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Feb;17(2):100-5. Epub 2005 May 21.

This study reports the 2-year results of an original technique for rectocele repair by the vaginal route, using a combined sacrospinous suspension and a polypropylene mesh. Twenty-six women were successively operated between October 2000 and February 2003. Mean age was 63.7 years [range 35-92]. 19 women had had previous pelvic surgery for prolapse and/or urinary incontinence (73.1%), but none had had a previous rectocele repair. Patients underwent physical examination staging of prolapse in the international pelvic organ prolapse staging system. Eleven women had stage 2 posterior vaginal wall prolapse (42.3%), seven had stage 3 (26.9%) and eight had stage 4 (30.8%). The procedure included a bilateral sacrospinous suspension and a polypropylene mesh (GyneMesh, Gynecare, Ethicon France) attached from the sacrospinous ligaments to the perineal body. We did not perform any associated posterior fascial repair, nor myorraphy. Patients were followed up for 10-44 months, with a median follow-up (+/- SD) of 22.7 +/- 9.2 months. Functional results and sexual function were evaluated using the PFDI, the PFIQ and the PISQ-12 self-questionnaires. Twenty-five women returned for follow-up (96.2%). At follow-up, 24 women were cured (92.3%) and one had asymptomatic stage 2 rectocele. All the patients but one had symptoms and impact on quality of life improved. No postoperative infection of the mesh or rectovaginal fistula was found, but there were three vaginal erosions (12%) and one out of 13 had de novo dyspareunia (7.7%).

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Uterosacral ligament vault suspension: five-year outcomes.
Silva WA, Pauls RN, Segal JL, Rooney CM, Kleeman SD, Karram MM
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Aug;108(2):255-63.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the five-year anatomic and functional outcomes of the high uterosacral vaginal vault suspension. METHODS: One hundred ten patients with advanced symptomatic uterovaginal or posthysterectomy prolapse treated between January 1997 and January 2000 were identified and 72 (65%) consented to participate in this study. Anatomic outcomes were obtained by Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification. Functional results were obtained subjectively and with quality-of-life questionnaires, including the short-form Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI), and Female Sexual Function Index. RESULTS: The mean follow-up period was 5.1 years (range 3.5-7.5 years). Vaginal hysterectomy (37.5%), anterior colporrhaphy (58.3%), posterior colporrhaphy (87.5%), and suburethral slings (31.9%) were performed as indicated. Surgical failure (symptomatic recurrent prolapse of stage 2 or greater in one or more segments) was 11 of 72 (15.3%). Two patients (2.8%) had recurrence of apical prolapse of stage 2 or greater. For those sexually active preoperatively and postoperatively (n=34), mean postoperative Female Sexual Function Index scores for arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain were normal, whereas the desire score was abnormal (mean= 3.2). However, 94% (n=29) were currently satisfied with their sexual activity. Postoperative IIQ/UDI scores were significantly improved in all three domains (irritative, P= .01; obstructive, P<.001; stress, P=.03) and overall (IIQ-7, P<.001; UDI, P<.001) compared with preoperatively. Bowel dysfunction occurred 33.3% preoperatively compared with 27.8% postoperatively (P=.24). CONCLUSION: Uterosacral ligament vaginal vault fixation seems to be a durable procedure for vaginal repair of enterocele and vaginal vault prolapse. Lower urinary tract, bowel, and sexual function may be maintained or improved. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-3.

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Transvaginal repair of enterocele and vaginal vault prolapse using autologous fascia lata graft.
Molsted-Pedersen L, Rudnicki M, Lose G
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(7):874-8.

Background. The aim was to describe the operative technique of transvaginal repair of enterocele and apical prolapse using autologous fascia lata and report intra- and postoperative complications and long-term outcome. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 74 consecutive patients who had repair of a symptomatic enterocele and vaginal vault prolapse or uterine prolapse from January 1987 to August 1999. All patients were followed for a minimum of 3 months and 61 were available for long-term evaluation at 18-106 months (median 52 months). Results. Intra- and postoperative complications were few. Pelvic examination at long-term follow-up disclosed a recurrence rate for enterocele of 1.7%, vaginal vault prolapse of 8.3%, and cystocele of 15%. Ninety-one per cent were subjectively satisfied with the relief of mechanical vaginal symptoms. Only 35% (6/17) were cured of constipation. Out of the 22 women who were sexually active after the procedure, 12 (54%) experienced improved quality. Conclusion. Repair of the posterior compartment defect and suspension of the vaginal vault using autologous fascia lata graft provides acceptable intra- and postoperative complication and long-term results.

Effect of vaginal pessaries on symptoms associated with pelvic organ prolapse.
Fernando RJ, Thakar R, Sultan AH, Shah SM, Jones PW
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul;108(1):93-9.

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively evaluate the effects of vaginal pessaries on symptoms associated with pelvic organ prolapse and identify the risk factors for failure. METHODS: All women referred to a specialist urogynecology unit with symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse who elected to use a pessary were included in this study. All completed the Sheffield pelvic organ prolapse symptom questionnaire before use and after 4 months of use. The primary outcome measure was change of symptoms from baseline to 4 months. RESULTS: Of 203 consecutive women fitted with a pessary, 153 (75%) successfully retained the pessary at 2 weeks, and 97 completed the questionnaires at 4 months. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that failure to retain the pessary was significantly associated with increasing parity (odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-2.02, P = .004) and hysterectomy (OR 4.57, 95% CI 1.71-12.25, P = .002). In the success group at 4 months (n = 97), a significant improvement in voiding was reported by 39 participants (40%, P = .001), in urinary urgency by 37 (38%, P = .001), in urge urinary incontinence by 28 (29%, P = .015), in bowel evacuation by 27 (28%, P = .045), in fecal urgency by 22 (23%, P = .018), and in urge fecal incontinence by 19 (20%, P = .027), but there was no significant improvement in stress urinary incontinence in 22 participants (23% P = .275). Of the 26 (27%) who were sexually active, 16 (17%, P = .001) reported an increase in frequency of sexual activity, and 11 (11%, P = .041) had improved in sexual satisfaction. CONCLUSION: A vaginal pessary is an effective and simple method of alleviating symptoms of pelvic organ prolapse and associated pelvic floor dysfunction. Failure to retain the pessary is associated with increasing parity and previous hysterectomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-3.

Long-term results of robotic assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy for the treatment of high grade vaginal vault prolapse.
Elliott DS, Krambeck AE, Chow GK
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):655-9.

PURPOSE: Transabdominal sacrocolpopexy is a definitive treatment option for vaginal vault prolapse with durable success rates. However, it is associated with increased morbidity compared with vaginal repairs. We describe a minimally invasive technique of vaginal vault prolapse repair and present our experience with a minimum of 1 year followup. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The surgical technique involves 5 laparoscopic ports: 3 for the da Vinci(R) robot and 2 for the assistant. A polypropylene mesh is attached to the sacral promontory and vaginal apex using polytetrafluoroethylene sutures. The mesh material is then covered by peritoneum. Patient analysis focused on complications, urinary continence, patient satisfaction and morbidity with a minimum of 12 months followup. RESULTS: A total of 30 patients with post-hysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse underwent robotic assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy at our institution and 21 have a minimum of 12 months followup. Mean followup was 24 months (range 12 to 36) and mean age was 67 years (range 47 to 83). Mean operative time was 3.1 hours (range 2.15 to 4.75). All but 1 patient were discharged home on postoperative day 1 and the 1 patient left on postoperative day 2. Recurrent grade 3 rectocele developed in 1 patient, 1 had recurrent vault prolapse and 2 had vaginal extrusion of mesh. All patients were satisfied with outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The robotic assisted laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy is a minimally invasive technique for vaginal vault prolapse repair, combining the advantages of open sacrocolpopexy with the decreased morbidity of laparoscopy. We found a decreased hospital stay, low complication rates and high patient satisfaction with a minimum of 1 year followup.


Vaginal evisceration.
Khunda A, Jones D
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jun;194(6):1744-5; author reply 1745. Epub 2006 Apr 21.

Gore-Tex mesh pelvic occlusion and secondary colpopexy: A new surgical technique for posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse.
Clavero PA, Guerrero JA, Salamanca A
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 May 1;126(1):113-5.

OBJECTIVE: This article presents and discusses a new surgical abdominal technique for the treatment of posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. METHOD: It provides support of the peritoneal surface of the pelvic floor by means of a Gore-Tex mesh, which closes this space. The vaginal vault is fixed to the centre of the mesh. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive study. RESULTS: Sixteen patients with vaginal vault prolapse were operated on and postoperative follow-up time ranged from 16 to 46 months. There was only one case in which the mesh had to be removed due to infection and posterior erosion of the vaginal wall, and no cases of recurrent vaginal vault prolapse. CONCLUSION: A Gore-Tex mesh, placed at the top of the vaginal vault and extending across the pelvic floor, can effectively treat posthysterectomy vault prolapse.

Using Veronikis ligature carrier to simplify transvaginal sacrospinous colpopexy.
Chang WC, Huang SC, Sheu BC, Hsu WC, Torng PL, Chow SN, Chang DY
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(6):721-5.

Background. Pelvic organ prolapse is a common problem in women and often requires surgical management. Sacrospinous colpopexy (SSC) requires significant expertise, especially in placement of the suture into sacrospinous ligament (SSL). Methods. Veronikis ligature carrier (VLC) designed for SSC was used to facilitate suture placement and retrieval under direct visualization within the confines of the pararectal space. From December 2003 through March 2004, SSC was performed in 20 patients with VLC as part of their site-specific reconstructive pelvic surgery (group A). The historic control group (group B) included 15 patients who underwent SSC with a straight needle holder between March 1999 and March 2001. Results. There was no significant difference in age, gravity, parity, body mass index, blood loss, and hospital stay in both groups with the diagnosis of uterovaginal prolapse or posthysterectomy vaginal vault prolapse. The median operation time for group A and group B was 35min (range 25-40min) and 75min (range 45-128min), respectively (P<0.001). It took less than 5min to introduce two sutures through the SSL by VLC in group A but 20-40 min by straight needle holder in group B. There was no injury to the bladder, rectum, pudendal nerve, or major pelvic vessels. Conclusions. VLC allows rapid and safe introduction of the suspending suture through the SSL and makes SSC easy to perform.

Functional results and quality-of-life after bilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation for genital prolapse.
David-Montefiore E, Barranger E, Dubernard G, Nizard V, Antoine JM, Darai E
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 May 26;.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate intra- and post-operative complications, anatomical results, quality-of-life and sexuality after bilateral sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal study. Between March 2001 and September 2003, 51 women with stage III or IV genital prolapse underwent bilateral SSLF at the gynecology and obstetrics university department of Tenon Hospital, Paris, France. The population characteristics were as follows: mean age (+/-S.D.) was 64+/-10 years. Mean+/-SD BMI was 25+/-4 and median (range) parity was (0-12). Forty-eight (94%) women were post-menopausal, and one-third had previously undergone hysterectomy. Intra- and post-operative complications and anatomical results were recorded. Quality-of-life questionnaires (IIQ-7 and PISQ-12) and numerical analog scales were administered as well as nine questions on digestive symptoms. RESULTS: The overall complication rate was 17.3%, with rectal injury in one (1.9%) women. One pararectal hematoma necessitated repeat surgery. Anterior vaginal wall prolapse (B(a)=-1) occurred in three women, at 10, 16 and 19 months, but did not necessitate further surgery. The global patient satisfaction rate after bilateral SSLF was 93% (47 women). Digestive symptoms were improved after bilateral SSLF. The mean pre- and post-operative scores on the IIQ-7 and PISQ-12 questionnaires were 41+/-27 and 10+/-18 (p<0.0001), and 62+/-14 and 72+/-11 (p<0.0001), respectively. Posterior perineorrhaphy was associated with significantly altered sexuality. CONCLUSION: These results support the feasibility of bilateral SSLF: intra- and post-operative complication rates are acceptable, quality-of-life and sexuality are improved, and bowel function is unaffected.

SIS graft for anterior vaginal wall prolapse repair-a case-controlled study.
Chaliha C, Khalid U, Campagna L, Digesu GA, Ajay B, Khullar V
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 30;.

The purpose of this study was to assess the effect on quality of life and prolapse severity of traditional anterior repair compared to anterior repair with a small intestine submucosa (SIS) graft. This report was designed as a case-control study. The sample of this study consisted of 14 women who underwent traditional anterior repair and 14 women who underwent anterior repair with SIS graft (SG) at a London teaching hospital. All women were assessed preoperatively and at 6 and 24 months postoperatively using a validated prolapse quality of life questionnaire and pelvic organ quantification system (POP-Q). Quality-of-life outcomes included the following: (1) General health perception, (2) Prolapse impact, (3) Role limitations, (4) Physical limitations, (5) Social limitations, (6) Personal relationships, (7) Emotions, (8) Sleep/Energy, and (9) Severity measures. The pelvic organ quantification measurement measured nine specific points relating to the anterior and posterior wall of the vagina, vaginal apex, genital hiatus (GH) and perineal body (PB). At 6-month follow-up, the SG repair group showed significant improvement in all quality-of-life parameters measured. In comparison to traditional repair, it was significantly better in improving role limitations, physical limitations and emotions. Both operations significantly improved prolapse quality-of-life severity measures. SG repair improved all POP-Q measurements significantly, except total vaginal length (TVL), whereas traditional repair improved some measurements (AA, midline point of anterior vaginal wall 3 cm proximal to the external urethral meatus; BA, most distal dependant position of the anterior vaginal wall from the vaginal vault or anterior fornix to AA; C, most distal/dependant edge of cervix or vault; AP, point on midline posterior vaginal wall 3 cm proximal to hymenal ring; BP, most distal/dependant point on the posterior vaginal wall from vault or posterior fornix to AP) but not others (location of posterior fornix (D), TVL, GH and PB). At 2-year follow-up, there was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of quality-of-life outcomes or prolapse severity measurements. Surgery for vaginal prolapse results in marked improvement in quality of life and prolapse severity. The greater improvement seen initially in the SG anterior group was not seen at 2-year follow-up.

Physical activity in women planning sacrocolpopexy.
Nygaard I, Handa V, Brubaker L, Borello-France D, Wei J, Wells E, Weber AM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 11;.

This study describes preoperative physical activity in 314 stress-continent women with prolapse planning sacrocolpopexy. Seventy-six percent reported that they engaged in mild, 60% in moderate, and 26% in strenuous exercise (counts are not mutually exclusive). Activity frequencies did not generally differ by prolapse stage. Prolapse substantially interfered with exercise or recreation in 27% of women, household work or yard work in 19%, and work outside the home in 8%. Compared to women with less symptom distress, more women with greater symptom distress reported that prolapse interfered with household/yard work (43 vs 5%, p<0.0001), working outside the home (29 vs 8%, p<0.005), and recreation/exercise (51 vs 10%, p<0.0001). Prolapse stage was not associated with interference with household/yard work (p=0.28) or work outside home (p=0.89). Although prolapse stage is associated with interference with recreation (p=0.02), this association is not consistently positive : stage II, 42%; stage III, 22%; and stage IV, 32%.

Perioperative complications in abdominal sacrocolpopexy and vaginal sacrospinous ligament fixation procedures.
Demirci F, Ozdemir I, Somunkiran A, Topuz S, Iyibozkurt C, Duras Doyran G, Kemik Gul O, Gul B
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 11;.

This study assessed perioperative complications in abdominal sacrocolpopexy and vaginal sacrospinous ligament fixation procedures. Perioperative complications were defined as any complication occurring during surgery or the first 6 weeks postoperatively. Forty-five patients underwent abdominal procedures (20 sacrohysteropexy and 25 sacrocolpopexy) and 60 patients underwent vaginal sacrospinous fixation. Of the 105 patients, 13 had vaginal vault prolapse. In the abdominal group, one bladder injury, four hemorrhages, and three wound dehiscences occurred. In the vaginal group, one rectal injury and one postoperative vaginal vault infection occurred. Major and minor complications were more frequent in the abdominal group than in the vaginal group. Blood loss was not significantly different. The operating time and hospital stay in the abdominal group were significantly longer than in the vaginal group. In conclusion, abdominal sacrocolpopexy had a higher rate of perioperative complications and longer hospital stay and operating time.

Prolapse repair by vaginal route using a new protected low-weight polypropylene mesh: 1-year functional and anatomical outcome in a prospective multicentre study.
de Tayrac R, Devoldere G, Renaudie J, Villard P, Guilbaud O, Eglin G
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 13;.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the anatomical and functional results of a low-weight polypropylene mesh coated with an absorbable film in prolapse surgery by vaginal route. We have conducted a prospective multicentre study in 13 gynaecological and urological units. There were 230 patients requiring repair for anterior or posterior vaginal prolapse included. The present report is based on the analysis of the first 143 patients evaluated after at least 10 months follow-up. All patients were operated by the vaginal route using a specially designed mesh (Ugytex, Sofradim, France). Prolapse severity were evaluated using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse staging system. Symptoms and quality of life were evaluated preoperatively and during follow-up using the validated Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ) self-questionnaires. Mean age was 63 years (37-91). Anterior, posterior and anterior-posterior repair with the mesh were performed in 67 (46.9%), 11 (7.7%) and 65 (45.4%) patients, respectively. With a mean follow-up of 13 months (10-19), 132 patients were considered anatomically cured (92.3%) with a recurrence rate of 9 of 132 for cystocele (6.8%) and 2 of 76 for rectocele (2.6%). Nine vaginal erosions occurred (6.3%), six of them necessitated another procedure by simple excision. The rate of de novo dyspareunia was 12.8%. At follow-up, improvement of PFDI and PFIQ scores were highly significant (p<0.0001). The use of low-weight polypropylene mesh coated with a hydrophilic absorbable film for vaginal repair of genital prolapse seems to decrease local morbidity while maintaining low recurrence rates.

Management of the neglected vaginal ring pessary.
Fernando RJ, Sultan AH, Thakar R, Jeyanthan K
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 13;.

We present two cases of vaginal pessaries left in situ for prolonged periods and subsequent impaction that were managed differently. One was partially epithelialized and removed in the outpatient clinic by a new technique whereby the ring pessary was divided by a bone-cutter and passed through the epithelial tunnel without anesthesia. The second, which was a completely epithelialized metal ring pessary, was removed under anesthesia. Resulting fibrosis can cure the prolapse.

Pelvic organ prolapse: demographics and future growth prospects.
Drutz HP, Alarab M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr;17 Suppl 7:6-9.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) is the hidden epidemic. Demographic studies have shown that women over the age of eighty are the fastest growing population segment in the United States and Canada. Over the next thirty years the rate of women who will seek treatment for POP will double. Risks for the development of POP have been categorized into factors that predispose, incite, promote, and decompensate. Connective tissue disorders may play a role in the pathogenesis which may involve a reduction in total collagen content secondary to increased collagenolytic activity. Eventually clinicians may be able to identify women who may be genetically predetermined to develop POP. The role of adjuvant materials in performing reconstructive pelvic surgery may improve success rates, but evidence based medicine and randomized controlled trials are currently lacking.


Anatomical conditions for pelvic floor reconstruction with polypropylene implant and its application for the treatment of vaginal prolapse.
Reisenauer C, Kirschniak A, Drews U, Wallwiener D
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 May 2;.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the surgical treatment of vaginal prolapse is not only the restoration of the anatomy but also of the visceral functioning. To maintain the quality of life for patients with recurrent vaginal prolapse, to reduce the failure rates of operations and to avoid a colpectomy or a colpocleisis at the same time, synthetic materials have been introduced in transvaginal reconstructive surgery of the pelvic floor. The TVM Group from France described the reconstruction of the pelvic floor with polypropylene implants in 2004. The aim of this study is to determine the anatomical position of the polypropylene implants after reconstruction of each compartment of the pelvic floor and to determine the relation of the implants to the major neighbouring neurovascular structures on the basis of corpse dissections. STUDY DESIGN: Following the technique of the TVM Group from France we present the pelvic floor reconstruction using Gynecare Prolift* (Ethicon, Sommerville, NJ, USA). To reach the aims of the study, anatomical dissections of the pelvic floor on three specially preserved anatomical specimens are performed after the placement of the implants. RESULTS: The anatomical dissections show that every defect in all three compartments of the pelvic floor can be repaired by using polypropylene implants. Between the implants and the major neighbouring neurovascular structures a safe distance exists with slight individual differences. CONCLUSION: The pelvic floor reconstruction using polypropylene implants is a treatment option especially for the surgical correction of the recurrent vaginal prolapse. If the surgeon has thorough anatomical knowledge and performs the surgical technique in the recommended manner, injuries of the major neighbouring neurovascular structures will be avoided. Clinical studies will analyze the long-term results after pelvic floor reconstruction using polypropylene implants.

Sacral colpopexy with concurrent burch colposuspension in patients with vaginal vault prolapse.
Wille S, Braun M, Heidenreich A, Hofmann R, Engelmann U
Urol Int. 2006;76(4):339-44.

Introduction: Abdominal sacral colpopexy (SC) is one option in the management of vaginal vault prolapse. In patients who are additionally incontinent an anti-incontinence procedure such as a Burch colposuspension or pubovaginal sling is usually performed at the same time. For those patients undergoing SC who are continent there are no clear guidelines for the use of a 'prophylactic' anti-incontinence procedure. We describe our experience with SC and concurrent Burch colposuspension. Patients and Methods: 47 patients (mean age 65 years) underwent SC and concurrent Burch colposuspension. The preoperative diagnostic check-up included a validated questionnaire, clinical examination, urodynamic tests, ultrasound and colpocystorectography. Patients were also evaluated using Stress, Emptying, Anatomic, Protection and Instability (SEAPI) scores. All patients had a uterine or vaginal vault prolapse in combination with a cystocele, enterocele or rectocele. Thirty-three of 47 (70%) patients were continent and 14 (30%) incontinent. Nineteen (40%) of the 33 'continent' patients were found to have occult incontinence. Clinical examination according to the Halfway system showed 9 of 47 (19%), 21 of 47 (45%) and 17 of 47 (36%) patients with grade 2, 3 and 4 vaginal vault prolapse, respectively. Thirty-five of 47 (74%) patients demonstrated a grade-4 cystocele and 12 of 47 (26%) a grade-3 cystocele. The mean follow-up was 34 months and included a questionnaire (SEAPI), clinical examination and ultrasound. Results: Postoperative SEAPI scores showed a statistically significant improvement in all SEAPI domains (p < 0.001). Ninety-four percent of the patients were satisfied, continent and would undergo the surgery again. Three patients were incontinent. No continent patient who underwent concurrent Burch colposuspension had obstructive symptoms or residual urine. Five patients (11%) who had dyspareunia preoperatively were free of this symptom postoperatively. Complications were: dilatation of the upper urinary tract in 2 patients (4%) secondary to distal ureteric deviation by suturing the posterior peritoneum. One patient underwent psoas hitch neoureterocystostomy and 1 patient was successfully treated by insertion of a ureteric stent for 6 weeks. One patient (2%) had a mesh infection necessitating removal of the Gore-Tex mesh. Conclusions: Sacral colpopexy provides good patient satisfaction, durable pelvic support and restores vaginal function. Due to excellent continence rates concurrent Burch colposuspension should be considered as a joint procedure even in continent patients.

Abdominal sacrocolpopexy with Burch colposuspension to reduce urinary stress incontinence.
Brubaker L, Cundiff GW, Fine P, Nygaard I, Richter HE, Visco AG, Zyczynski H, Brown MB, Weber AM
N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 13;354(15):1557-66.

BACKGROUND: We designed this trial to assess whether the addition of standardized Burch colposuspension to abdominal sacrocolpopexy for the treatment of pelvic-organ prolapse decreases postoperative stress urinary incontinence in women without preoperative symptoms of stress incontinence. METHODS: Women who did not report symptoms of stress incontinence and who chose to undergo sacrocolpopexy to treat prolapse were randomly assigned to concomitant Burch colposuspension or to no Burch colposuspension (control) and were evaluated in a blinded fashion three months after the surgery. The primary outcomes included measures of stress incontinence (symptoms, stress testing, or treatment) and measures of urge symptoms. Enrollment was stopped after the first interim analysis because of a significantly lower frequency of stress incontinence in the group that underwent the Burch colposuspension. RESULTS: Of 322 women who underwent randomization, 157 were assigned to Burch colposuspension and 165 to the control group. Three months after surgery, 23.8 percent of the women in the Burch group and 44.1 percent of the controls met one or more of the criteria for stress incontinence (P<0.001). There was no significant difference between the Burch group and the control group in the frequency of urge incontinence (32.7 percent vs. 38.4 percent, P=0.48). After surgery, women in the control group were more likely to report bothersome symptoms of stress incontinence than those in the Burch group who had stress incontinence (24.5 percent vs. 6.1 percent, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In women without stress incontinence who are undergoing abdominal sacrocolpopexy for prolapse, Burch colposuspension significantly reduced postoperative symptoms of stress incontinence without increasing other lower urinary tract symptoms.

Pelvic organ prolapse and measurements of the pelvic floor.
Rizk DE
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 27;.

The biology behind fascial defects and the use of implants in pelvic organ prolapse repair.
Deprest J, Zheng F, Konstantinovic M, Spelzini F, Claerhout F, Steensma A, Ozog Y, De Ridder D
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 9;.

Implant materials are increasingly being used in an effort to reduce recurrence after prolapse repair with native tissues. Surgeons should be aware of the biology behind both the disease as well as the host response to various implants. We will discuss insights into the biology behind hernia and abdominal fascial defects. Those lessons from "herniology" will, wherever possible, be applied to pelvic organ prolapse (POP) problems. Then we will deal with available animal models, for both the underlying disease and surgical repair. Then we will go over the features of implants and describe how the host responds to implantation. Methodology of such experiments will be briefly explained for the clinician not involved in experimentation. As we discuss the different materials available on the market, we will summarize some results of recent experiments by our group.

Evaluation of a unique bovine collagen matrix for soft tissue repair and reinforcement.
Connolly RJ
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 9;.

Veritas((R)) Collagen Matrix, a product of Synovis Surgical Innovations, is derived from bovine pericardium. It can be used for a number of applications including body wall repair and replacement. In this study, we evaluated its efficacy as an adhesion barrier in a rabbit model of uterine horn surgery. When Veritas((R)) was placed on the uterine horn stump it reduced the incidence of adhesions by 50% (n.s.) compared with untreated controls. Histologic analysis of recovered material showed that the surface was covered with a monolayer of mesothelial-like cells. In addition, there was an infiltration of host cells into the matrix of the product, which suggests a replacement of the material with host tissue.

Biology of polypropylene/polyglactin 910 grafts.
Barbolt TA
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 6;.

The biological evaluation of polypropylene (PP)/polyglactin 910 grafts was reviewed including regulatory considerations, biocompatibility assessment, tissue reaction and integration, and infection potentiation of these synthetic materials used in urogynecological surgical procedures. The physical characteristics of the grafts including base composition, monofilament vs multifilament, and non-absorbable vs absorbable materials were compared. Grafts were implanted in rats to evaluate the tissue reaction and integration characteristics of the materials over time. Grafts were also implanted in mice and inoculated with Staphylococcus aureus to assess the potential for bacterial attachment and growth. The tissue reaction to PP/polyglactin 910 grafts was characterized by minimal to mild inflammation with some qualitative differences related to the physical construction of the different grafts. The tissue reaction to polyglactin 910 mesh was also mild but resolved after the material was absorbed 70 days post-implantation. The integration of PP/polyglactin 910 grafts by fibrosis with surrounding tissue was initially mild for all materials but decreased over time for the lightweight and multifilament PP-based grafts, including a graft with an absorbable polyglactin 910 component. Residual fibrosis was not observed for the graft constructed from polyglactin 910 alone. Grafts constructed from PP did not potentiate infection after inoculation with S. aureus whereas the number of bacteria recovered from naturally derived collagen-based materials increased by three to four logs. The biological performance of PP/polyglactin 910 grafts is dependent on multiple factors including the composition and physical construction of the base materials, the overall biocompatibility of the materials, particularly tissue reaction and integration of the grafts, and the resistance of the grafts to bacterial attachment and growth.

Pelvic organ prolapse: demographics and future growth prospects.
Drutz HP, Alarab M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 6;.

Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP) is the hidden epidemic. Demographic studies have shown that women over the age of eighty are the fastest growing population segment in the United States and Canada. Over the next thirty years the rate of women who will seek treatment for POP will double. Risks for the development of POP have been categorized into factors that predispose, incite, promote, and decompensate. Connective tissue disorders may play a role in the pathogenesis which may involve a reduction in total collagen content secondary to increased collagenolytic activity. Eventually clinicians may be able to identify women who may be genetically predetermined to develop POP. The role of adjuvant materials in performing reconstructive pelvic surgery may improve success rates, but evidence based medicine and randomized controlled trials are currently lacking.

Evolution of biological and synthetic grafts in reconstructive pelvic surgery.
Dwyer PL
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 6;.

Surgery is an evolving science in the attempt to make surgical procedures more effective, safer, and less invasive. Recurrence and subsequent re-operation for stress incontinence and prolapse has been reported to be necessary in one of three patients, so there is a need for improvement [1]. In reconstructive pelvic surgery (RPS), the use of biological and synthetic grafts for the transabdominal and transvaginal treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) or stress urinary incontinence (SI) has improved long-term support and function after surgery. However, the potential benefits of using grafts need to be carefully balanced against the risks of using materials foreign to the patient's body. Pelvic organ prolapse develops secondary to defective endopelvic fascial and muscular support. The levator ani provides resting tonic muscular support for all three pelvic compartments. Once neuromuscular damage occurs, extra strain is placed on the connective tissue supports, which may also subsequently fail. To date, there is no surgery that adequately addresses the issue of neuromuscular damage of the pelvic floor musculature. In conventional POP surgery, defective support is repaired by suturing of the patient's own connective tissue, fascia, or ligaments. The rationale for the use of grafts is to reinforce and strengthen pelvic organ repairs similar to the use of grafts to strengthen abdominal hernia repair.


Posterior vaginal sling experience in elderly patients yields poor results.
Mattox TF, Moore S, Stanford EJ, Mills BB
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar 28;.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate our experience with the posterior vaginal sling in an elderly population. STUDY DESIGN: Elderly patients with significant vaginal prolapse underwent a posterior vaginal sling using the IVS Tunneller device (Tyco Healthcare, United States Surgical, Norwalk, CT). Primary failure was defined as a postoperative pelvic organ prolapse quantitative point C (the apex of the vagina) within 2 cm of the preoperative value. Secondary failure was defined as any portion of the anterior or posterior vaginal walls protruding to or beyond the hymeneal ring (pelvic organ prolapse quantitative points Aa or Ap equal to or greater than 0). RESULTS: Twenty-one patients underwent the procedure; 19 were seen for follow up. The average age was 70 years (range 60-78). Twelve patients had primary or secondary failures (12 of 19, 63%). There were 5 primary failures (5 of 19, 26%) and 7 secondary failures (7 of 19, 37%). The mean time to failure was 7 weeks (range 1-18). CONCLUSION: In our elderly population, the posterior vaginal sling has a high failure rate, occurring early in the postoperative period.

Surgery for vaginal prolapse: a review.
Francis SL, Stager R
J Reprod Med. 2006 Feb;51(2):75-82.

This article reviews clinical trials of surgery for the repair of apical vaginal prolapse. The procedures include those from the abdominal, laparoscopic and transvaginal approach. When considering new surgical devices or procedures, it is essential to be aware of clinical data. The use of tension-free tape devices for apical support is promising, but a large trial is needed to demonstrate its efficacy and safety.

Surgical management of posterior vaginal wall prolapse: an evidence-based literature review.
Maher C, Baessler K
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):84-8. Epub 2005 Apr 19.

The aim of this review is to summarize the available literature on gynecological management of posterior vaginal wall prolapse. A MEDLINE search and a hand search of conference proceedings of the International Continence Society and International Urogynecological Association was performed. Two randomized trials demonstrated that the transvaginal approach to rectocele is superior to the transanal repair in terms of recurrent prolapse. The traditional posterior colporrhaphy with levator ani plication was largely superceded by fascial repairs with similar anatomic success rates but favorable functional outcome. The midline fascial plication may offer a superior anatomic and functional outcome compared to the discrete site-specific fascial repair. Controlled studies are necessary to evaluate whether a sacrocolpopexy combined with posterior mesh interposition is an effective alternative to the transvaginal repair. There is currently no evidence to recommend the routine use of any graft and complications such as mesh erosion, infection, and rejection have to be considered.

Concomitant pelvic organ prolapse surgery with TVT procedure.
Huang KH, Kung FT, Liang HM, Chen CW, Chang SY, Hwang LL
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):60-5. Epub 2005 Jun 18.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of concomitant pelvic reconstructive surgery with tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure to treat pelvic organ prolapse women with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) or occult USI. Seventy-five women with pelvic organ prolapse and diagnosed as USI or occult USI were enrolled in this study. All patients with USI or occult USI underwent TVT treatment under general anesthesia, combined with transvaginal total hysterectomy (VTH), anterior-posterior colporrhaphy (APC), and/or right sacrospinous ligament suspension (SSS) reconstructive surgeries. The subjective assessment was evaluated by using a visual analog scale (VAS) score and a urinary symptomatic questionnaire. The objective assessment was carried out with a 1-h pad test, cough stress test, and urodynamic examination. Of the 75 patients, 35 patients with grade III uterine prolapse underwent VTH and APC, 30 patients with grade IV uterine prolapse underwent VTH, SSS, and APC, and the other 10 patients who had previous hysterectomy with total vaginal vault prolapse underwent SSS and APC. The mean follow-up interval was 25 months (12-42 months). The mean hospitalization was 5.9 days and the mean catheterization time was 3.8 days. The subjective success rate for the treatment of urine incontinence was 88%, and the objective complete cure rate was 84%. The rate of postoperative complications with persistent urinary urgency, de novo detrusor overactivity, dysfunctional voiding, and tape erosion were 50, 8, 12, and 1.3%, respectively. There were no bladder perforations during the TVT procedure and no perioperative complications requiring conversion to laparotomy. Pelvic organ prolapse women with USI or occult USI can be treated by reconstructive surgeries combined with a TVT procedure to treat and prevent postoperative USI.

Laparoscopic uterosacral ligament uterine suspension compared with vaginal hysterectomy with vaginal vault suspension for uterovaginal prolapse.
Diwan A, Rardin CR, Strohsnitter WC, Weld A, Rosenblatt P, Kohli N
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):79-83. Epub 2005 Jul 5.

This study compares the outcomes of laparoscopic uterosacral ligament uterine suspension (LUSUS) to those of vaginal vault suspension with total vaginal hysterectomy (TVH) for the treatment of symptomatic uterovaginal prolapse. We compared the outcomes of 25 LUSUS to those of 25 TVH with vaginal vault suspension among age-matched controls. No significant complications occurred in either group. EBL and hospitalization duration were significantly less in LUSUS patients (72 cc vs. 227 cc, P < .0001 and 1.05 vs. 1.65 days, P = .002). Vault support, as measured by postoperative pelvic organ prolapse quantitation system point D in the LUSUS group and point C in the TVH group, was better for the LUSUS group (D = -9 vs. C = -7.6, P = .002). No LUSUS group patient underwent reoperation for recurrent apical prolapse as compared to three TVH patients. LUSUS is an effective treatment for appropriately selected women with uterovaginal prolapse who desire uterine preservation.

A comparison of preoperative and intraoperative evaluation of patients undergoing pelvic reconstructive surgery for pelvic organ prolapse using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification System.
Vierhout ME, Stoutjesdijk J, Spruijt J
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):46-9. Epub 2005 Jul 29.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the pre- and intraoperative situation using the POP-Q system during optimally standardized conditions of both examinations. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective observational study, 108 women were compared. The POP-Q in the outpatient department (preoperative) was compared with the situation just prior to surgery after full anesthesia was reached (intraoperative). During the intraoperative measurement, traction with 0.5 kg force was applied on all relevant places. RESULTS: The pre- and intraoperative measurements were all significant correlated with the R-values between 0.43 and 0.85. All six points, which are measured during the POP-Q, were more prolapsed in the intra- as compared with the preoperative situation. The points Bp, C, and D were significantly more prolapsed, but for the points Aa, Ba, and Ap this was not significant. Fifteen patients were upstaged by the intraoperative measurements and five patients were downstaged in the overall POP-Q grading system. CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative evaluation of the prolapse can reveal significant changes as compared with the preoperative situation. In general, the prolapse is more pronounced especially in the middle and posterior compartment.

Cystocele-vaginal approach to repairing paravaginal fascial defects.
Viana R, Colaco J, Vieira A, Goncalves V, Retto H
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 10;.

The objective of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of vaginal approach to repair paravaginal defects in patients with symptomatic cystocele. This was a retrospective study of 66 women with a diagnosis of symptomatic cystocele grade 2 to 4, referred to our unit between January 2002 and March 2005. A clinical evaluation was carried out using the Baden-Walker classification before and after the surgery. The same surgical team performed every surgery. The repair of paravaginal fascial defects was carried out through a vaginal approach, exposing the arcus tendineus. The paravaginal fascial defects were corrected through suspension of vesicovaginal fascia to the arcus tendineus with nonreabsorbable Ethibond 0 sutures. Women were seen for follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months. The presence of well-demarcated vaginal lateral sulci at grade 0, firmly apposed to the lateral pelvic sidewalls and no anterior relaxation with Valsalva maneuver, were used as criteria for cure. Grade 2 cystocele was diagnosed preoperatively in most women. The mean duration of complaints due to prolapse was 64.6 months. There were no major intraoperative complications. Mean time of inpatient stay was of 4.9 days. The cure rate at 12 months was 91.6%. There were five cases of recurrence of cystocele 6 months after surgery. Surgical repair of symptomatic cystocele through a paravaginal approach is a safe and efficacious technique. Vaginal approach to repair paravaginal fascia defects had a low postoperative morbidity and high cure rate at 12 months (91.6%).

Inflammatory reaction following bovine pericardium graft augmentation for posterior vaginal wall defect repair.
Davila GW
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 24;.

Validation of a simplified technique for using the POPQ pelvic organ prolapse classification system.
Swift S, Morris S, McKinnie V, Freeman R, Petri E, Scotti RJ, Dwyer P
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 6;.

Our objective was to determine the inter-examiner agreement of a simplified pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) exam and to assess its correlation with the standard POPQ exam. This study consists of two parts; both were preformed in a prospective, randomized, blinded fashion on women presenting with complaints attributed to pelvic organ support defects. The first study was done to determine the inter-examiner reliability of a simplified POPQ exam. The simplified POPQ exam is based on the POPQ with similar ordinal staging but with only four points measured instead of nine. Forty-eight women underwent exams by five different investigators. The order of exams was randomized and the examiners were blinded to the results of each other's findings. The results of these two exams were compared using weighted kappa statistics. The second part of the study was done to determine the inter-system agreement between the simplified vs standard POPQ exam. A group of 49 women were examined by four different investigators: one using the simplified and the other using standard POPQ exams. The order of the exams was randomized and the examiners were blinded to the results of each other's exam. Kendall's tau-b statistics were used to determine the inter-system agreement. For the inter-examiner reliability of the POPQ exam, the average age was 60+/-13 years. The weighted kappa statistics for the inter-examiner reliability of the simplified prolapse classification system were 0.86 for the overall stage, 0.89 and 0.86 for the anterior and posterior vaginal walls, respectively, 0.82 for the apex/cuff, and 0.72 for the cervix. All demonstrate significant agreement. For the inter-system association between the simplified POPQ and standard POPQ, the average age was 61+/-15 year. The Kendall's tau-b value for overall stage was 0.90, 0.83, and 0.87 for the anterior and posterior walls respectively, and 0.78 for the cuff/apex and 0.98 for the cervix. There is good inter-examiner agreement of a simplified POPQ classification system and it appears to have good inter-system association with the POPQ.

[Efficacy and safety of Pelvicol in the vaginal treatment of prolapse]
Doumerc N, Mouly P, Thanwerdas J, Vazzoler N, Khedis M, Huyghe E, Soulie M, Plante P
Prog Urol. 2006 Feb;16(1):58-61.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a porcine biomaterial (Pelvicol) in the transvaginal surgical treatment of urogenital prolapse. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Prospective study from June 2001 to February 2004 based on 132 patients with a mean age of 67.6 +/- 9.89 years presenting major urogenital prolapse: 132 cystoceles and 84 rectoceles with 100% and 63.4% of grade 2 or 3, respectively. Patients were evaluated by questionnaire and clinical examination at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months and 24 months after the operation. Two hundred and sixteen Pelvicol implants were inserted via a vaginal approach: 132 anterior implants and 84 posterior implants. RESULTS: The mean follow-up was 21 months [range: 6-24]. No intraoperative complication was observed. The postoperative complication rate was 11.3% (15/132) including 1 prosthetic exposure with a favourable outcome. After 6 months, 1 recurrence of cystoceles and 1 recurrence of rectoceles were found in 132 patients. Out of the 117 patients followed up for 12 months, 6 presented with grade 2 cystoceles and 1 grade 2 rectoceles. After 24 months, out of the 107 patients evaluated, 18 cystoceles and 9 rectoceles of grade 2 or 3 were found. Globally, 83.1% of patients did not present with grade 2 or 3 recurrences after 24 months. Safety was considered to be good with 10% of moderate pelvic pain and 6% of de novo dyspareunia at 12 months. The overall satisfaction rate was 94%. CONCLUSION: These preliminary results demonstrate an efficacy of 83.1% at 24 months and the good safety of Pelvicol in the transvaginal surgical treatment of urogenital prolapse.

Vaginal paravaginal repair with a polypropylene mesh graft.
Washington BB, Dinsmore RS Jr, Hines B
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):45S-6S.

Laparoscopic and abdominal sacral colpopexies: a comparative cohort study.
Clayman R
J Urol. 2006 Apr;175(4):1438.

Pelvic Organ Support and Prevalence by Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification (POP-Q) in Korean Women.
Seo JT, Kim JM
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1769-1772.

PURPOSE: We evaluated pelvic organ support and the prevalence of pelvic organ prolapse in Korean women using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse-Quantification system as the assessment tool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 713 women 18 to 72 years old who were seen for annual Papanicolaou testing and pelvic examinations. Pregnant patients and patients who had delivered within the previous 6 weeks were not recruited. All pelvic examinations were performed by a single examiner. The patient was examined in the dorsal lithotomy position in a pelvic examination chair positioned at a 15-degree angle. All 9 measurements except total vaginal length were taken with the patient performing the maximal Valsalva maneuver. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 41.6 years (range 18 to 72), mean weight +/- SD was 55.8 +/- 7.4 kg (range 40 to 83), mean height was 158.7 +/- 5.4 cm (range 138 to 177), mean body mass index was 22.3 +/- 8.1 kg/m(2) (range 15.7 to 32) and median parity was 2 (range 0 to 6). Mean scores for the position of the cervix and posterior fornix, and total vaginal length were -5.0, -6.6 and 7.0 cm, respectively. In the 713 women with a uterus the incidence of anterior vaginal, uterine and posterior vaginal prolapse was 27.6%, 2.0% and 25.4%, respectively. The overall distribution of pelvic organ prolapse quantification system stage was stages 0 to 4 in 68.3%, 19.9%, 11.2%, 0.6% and 0.0% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Vaginal size in Korean women differs from that in Western women. The prevalence of any degree of prolapse was approximately 31.7%. Korean women were at relatively higher risk for anterior and posterior vaginal prolapse than for uterine prolapse.

Vaginal repair of symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse using polypropylene mesh.
Wagner JR
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):103S.

Long-term outcome of abdominal sacrocolpopexy using xenograft compared with synthetic mesh.
Altman D, Anzen B, Brismar S, Lopez A, Zetterstrom J
Urology. 2006 Mar 24;.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the clinical outcome after abdominal sacrocolpopexy using a porcine dermal graft compared with a synthetic mesh. METHODS: Patients with vaginal vault prolapse Stage II or worse (Baden-Walker staging), underwent sacrocolpopexy using a synthetic mesh (n = 25) or porcine collagen graft (n = 27). The subjective outcome was measured using validated questionnaires. RESULTS: The mean clinical follow-up from surgery was 7.1 months for the xenograft compared with 7.4 months for the synthetic cohort. At clinical follow-up, vaginal vault prolapse Stage II was present in 8 (29%) of 27 patients in the xenograft cohort and 6 (24%) of 25 patients in the synthetic mesh cohort (no significant difference). The mean follow-up from surgery to survey was 2.5 years in the xenograft cohort and 4.3 years in the synthetic cohort. None of the patients in either cohort had undergone a secondary sacrocolpopexy. No significant differences were found between the cohorts regarding surgical morbidity other than more patients experiencing fever for 1 to 3 days in the xenograft cohort (P <0.001). No significant differences were found in lower urinary tract symptoms, anorectal symptoms, or quality-of-life variables between the two cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: Abdominal sacrocolpopexy using a porcine dermal graft was comparable to synthetic mesh in terms of subjective and anatomic outcomes at mid to long-term follow-up.


Recurrent pelvic floor defects after abdominal sacral colpopexy.
Blanchard KA, Vanlangendonck R, Winters JC
J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 1):1010-3; discussion 1013.

PURPOSE: The incidence of site specific pelvic organ prolapse defects following sacral colpopexy is not clearly reported. We evaluated site specific pelvic organ defects after colpopexy and determined its impact on patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 40 women with vault prolapse underwent abdominal sacral colpopexy, culdeplasty and paravaginal repair. Followup consisted of pelvic examination and satisfaction assessment every 6 months. The Baden-Walker classification was used and prolapse halfway to the introitus (grade II) or greater was considered significant prolapse. Surgical failure was identified as grade III prolapse or greater. Satisfaction was assessed on a scale of 1 to 3 with 3 being highly satisfied and according to whether patients perceived a successful outcome. RESULTS: A total of 40 patients with an average age of 66.5 years (range 48 to 81) had an average followup of 25.5 months (range 18 to 42). Of the 40 patients 22 (55%) did not have significant prolapse, including 14 with no prolapse, and 8 with grade I cystocele and/or rectocele. Of the 40 patients 18 (45%) had recurrent significant prolapse, including cystocele in 8 (grades II and III in 4 each), rectocele in 6 (grades II and III in 2 and 4, respectively), and grade II cystocele and rectocele in 3. There was 1 case of recurrent vault prolapse. Eight of 40 cases (20%) were considered surgical failures. Patients without prolapse were highly satisfied (average score 2.95) and 100% considered surgery to have been successful. The recurrent prolapse group was less satisfied (mean score 2.5) and 66.7% considered the surgery successful. CONCLUSIONS: Recurrent pelvic organ prolapse is not an uncommon finding after colpopexy and it may adversely affect patient satisfaction.

[Laparoscopic sacral colpopexy: comparison of nonresorbable prosthetic tape (Mersuture) and a SIS collagen matrix (Surgisis ES)]
Grynberg M, Dedecker F, Staerman F
Prog Urol. 2005 Sep;15(4):751-5; discussion 755.

OBJECTIVE: Surgical repair of pelvic prolapse by sacral colpopexy classically uses nonresorbable prosthetic tape. Infectious or erosive complications can sometimes occur and are often difficult to treat. The authors propose the use of a xenogeneic biomaterial composed of an extracellular collagen matrix: SIS (Small Intestinal Submucosa). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty seven laparoscopic sacral colpopexies were performed between November 2001 and December 2003: 14 using SIS tape (anterior + posterior in 13 cases, anterior only in 1 case) and 43 using Mersuture PETP nonresorbable tape (anterior + posterior in 31 cases, anterior only in 10 cases and posterior only in 2 cases). Suburethral support was associated with sacral colpopexy in 40 patients with stress urinary incontinence. RESULTS: With a mean follow-up of 15.3 months (range: 3-24 months), one case of recurrent prolapse was observed after 7 months in the SIS group. For the PETP group (mean follow-up: 14.6 months, range: 5-25 months) 3 cases of recurrent prolapse were observed at the third postoperative month. Two cases of refractory constipation were observed in the PETP group versus one in the SIS group. The mean operating time was 100 (1 tape) and 120 minutes (2 tapes) with difference according to the type of material. The mean hospital stay was 4.8 days. No infectious complication was observed in either group. CONCLUSION: These encouraging results suggest that SIS can constitute an alternative to nonresorbable tape in sacral colpopexy. It appears to be well tolerated in the medium-term. The functional characteristics of SIS, replaced within 6 months by newly formed connective tissue, suggest a lower long-term risk of infection and erosion.

Neural pain after uterosacral ligament vaginal suspension.
Lowenstein L, Dooley Y, Kenton K, Mueller E, Brubaker L
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 8;.

Neural compromise has been reported after a wide variety of reconstructive pelvic procedures. We report on two women who had undergone a seemingly uncomplicated transvaginal uterosacral suspension for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse. Both women presented shortly after surgery with a unilateral, shooting groin pain with radiation along the ipsilateral lumbosacral nerve distribution. Surgical removal of the permanent stitch and physical therapy provided prompt and near-complete relief. This case report describes the possibility of neural compromise after uterosacral ligament suspension.

Vaginal vault prolapse: identification and surgical options.
Biller DH, Davila GW
Cleve Clin J Med. 2005 Dec;72 Suppl 4:S12-9.

Reconstructive surgeons should be familiar with the identification and treatment of vaginal vault prolapse. Most utilized techniques can be effective in terms of suspension of the vaginal apex. New technology has allowed for the performance of vaginal-approach techniques with increasingly physiologic anatomic and functional outcomes.

Management of pelvic abscess after Le Fort colpocleisis.
Shobeiri SA
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 7;.

We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who developed pelvic abscess following Le Fort colpocleisis. After drainage and completion of treatment with intravenous antibiotherapy, the patient returned with persistent signs of infection, which responded to outpatient gentamicin irrigation through Le Fort vaginal tunnels.