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Urinary Incontinence

The effects of antimuscarinics on health-related quality of life in overactive bladder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Khullar V, Chapple C, Gabriel Z, Dooley JA
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2 Suppl):38-48.

The objective of this study was to review the effects of antimuscarinic treatments on health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with overactive bladder (OAB). MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases were searched from 1966 through August 2004 for randomized controlled trials of antimuscarinic agents. HRQL data from included trials were extracted, and meta-analysis was performed where possible. Of 56 trials included, 25 (45%) reported HRQL and/or patient-reported outcomes. The most commonly used instruments were the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (3 trials), the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ; 5 trials), the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (2 trials), the Gaudenz Appraisal Questionnaire (3 trials), and the Urogenital Distress Inventory (2 trials). Results from the meta-analyses of placebo-controlled trials showed statistically significant differences in favor of antimuscarinic therapy. Differences in HRQL as assessed using the KHQ were also clinically meaningful. The meta-analysis results of active-controlled trials did not show significant differences among antimuscarinic agents. This review provides evidence that antimuscarinics provide an HRQL benefit to patients with OAB. HRQL outcomes using validated instruments are recommended for inclusion in active-controlled trials, and agreement on the most appropriate HRQL instrument is now required.

Long-term results of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence.
Chene G, Amblard J, Tardieu AS, Escalona JR, Viallon A, Fatton B, Jacquetin B
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Aug 4;.

OBJECTIVES: Prospective evaluation of outcome and complications over a 5-year period post-treatment of urinary stress incontinence by TVT, and comparison of our results with the reference studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: About 94 patients were treated for urinary stress incontinence only by one TVT procedure (single surgical procedure), between April 1997 and December 1998; 68% of patients presented pure urinary stress incontinence and 32% mixed incontinence. We found also a 25.5% rate of sphincter deficiency (UCP<20cmH(2)O) in this cohort. Patients were evaluated after 5 years: 52 complete evaluations (clinical, flow measurement with measurement of post-mictional residue, 24h PAD-test, quality of life questionnaire), 30 complete telephone interviews, 12 lost to follow-up (2 patients deceased). RESULTS: About 87% of the patients had a 5-year follow-up. The success rate was 79.2% overall (84.5% for the pure urinary stress incontinence and 67% for the mixed incontinence cases), and 72.2% for the cases of associated sphincter deficiency. We had only a 13% rate of patients lost to follow-up. More than half of the urinary urgency cases were treated successfully, however with a less satisfactory outcome in cases of bladder instability. The urodynamic exploration appeared to reveal that TVT caused dysuria: 52% of patients had a maximum flowrate below 15ml/s, but the quality of life was improved, with a 95% rate of satisfaction without functional problems. We observed no late complications such as vaginal erosion or rejection of the prolene; the de novo syndrome was rare, with 8.5% of urinary frequency, 6% of urinary urgency and only 5.7% of invalidating dysuria. We saw no cases of pelvic floor disease after TVT treatment. DISCUSSION: Our casuistry results are comparable with the reference studies by Scandinavian authors, Rezapour and Ulmsten, confirming the long-term success of the TVT procedure. Concerning the apparently elevated rates of post-TVT dysuria found by urodynamic exploration, a distinction has to be drawn between post-TVT urinary problems (frequent but oligosymptomatic), and true, severe dysuria (rare). However, "dysuria" in the broad sense did not affect the patients' quality of life, and is a reminder of the absolute necessity of meticulous compliance with the correct surgical techniques. CONCLUSION: Treatment of urinary incontinence by TVT is a reliable, mini-invasive, reproducible technique, almost suitable for outpatients, with no serious complications; it is inexpensive and very successful, including in complicated cases such as sphincter deficiency. All the recent data confirms, with this 5-year follow-up, that the TVT procedure is comparable to the previously gold standard, the Burch colposuspension.

[New male sling "Argus" for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence]
Moreno Sierra J, Victor Romano S, Galante Romo I, Barrera Ortega J, Salinas Casado J, Silmi Moyano A
Arch Esp Urol. 2006 Jul-Aug;59(6):607-13.

OBJECTIVES: Male stress urinary incontinence is usually a consequence or sequel of a prostatic surgical procedure (radical prostatectomy, surgery for BPH or bladder neck sclerosis: adenomectomy, conventional and/or bipolar transurethral resection, laser...). This kind of surgery may have undesirable effects on the quality of life and patients' expectations, although we should bear in mind that the primary objective in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma is to cure cancer and for patients with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms to improve their voiding quality Over the last decade, surgical procedures to compress the bulbar urethra with slings have been employed successfully in the treatment of male stress urinary incontinence, being considered highly effective in the treatment of post-prostatectomy incontinence in the long-term by groups with large experience. To describe the elements of the Argus system, its indications, and the surgical technique for its implant and adjustment, modified from Schaeffer and carried out by Victor Romano. METHODS: Argus system: The sling has three components: radiopaque cushioned system with silicone foam, 42 mm x 26 mm x 9 mm, which is waterproof to body fluids; two silicone columns formed by multiple conical elements, which allow system readjustment; and two radiopaque silicone washers (15 mm diameter and 2.9 mm width) which enable proper fixation and readjustment (Figure 1). Once the system is open, it is recommended to place the sling within antibiotic solution until implantation. CONCLUSIONS: 1. It is a safe, easy to implant, reproducible system, with few complications and a good cost-benefit relation. 2. Results are comparable to the gold standard, but it has the following advantages: immediate voiding control recovery and no need for patient training. 3. This article does not intend to show our short experience with only five cases, but we want to mention that all of them are continent with a good quality of life. 4. Our objective will be to publish our results when we can show a minimal follow-up.

Urinary incontinence and age at the first and last delivery: the Norwegian HUNT/EPINCONT study.
Rortveit G, Hunskaar S
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Aug;195(2):433-8. Epub 2006 Apr 21.
OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate the association between maternal age at the first and last delivery, and urinary incontinence later in life. STUDY DESIGN: In the Norwegian EPINCONT study (a substudy of HUNT 2), cross-sectional data on incontinence from 11,397 women aged 20 to 64 years was linked with prospectively obtained data on exposures from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Bivariate and multivariate methods were applied. RESULTS: Women 25 years or younger at their first delivery had a lower risk of incontinence than their older counterparts (23% vs 28%, P < .01). No significant effect of maternal age at the first delivery was found in women with actual age 50 to 64 years. Adjusting for confounders did not change any results. Age at the last delivery was less associated with incontinence. CONCLUSION: Being older than 25 years at the first delivery was associated with incontinence. The effect attenuated with actual age.

Pharmacologic Treatment in Postprostatectomy Stress Urinary Incontinence.
Filocamo MT, Li Marzi V, Del Popolo G, Cecconi F, Villari D, Marzocco M, Nicita G
Eur Urol. 2006 Aug 15;.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess efficacy and safety of association of duloxetine and rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation alone in men with SUI after radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), and to compare continence rate even after planned duloxetine suspension. METHODS: After catheter removal, 112 patients were randomized to receive rehabilitation and duloxetine (group A) or rehabilitation alone (group B), for 16 wk. Inclusion criteria: postprostatectomy SUI with daily incontinent episodes frequency (IEF) of four or greater. After 16 wk both groups suspended duloxetine/placebo and continued rehabilitation. All patients completed incontinence quality of life (I-QoL) questionnaire and bladder diary. Wilcoxon test was used to analyse changes in IEF and in I-QoL score; Fisher exact test was used to compare in continent patients between the groups. RESULTS: Adverse events for duloxetine was 15.2%. 102 men completed the study. There was a significant decrease in pad use in group A. After 16 wk, 39 patients versus 27 were dry (p=0.007). At 20 wk, 4 wk after planned interruption of duloxetine, we observed a U-turn, 23 patients were completely dry in group A versus 38 in group B (p=0.008). Whereas, after 24 wk, 31 in group A versus 41 in group B were dry (p=0.08). The decrease in IEF and improvements in I-QoL scores were significantly greater in group A for the first 16 wk. CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that combination therapy might provide another treatment option for SUI in men that might increase the percentage of early postsurgery continence.

Botulinum Toxin Injections for Neurogenic and Idiopathic Detrusor Overactivity: A Critical Analysis of Results.
Patel AK, Patterson JM, Chapple CR
Eur Urol. 2006 Aug 4;.

OBJECTIVE: In recent years there has been an increasing use of the botulinum neurotoxins for the management of conditions characterised by detrusor overactivity. Early studies showed promising results in an area where few options previously existed between pharmacotherapy and surgery. This has led to an urgent need to assess the wide range of techniques and therapies available, as well as the efficacy and tolerability of the treatment. We performed a critical analysis of the numerous clinical studies for this novel treatment option in the management of neurogenic and idiopathic detrusor overactivity, with a view to directing further research and assisting urologists in the management of these conditions. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature, as well as a search for abstracts presented to relevant peer-reviewed meetings, was performed. All articles from 1988 onwards were included, prior to which no articles describing urologic use of botulinum neurotoxins had been published, although the majority of the articles have been published since 2000. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Although many of the studies were small, overwhelming evidence supports the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of the botulinum toxins, specifically serotype A, for the management of these conditions. Before this is accepted as a widespread treatment modality, good-quality evidence from large-scale randomised controlled trials is needed. These studies should identify not only the most appropriate patients to treat but also the best dose, administration technique, and frequency for treatment.

Acute Urodynamic Effects of Posterior Tibial Nerve Stimulation on Neurogenic Detrusor Overactivity in Patients with MS.
Fjorback MV, van Rey FS, van der Pal F, Rijkhoff NJ, Petersen T, Heesakkers JP
Eur Urol. 2006 Aug 7;.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate whether acute electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve could suppress detrusor contractions in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. METHODS: Two successive slow-fill cystometries (16ml/min) were carried out in eight MS patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity. The first filling served as control without stimulation. In the second filling, electrical stimulation using needle electrodes was applied automatically to the posterior tibial nerve when the detrusor pressure exceeded 10cm H(2)O. An additional filling in which the needle electrodes were replaced by surface electrodes was carried out in three patients. RESULTS: The control filling showed detrusor overactivity in eight patients, but electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve failed to suppress detrusor contractions in all tested patients. CONCLUSIONS: Although neuromodulative effects may be obtained with therapeutic electrical stimulation of the posterior tibial nerve, no acute effects were demonstrated. For this reason, electrical stimulation of pudendal afferents remains the only option if acute suppression of a detrusor contraction is required.

Incidence and remission of urinary incontinence after hysterectomy-a 3-year follow-up study.
Neumann GA, Lauszus FF, Ljungstrom B, Rasmussen KL
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Aug 1;.

The aim of the study is to investigate the changes in continence status in a population of women hysterectomized in 1998-2000. Four hundred fifteen hysterectomized women who participated in a questionnaire study on continence status in September 2001 were retested with the same questionnaire on actual continence status in January 2005. As controls we used 97 women who had a laparoscopic cholecystectomy in 1999-2000 and were tested and retested similarly. Urinary incontinence was defined as involuntary urinary leakage at least once a week. Stress incontinence was defined as leakage when coughing, laughing, or lifting heavy weights. Urge incontinence was defined as an uncontrollable desire to void with leakage before reaching the toilet. Stress incontinence was reported by 30% of the hysterectomized women in 2005 vs 28% in 2001. The similar prevalences of urge incontinence were 15 and 13%, respectively. Women who had a subtotal hysterectomy significantly more often had stress incontinence compared to controls in 2005 and 2001. No other significant differences were found. However, the similar prevalences of incontinence reflected that 16% of the hysterectomized women changed from continent in 2001 to stress incontinent in 2005, while 32% changed from stress incontinent to continent. For urge incontinence the similar changes were 8 and 35%, respectively. A large proportion of women change from continent to incontinent or from incontinent to continent during the 3 years of investigation, which should be born in mind when prevalence studies on urinary incontinence are evaluated. Previous hysterectomy does not seem to be of great importance for the development of de novo incontinence or remission.

Retropubic and transobturator tape procedures: reply to letter by A.C. Wang.
But I
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Aug 5;.

Result of the tension-free vaginal tape in patients with concomitant prolapse surgery: a 2-year follow-up study. An analysis from the Netherlands TVT database.
Schraffordt Koops SE, Bisseling TM, van Brummen HJ, Heintz AP, Vervest HA
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Aug 15;.

This study assessed the long-term outcome of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) in women with concomitant pelvic surgery. A prospective cohort study of 746 patients in 41 hospitals was undertaken. The Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7) and Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) were used to measure the results of the TVT. Fifty-nine patients with concomitant prolapse surgery were compared with 687 women with TVT only. The decrease in IIQ/UDI mean scores were statistically significant in both groups after the TVT. The success rates of "no leakage at all" is comparable for both groups. This study, with 54 gynecologists and urologists participating, showed the long-term (2 years) success rates of TVT with concomitant prolapse surgery. It shows that the procedure in conjunction with prolapse surgery can be safely performed with good results.

Analysis of risk factors associated with surgical failure of inside-out transobturator vaginal tape for treating urodynamic stress incontinence.
Chen HY, Yeh LS, Chang WC, Ho M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Aug 15;.

The goals of this study were to assess the efficacy of inside-out transobturator vaginal tape (TVT-O) as a treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) and to explore the possible factors determining surgical success and failure. Each woman had a 20-min pad test and urodynamic study including uroflowmetry, cystometry, and stress urethral pressure profile before and after treatment. Forty-six of the 54 women (85%) were cured of the disease, and two (4%) showed clinical improvement; TVT-O had failed to treat USI in six patients (11%) during the 9-month follow-up period. We assessed the relationship between clinical features, urodynamic parameters, and treatment outcome. Of these, only age and previous anti-incontinence surgery were significant risk factors for surgical failure. The success rate during the 9-month follow-up period decreased significantly in women >==60 years and in women with previous anti-incontinence surgery. Women with USI can be treated by the TVT-O procedure.

Solifenacin significantly improves all symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome.
Chapple CR, Cardozo L, Steers WD, Govier FE
Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Aug;60(8):959-66.

Overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) is a chronic condition characterised by urgency, with or without associated urge incontinence. Solifenacin succinate is a once daily, bladder selective antimuscarinic available in two doses (5 and 10 mg). The recommended dose is 5 mg once daily and can be increased to 10 mg once daily if 5 mg is well tolerated. This article presents pooled efficacy and safety data from four large, placebo-controlled, multinational phase III trials of solifenacin succinate with a total enrolment of over 2800 patients. Data from these trials show that solifenacin 5 and 10 mg once daily is significantly more effective than placebo at reducing urgency, incontinence, micturition frequency and nocturia and at increasing volume voided per micturition. Adverse events were mainly mild-to-moderate in all treatment groups. The results of these phase III trials support the use of solifenacin in the treatment of OAB.

Epidemiology, prescribing patterns and resource use associated with overactive bladder in UK primary care.
Odeyemi IA, Dakin HA, O'Donnell RA, Warner J, Jacobs A, Dasgupta P
Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Aug;60(8):949-58.

This study aimed to estimate the incidence and prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms in the UK and analyse the use of anticholinergic/antispasmodic medications and other healthcare resources within UK general practice. Patients with a record of urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, urge incontinence or irritable/unstable bladder between 1987 and 2004 were identified from the General Practice Research Database. Demographic characteristics, referrals, consultations, investigations and prescriptions for medications licensed for use in OAB were identified. Regression analyses were used to identify the factors determining switches between medications, referrals and use of healthcare resources. The overall prevalence of OAB-related symptoms was 3.87 per 1000 persons, with an incidence of 2.79 per 1000 person-years. Among 68,910 patients with OAB symptoms, 19,444 (28.2%) received anticholinergic medication, of whom 14,454 (74.3%) received one drug and 4055 (20.9%) received two medications sequentially. Overall, 59.1% of patients were referred to relevant secondary care specialities, 2.8% underwent urinary tests/investigations in primary care and 0.2% were seen by a continence nurse. Resource use was higher among patients who tried several different medications. In conclusion, this study suggests that OAB may be under-diagnosed in the UK and that current guidelines recommending use of anticholinergic medication, continence nurse consultations and urinary tests/investigations are inadequately followed.

Re: Midurethral Tissue Fixation System sling.
Sivaslioglu AA
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Oct;46(5):464-5.

Tension-free transobturator tape procedure for stress urinary incontinence.
Ho MH, Lin LL, Haessler AL, Bhatia NN
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Oct;18(5):567-74.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent data on the tension-free transobturator tape procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence are reviewed. RECENT FINDINGS: Although long-term data are not available, the effectiveness and safety of the tension-free transobturator tape procedure as reported during the past 5 years are very promising and this procedure is becoming a popular surgical treatment for female stress urinary incontinence. The continence rates obtained have been similar to those obtained using the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape on short-term follow-up. Clinical data as well as studies on cadaveric dissections suggest that complication rates can be decreased significantly with the transobturator approach. In the original tension-free transobturator tape procedure, the tape is inserted through the obturator foramen from the outside-to-inside direction (skin incision to vaginal incision). The inside-to-outside approach with passage of the tape from the vaginal incision to the obturator foramen has also been described. SUMMARY: The tension-free transobturator tape procedure provides a useful alternative to the retropubic tension-free vaginal tape approach while maintaining the principles of tension-free midurethral support. By avoiding the intrapelvic and retropubic passage, complications can be decreased. The effectiveness of this approach is similar to that of tension-free vaginal tape on short-term follow-up.

Re: Magnetic stimulation for mixed urinary incontinence.
I. But, M. Faganelj and A. Sostaric. J Urol, 173: 1644-1646, 2005. Shafik A
J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1257; author reply 1257-8.

Re: Is the bladder a reliable witness for predicting detrusor overactivity?
H. Hashim and P. Abrams. J Urol, 175: 191-195, 2006.
Schaefer W
J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1255-7; author reply 1256-7.

Calcification of glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen in bladder neck injections in children with incontinence: a long-term complication.
Knudson MJ, Cooper CS, Block CA, Hawtrey CE, Austin JC
J Urol. 2006 Sep;176(3):1143-6; discussion 1146.

PURPOSE: We report the incidence of calcifications developing at the bladder neck/urethra in pediatric patients treated with glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen for urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed charts of patients treated with glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen injections for urinary incontinence between 1994 and 1999. Etiology of incontinence, pertinent medical history, operative details and postoperative imaging were examined. RESULTS: Of 31 patients 4 (13%) had development of submucosal calcifications in the bladder neck/urethra. All 4 patients had received multiple injections of glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen for incontinence secondary to neurogenic bladder. The calcifications were confirmed surgically. Pathology reports available for 2 of 4 patients showed chronic inflammation without dysplasia or malignant changes. Mean followup was significantly different between calcified and noncalcified cases (10.3 vs 7.2 years, p = 0.009), as was total volume of collagen injected (21 vs 12 cc, p = 0.012). Mean time to diagnosis of calcifications was 8.8 years (range 7 to 11) after first injection. A total of 24 patients without calcification underwent bladder imaging at a mean of 6.8 years (+/-2.2) after glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen injection, which was not significantly different than the time to diagnosis (p = 0.089). The number of injections was not significantly different between the 2 groups (p = 0.426). CONCLUSIONS: Of our patients 13% had development of calcifications at the site of prior glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen injections for incontinence. These calcifications were surrounded by chronic inflammation. Patients who have undergone glutaraldehyde cross-linked collagen injections may benefit from long-term followup with bladder imaging to detect and follow calcifications at prior injection sites.

Long-term effects of dextranomer endoscopic injections for the treatment of urinary incontinence: an update of a prospective study of 61 patients.
Lottmann HB, Margaryan M, Lortat-Jacob S, Bernuy M, Lackgren G
J Urol. 2006 Oct;176(4 Suppl):1762-6.

PURPOSE: To treat sphincteric deficiency in children endoscopic bladder neck injections may avoid or salvage more complex procedures. A prospective study to assess the efficacy of bladder neck injections of dextranomer based implants (Deflux(R)) was done in a 7-year period in 61 patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From September 1997 to September 2004 we enrolled in the study 41 males and 20 females 5 to 18 years old with severe sphincteric incompetence, including exstrophy-epispadias in 26, neuropathic bladder in 27, bilateral ectopic ureters in 5, and miscellaneous in 3. Preoperative evaluation consisted of medical history, urine culture, urinary tract ultrasound and videourodynamics. This evaluation was repeated 6 months and 1 year after treatment, and yearly thereafter. Of the patients 17 underwent 2 and 4 underwent 3 treatment sessions to achieve a definitive result. At each evaluation the case was considered cured-a dryness interval of 4 hours between voids or CIC, significantly improved-minimal incontinence requiring no more than 1 pad daily and no further treatment required, and treatment failure-no significant, long lasting improvement. Videourodynamics were mainly useful to study the evolution of bladder capacity, activity and compliance. Followup after the last injection was 6 to 84 months (mean 28). RESULTS: Mean injected volume per session was 3.9 cc (range 1.6 to 12). Postoperative complications were temporary dysuria in 2 patients nonfebrile urinary tract infection in 10, orchid-epididymitis in 1 and urinary retention with pyelonephritis in 1. The incidence of dryness or improvement during followup was 79% (48 of 61 patients) at 1 month, 56% (31 of 55) at 6 months, 52% (24 of 46) at 1 year, 51% (18 of 35) at 2 years, 52% (16 of 31) at 3 years, 48% (12 of 25) at 4 years, 43% (9 of 21) at 5 years, 36% (4 of 11) at 6 years and 40% (2 of 5) at 7 years. The success rate according to pathological condition was similar in cases of neuropathic bladder and the exstrophy-epispadias complex (48% and 53%, respectively). The success rate in re-treated cases was 38%. After treatment a contracted bladder developed in 6 patients. Also, of the 35 patients with at least 2 years of followup an increase in capacity of at least 50% was observed in 12 of 18 with an initially small bladder. No side effects related to the substance were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic treatment for pediatric severe sphincteric deficiency with dextranomer implant, a nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, nonmigratory synthetic substance, was effective up to 2 years in half of the patients. Subsequently at up to 7 years of followup a slow decrease in efficacy was observed and treatment remained beneficial in 40% of the patients.

14 years of experience with the artificial urinary sphincter in children and adolescents without spina bifida.
Ruiz E, Puigdevall J, Moldes J, Lobos P, Boer M, Ithurralde J, Escalante J, de Badiola F
J Urol. 2006 Oct;176(4 Suppl):1821-5.

PURPOSE: The efficacy of the artificial urinary sphincter to treat sphincteric incontinence in pediatric patients with spina bifida has been clearly reported. The possibility of maintaining spontaneous voiding has usually been the main reason for prosthetic device surgery. We reviewed our experience with the artificial urinary sphincter in patients without spina bifida who had had previous surgery of the bladder neck or proximal urethra. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1990 to 2004, 112 children and adolescents underwent implantation of an AMS 800trade mark artificial urinary sphincter. Of the patients 19 males and 4 females (20.5%) between ages 4 and 17 years (mean 8.1) had no spina bifida. Instead there were bladder exstrophy in 12 patients, anorectal malformation with a rectourethral or vesical fistula in 7 and epispadias in 4. A bladder neck cuff between 5.5 and 7.5 cm, and a 61-70 balloon were used in all patients. RESULTS: Only 1 patient was lost to followup. In 22 patients (95.6%) mean followup was 80 months (range 4 to 155). Three sphincters in patients with exstrophy were removed because of erosion and/or infection 5, 49 and 60 months after initial surgery, respectively. A total of 19 sphincters remained in place (86.3% survival rate) with 5 revisions (26.3%) because of the pump (2), the cuff (2) or balloon fluid leakage. In this group 13 patients (68.4%) voided spontaneously and 6 (31.6%) performed clean intermittent catheterization, although 3 also voided spontaneously. Overall continence was good in 87% of patients because 2 were still incontinent at night. CONCLUSIONS: The artificial urinary sphincter is a good long-term solution to urinary incontinence secondary to sphincter incompetence despite multiple previous surgeries of the bladder neck or proximal urethra. Patients with bladder exstrophy and many previous bladder procedures are more exposed to complications such as erosion compared with patients with epispadias or anorectal malformation. The high percent of patients maintaining spontaneous voiding and the good rate of continence are the most important benefits of this type of surgical option for sphincter incompetence.

Patient related risk factors for recurrent stress urinary incontinence surgery in women treated at a tertiary care center.
Daneshgari F, Moore C, Frinjari H, Babineau D
J Urol. 2006 Oct;176(4):1493-9.

PURPOSE: We examined patient related risk factors for recurrent stress urinary incontinence in women treated at a tertiary referral center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was done in 18 to 75-year-old women with signs and symptoms of genuine or mixed stress urinary incontinence and no prior surgical treatment who underwent an open anti-incontinence procedure between 1990 and 2002 at our institution. Cases were defined as patients who underwent more than 1 anti-incontinence surgery and controls were defined as patients who underwent only 1 anti-incontinence procedure with followup during that period. Cases and controls were matched for surgery type, surgeon and date of surgery within 1 year. A total of 47 variables were examined, including patient age, parity, incontinence type, urodynamic findings, medical history (peripheral vascular, pulmonary and cardiac disease), past and concomitant pelvic surgery, social history (alcohol and tobacco use) and body mass index. Univariate conditional logistic regression was done first to determine which variables were potential protective or risk factors. Multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis was then used to determine which factors were statistically significant. RESULTS: The records of 2,550 women with stress or mixed urinary incontinence who underwent an open surgical procedure between 1990 and 2002 were reviewed. A total of 53 cases and 146 controls were identified. Each case was matched with 1 to 4 controls. Data on cases and controls were collected using a standardized form. At a significance level of 0.05 the possible risk factors for recurrent stress urinary incontinence based on univariate analysis were diabetes mellitus (OR 3.579, p = 0.026), pelvic organ prolapse (OR 5.635, p = 0.03) and concomitant rectocele repair (OR 5.353, p = 0.04). Smoking was marginally protective (OR 0.497, p = 0.068). After multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR 3.413, p = 0.045), pelvic organ prolapse (adjusted OR 8.195, p = 0.021) and concomitant rectocele repair (adjusted OR 17.079, p = 0.012) remained significant risk factors, while smoking remained a protective factor (adjusted OR 0.264, p = 0.012). Body mass index, age, race, parity and estrogen status were not identified as risk factors for recurrent stress urinary incontinence requiring a second anti-incontinence procedure. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of women with stress or mixed urinary incontinence treated at our institution between 1990 and 2002 women with diabetes mellitus, pelvic organ prolapse or concomitant rectocele repair were at increased risk for repeat anti-incontinence surgery, while women who smoked were at slightly decreased risk.

Noninvasive therapies for treating post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence.
Joseph AC
Urol Nurs. 2006 Aug;26(4):271-5, 269; quiz 276.

Incorporation of a noninvasive program for both body and mind can lead to successful outcomes in men suffering from post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Key factors in the initial assessment and a detailed description of effective, unique treatment interventions for men with post-prostatectomy urinary incontinence are described.

Transfascial vaginal tape for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence.
Foglia G, Mistrangelo E, Lijoi D, Alessandri F, Ragni N
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2):423-6.

INTRODUCTION: In the past decade, two minimally invasive, mid-urethral sling procedures have been developed to correct stress urinary incontinence: the tension-free vaginal tape and the transobturator tape. Using similar surgical principles, we describe the placement of a sling located at the mid-urethral level and placed laterally in the previously perforated endopelvic fascia. This technique was termed transfascial vaginal tape. TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS: A 2 to 3-cm-long vertical incision was made at the mid-urethral level. A suburethral tunnel was created bilaterally in the anterior vaginal wall until the endopelvic fascia and retropubic space were reached. A 1.5 x 8-cm monofilament polypropylene mesh was placed under the mid-urethra and laterally in the previously perforated endopelvic fascia. Bilaterally, the sling was sutured to the urethropelvic ligaments. CONCLUSIONS: We describe a new, simple, safe, minimally invasive, tension-free, and cost-effective technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence.

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Tolterodine extended release improves overactive bladder symptoms in men with overactive bladder and nocturia.
Kaplan SA, Roehrborn CG, Dmochowski R, Rovner ES, Wang JT, Guan Z
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2):328-32.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nighttime dosing with tolterodine extended release (TER) in men with overactive bladder (OAB) and nocturia. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of data from two 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of nighttime (<4 hours before bedtime) TER (4 mg daily) dosing. Men with a mean micturition frequency of eight or more times in 24 hours, including a mean of 2.5 or more nocturia episodes/night, were included. For each micturition, patients used 7-day diaries to record urinary urgency on a 5-point urgency rating scale (1, none; 2, mild; 3, moderate; 4, severe; 5, urgency urinary incontinence). Micturitions were analyzed post hoc by urgency rating categories: total (1 to 5), non-OAB (1 to 2), OAB (3 to 5), and severe OAB (4 to 5). Adverse events were recorded throughout the study. RESULTS: A total of 745 men (mean age 64 years) were randomized to placebo (n = 374) or TER (n = 371). Of the 745 men, 73% reported no incontinence episodes in a 7-day diary at baseline. At week 12, the weekly values for nighttime severe OAB micturitions and 24-hour and daytime total, OAB, and severe OAB micturitions were significantly reduced in the TER group versus the placebo group. The TER-treated men also reported a significant reduction in the mean urgency rating versus placebo. Adverse events associated with TER were low and comparable to those in the placebo group, with the exception of dry mouth (11% versus 4%). Withdrawals because of adverse events were infrequent (3% TER, 4% placebo). Five men were withdrawn for symptoms suggestive of urinary retention (3 TER, 2 placebo). CONCLUSIONS: Nighttime TER dosing reduced urgency-related micturitions and was well tolerated in men with OAB and nocturia.

Symptom assessment tool for overactive bladder syndrome--overactive bladder symptom score.
Homma Y, Yoshida M, Seki N, Yokoyama O, Kakizaki H, Gotoh M, Yamanishi T, Yamaguchi O, Takeda M, Nishizawa O
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2):318-23.

OBJECTIVES: Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common symptom syndrome with urgency, urinary frequency, and urgency incontinence. To collectively express OAB symptoms, we developed the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS). METHODS: Four symptoms--daytime frequency, nighttime frequency, urgency, and urgency incontinence--were scored. The weighing score was based on a secondary analysis of an epidemiologic database. Psychometric properties were examined in five patient groups: OAB (n = 83), asymptomatic controls (n = 34), stress incontinence (n = 29), benign prostatic hyperplasia (n = 28), and other diseases with urinary symptoms (n = 26). RESULTS: The maximal score was defined as 2, 3, 5, and 5 for daytime frequency, nighttime frequency, urgency, and urgency incontinence, respectively. The sum score (OABSS 0 to 15) was significantly greater in the patients with OAB (8.36) than in the other patient groups (1.82 to 5.14). The distribution of the OABSS showed a clear separation between those with OAB and asymptomatic controls. The OABSS correlated positively with the individual scores (Spearman's r = 0.10 to 0.78) and quality-of-life scores assessed by the King's Health Questionnaire (Spearman's r = 0.20 to 0.49). The weighted kappa coefficients were 0.804 to 1.0 for each symptom score and 0.861 for OABSS. The posttreatment reduction in the OABSS was consistent with the global impression of patients of the therapeutic efficacy. CONCLUSIONS: The OABSS, the sum score of four symptoms (daytime frequency, nighttime frequency, urgency, and urgency incontinence), has been developed and validated. OABSS may be a useful tool for research and clinical practice.

Patient-reported outcomes in overactive bladder: the influence of perception of condition and expectation for treatment benefit.
Marschall-Kehrel D, Roberts RG, Brubaker L
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2 Suppl):29-37.

Patient perceptions of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms, expectations for treatment benefit, and overall treatment satisfaction share complex relations. Multiple studies have demonstrated associations between factors, such as age, sex, and ethnicity, and patient perceptions of OAB symptoms, especially urgency urinary incontinence. Perceptions of OAB are also shaped by symptom severity and impact on health-related quality of life, as well as by perceptions of family members, caregivers, and clinicians. The literature further suggests discrepancies in the reporting among patients, physicians, and family members/caregivers of the impact that urinary symptoms have on patients' emotional well-being, productivity, and daily life. Understanding the factors that affect patients' perceptions is important because these perceptions affect treatment expectations, which may predict treatment outcomes. Studies designed to evaluate the relations between expectations for OAB treatment and patient satisfaction have not been performed to date, but studies in other patient populations suggest that expectations of positive outcomes are associated with greater treatment satisfaction. We emphasize that patient satisfaction with treatment is directly related to fulfillment of positive expectations, and that patient expectations should be realistic and agreed on by patient and physician. We also discuss strategies that may be used by physicians managing patients with OAB to develop stronger patient-physician partnerships, including the effective communication required to make treatment decisions and set realistic expectations.

Assessment of treatment outcomes in patients with overactive bladder: importance of objective and subjective measures.
Abrams P, Artibani W, Gajewski JB, Hussain I
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2 Suppl):17-28.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a highly prevalent symptom syndrome that negatively affects health-related quality of life (HRQL). In clinical practice, the diagnosis and treatment of OAB are largely driven by a patient's reporting of symptoms, often in combination with objective assessment. Thus, OAB provides the opportunity to examine the relations between objective (eg, urodynamic studies, bladder diary variables) and subjective (eg, symptom bother, HRQL) outcomes. We compared objective and subjective results from 27 trials recently evaluated in a systematic review and meta-analysis of antimuscarinic agents used to treat OAB. Many studies demonstrated concurrent improvements in both types of outcomes. However, several reports showed that although pharmacotherapy may reduce micturition frequency or increase bladder capacity, treated patients may not perceive a significant benefit to HRQL. We conclude that objective assessments can help determine the underlying causes of OAB symptoms and assess the effects of treatment, but that these results are not always predictive of subjective outcomes, which are influenced by a patient's priorities and lifestyle, and thus highly individualized. A patient's perception of treatment success should be regarded as an important measure of efficacy because a patient considers the trade-offs between symptom improvement, adverse events, and effects on daily life when assessing overall treatment benefit. We recommend that subjective measures become standard considerations in the initial evaluation and treatment of patients with OAB.

Development and validation of patient-reported outcomes measures for overactive bladder: a review of concepts.
Coyne KS, Tubaro A, Brubaker L, Bavendam T
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2 Suppl):9-16.

Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures are a valuable means for determining how a disease and its treatment affect patients, including effects on health-related quality of life (HRQL). To ensure that the results obtained with PROs are clinically useful, data must be gathered using valid and reliable instruments. Developing such instruments requires a multistep, structured process that incorporates cognitive psychology, psychometric theory, and patient and clinician input. The process begins by determining the intent and purpose of the PRO and culminates in studies that demonstrate the measure's validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Several valid and reliable PROs are available for assessing the effects of treatment on symptom severity, symptom bother, and HRQL in patients with overactive bladder.

Patient-reported outcomes in overactive bladder: importance for determining clinical effectiveness of treatment.
Brubaker L, Chapple C, Coyne KS, Kopp Z
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2 Suppl):3-8.

Overactive bladder (OAB) is a condition defined by its symptoms--urinary urgency with or without urgency urinary incontinence and often with frequency and nocturia. As such, determining the efficacy of OAB treatments using objective measures, such as urodynamic testing, can be difficult. A better means of gauging treatment efficacy for symptom-based conditions is through the use of patient-reported outcomes (PROs). With PROs, clinicians can gain insight into how a treatment affects a patient's symptoms and whether improvement in symptoms has a positive effect from the patient's perspective. PROs are increasingly being included as end points in clinical trials, including those of antimuscarinic drugs for OAB. Consequently, clinicians should become familiar with the most commonly used instruments. We provide an overview of instruments used to assess symptoms, health-related quality of life, and treatment satisfaction in patients with OAB and discuss how PROs can be incorporated into clinical trial protocols.

Periurethral cellular injection: comparison of muscle-derived progenitor cells and fibroblasts with regard to efficacy and tissue contractility in an animal model of stress urinary incontinence.
Kwon D, Kim Y, Pruchnic R, Jankowski R, Usiene I, de Miguel F, Huard J, Chancellor MB
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2):449-54.

OBJECTIVES: To compare muscle-derived cells (MDCs) and fibroblasts with regard to their potential for restoration of urethral function on injection in a previously established animal model of stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: The animals were divided into four (dosage) or five (cell concentration) experimental groups: normal, nontreated controls (normal group) or bilateral sciatic nerve transection with either periurethral injection of saline (saline group), MDCs (MDC group), fibroblasts (fibroblast group), or MDC/fibroblast mixture (mixed group). At 4 weeks after injection, the leak point pressure (LPP) was measured and contractility testing and histologic analysis were performed. RESULTS: The histologic examination demonstrated muscular atrophy in the saline group and new striated muscle fibers at the sites of MDC injection in the MDC group, but not in the fibroblast group. Denervation of the urethra resulted in a significant decrease of maximal fast-twitch muscle contraction amplitude to only 9% of normal. MDC injection into the denervated urethra significantly improved the fast-twitch muscle contraction amplitude to 73% of normal. The LPP of the normal, saline, MDC, fibroblast, and mixed groups at 4 weeks after treatment was 43.3 +/- 2.5, 25.8 +/- 1.4, 38.2 +/- 4.2, 38.3 +/- 1.2, and 34.5 +/- 3.3 cm H2O, respectively. In the cell dosage experiment, the LPP increased with increases in the injected cell number. Evidence of obstruction was observed in the high-dose (1 x 10(7) cells) fibroblast group. CONCLUSIONS: Although both MDCs and fibroblast injection increased the LPP in a stress urinary incontinence rat model, only MDCs significantly improved urethral muscle strip contractility. Moreover, urinary retention developed with high-dose fibroblast injection, but not with MDC injection.

Effects of potassium channel modulators on human detrusor smooth muscle myogenic phasic contractile activity: potential therapeutic targets for overactive bladder.
Darblade B, Behr-Roussel D, Oger S, Hieble JP, Lebret T, Gorny D, Benoit G, Alexandre L, Giuliano F
Urology. 2006 Aug;68(2):442-8.

OBJECTIVES: Increased urinary bladder detrusor smooth muscle phasic contractility has been suggested to be associated with idiopathic bladder overactivity (OAB). We examined the role of voltage-dependent L-type calcium channels, adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, and calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca) and SK(Ca)) channels in the regulation of human detrusor phasic contractile activity. METHODS: Isolated human bladder strip phasic contractions were measured and quantified as the mean area under the force-time curve, amplitude, and frequency of phasic contractions in 22 bladder samples. RESULTS: Human detrusor strips displayed myogenic phasic contractions in the presence of atropine (10(-6) M), phentolamine (10(-6) M), propranolol (10(-6) M), suramin (10(-5) M), and tetrodotoxin (10(-6) M). The L-type calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine (300 nM) abolished the contractile activity. Blockade of K(ATP) channels by glibenclamide (1 and 10 microM) did not alter myogenic contractions. In contrast, the K(ATP) channel opener pinacidil (10 microM) markedly inhibited phasic contractility. Iberiotoxin (100 nM) and apamin (100 nM), potent and selective inhibitors of BK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels, respectively, significantly increased the area under the force-time curve and the amplitude of contractions. CONCLUSIONS: Phasic contractions of human detrusor are dependent on calcium entry through L-type calcium channels. BK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels play a key role in the modulation of human detrusor smooth muscle phasic contractility. Furthermore, these observations support the concept that increasing conductance through K(ATP), BK(Ca), and SK(Ca) channels may represent attractive pharmacologic targets for decreasing phasic contractions of detrusor smooth muscle in OAB.


Transvaginal suture placement for bleeding control with the tension-free vaginal tape procedure.
Neuman M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Feb;17(2):176-7. Epub 2005 Feb 24.

Tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) is a well-established surgical procedure for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence. The operation, described by Ulmsten in 1995, is based on a midurethral Prolene tape support. TVT is accepted as an easy-to-learn and safe minimally invasive surgical technique. Intraoperative bleeding was described as complicating former surgical methods for correction of female urinary stress incontinence as well as TVT. The aim of this paper was to describe a simple transvaginal hemostatic suture placement to control accidental intraoperative hemorrhage. Of 566 patients undergoing TVT and followed for up to 68 months, 9 (1.6%) had intraoperative bleeding of 200-800 ml, all of which were diagnosed and corrected among the first 466 procedures. The last 100 patients had a transvaginal hemostatic suture placed whenever more than minimal bleeding occurred and hemostasis was achieved immediately with all. The benefit of this minimal, fast, and simple surgical step is assessed and discussed.

In vivo comparison of suburethral sling materials.
Slack M, Sandhu JS, Staskin DR, Grant RC
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Feb;17(2):106-10. Epub 2005 Jul 2.

In vivo tissue responses were compared for three commercially available polypropylene suburethral slings that differ markedly in fabric structure and in size of resulting interstices and pores. All three elicited the same basic inflammatory response; however, individual fabric structures produced distinct differences in tissue formation within each mesh. The presence of numerous, closely spaced, small diameter filaments prevented formation of extensive fibrous connective tissue within two slings (ObTape and IVS Tunneller mesh). The much larger diameter monofilament and open knit structure of the Monarc sling permitted the most extensive fibrous tissue integration. These differences may be of interest to physicians considering clinical use.

Bladder wall abscess following midurethral sling procedure.
Madjar S, Frischer Z, Nieder AM, Waltzer WC
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Feb;17(2):180-1. Epub 2005 Jun 18.

Midurethal sling procedures are gaining popularity as the treatment of choice for stress urinary incontinence. Complications that were described include bladder perforation, urinary retention, pelvic hematoma and suprapubic wound infection. Sling erosion and pelvic abscess are rare complications of midurethral slings. We report the first case of an abscess formed within the wall of the urinary bladder, 7 months following a midurethral sling procedure.

The efficacy of the tension-free vaginal tape in the treatment of five subtypes of stress urinary incontinence.
Segal JL, Vassallo BJ, Kleeman SD, Hungler M, Karram MM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Feb;17(2):120-4. Epub 2005 Oct 18.

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) for the treatment of five sub-types of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed from November 1998 to November 2001 on all patients with SUI who underwent a TVT procedure either alone or with other reconstructive pelvic procedures. The patients were subdivided into five categories. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) was defined by a maximum urethral closure pressure < 20 cm H2O or a mean Valsalva leak point pressure < 60 cm H2O above baseline. Urethral hypermobility (UH) was defined by a straining Q-tip angle greater than 30 degrees from the horizontal. Cure was defined as the subjective resolution of SUI without the development of voiding dysfunction or de novo urge incontinence. Improvement was defined as the subjective improvement of SUI without complete resolution or the subjective resolution of SUI occurring with the development of prolonged voiding dysfunction lasting greater than 6 weeks or de novo urge incontinence. Failure was defined as the subjective lack of improvement of SUI, the need for an additional procedure to correct SUI or the need for revision or takedown of the TVT for persistent voiding dysfunction or mesh erosion. RESULTS: The cure, improvement and failure rates for each of the following groups are respectively as follows: group 1 (+UH, -ISD) (n = 121): 101 (83.5%), 13 (10.7%), 7 (5.8%); group 2 (-UH, +ISD) (n = 22): 17 (77.3%), 3 (13.6%), 2 (9.1%); group 3 (+UH, +ISD) (n = 32): 26 (81.3%), 4 (12.5%), 2 (6.2%); group 4 (-UH, -ISD) (n = 25): 21 (84.0%), 3 (12.0%), 1 (4.0%); group 5 (occult SUI) (n = 67): 57 (85.1%), 10 (14.9%), 0 (0%). CONCLUSION: This study shows that the TVT is effective in treating all five sub-types of SUI.

TVT versus SPARC: comparison of outcomes for two midurethral tape procedures.
Gandhi S, Abramov Y, Kwon C, Beaumont JL, Botros S, Sand PK, Goldberg RP
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Feb;17(2):125-30. Epub 2005 Aug 4.

To compare the subjective and objective cure rates in women who underwent either the SPARC or the TVT midurethral sling for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. This retrospective study included all 122 consecutive women undergoing a TVT or SPARC midurethral sling procedure for objective stress urinary incontinence between January 2000 and March 2003 at the Evanston Continence Center. Primary outcomes were subjective and objective stress incontinence cure rates. Subjects underwent multichannel urodynamics preoperatively and 14 weeks postoperatively, and stress testing at last follow-up. The two groups were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Seventy-three subjects underwent a TVT and 49 subjects had a SPARC procedure. There were no statistical differences in demographic factors between the two groups. Subjects undergoing SPARC were more likely to void by Valsalva effort. One hundred and seven women returned for objective postoperative evaluation after surgery. The TVT procedure was associated with higher subjective (86 vs. 60%, P = 0.001) and objective (95 vs. 70%, P < 0.001) stress incontinence cure rates. There was no difference between the TVT and SPARC groups in the resolution of subjective and objective urge urinary incontinence. TVT was associated with a higher stress urinary incontinence cure rate than SPARC in this retrospective study. As new midurethral sling products are introduced, prospective randomized controlled trials should be conducted to evaluate their relative efficacy and safety.

[Surgical management of chronic refractory pain after TVT treatment for stress urinary incontinence]
Misrai V, Chartier-Kastler E, Cour F, Mozer P, Almeras C, Richard F
Prog Urol. 2006 Jun;16(3):368-71.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of surgical treatment of iatrogenic pelviperineal pain following TVT treatment for stress urinary incontinence (SUI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight patients developed chronic pain after TVT that was refractory to symptomatic medical treatment. Pain was characterized by clinical interview and clinical examination and an aetiological assessment demonstrated the role of TVT in pathogenesis of the pain. TVT was removed by open surgery or by laparoscopy. Pain and continence were evaluated postoperatively. RESULTS: TVT was completely (n = 3) or partially (n = 5) removed. With a mean follow-up of 31 months, no patient has experienced pain recurrence. Five patients have remained continent and 3 patients were treated for recurrent urinary incontinence. CONCLUSION: Although medical treatment may be disappointing, surgical resection provides good results on refractory pain, but preservation of continence is inconstant.

Role of bladder neck mobility and urethral closure pressure in predicting outcome of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure.
Viereck V, Nebel M, Bader W, Harms L, Lange R, Hilgers R, Emons G
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jul 21;28(2):214-220.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate how urethral mobility and urethral closure pressure affect the outcome of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) insertion for stress incontinence. METHODS: A total of 191 consecutive women with genuine stress urinary incontinence with or without intrinsic sphincter deficiency were evaluated prospectively with multichannel urodynamics, 24-h voiding diaries, clinical stress tests and introital ultrasound measurements preoperatively and 6 months after surgery. Additional introital ultrasound examinations were performed immediately after the operation, at 12 months and annually thereafter. 177/191 patients had completed a 36-month follow-up at the time of writing. Urethral mobility was described as linear dorsocaudal movement (LDM), with hypermobility being defined as LDM > 15 mm on sonography. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency was defined by a maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) of <20 cmH(2)O. RESULTS: The overall cure rate at the 36-month follow-up was 89.5% (Kaplan-Meier estimator), with secondary cure (within 6 months of surgery) in 10.5% of these patients. The operation failed in 4.2% of the women and recurrence was seen in 6.3% of the cases. Bladder neck mobility was significantly reduced at the 6-month follow-up (P < 0.001). Compared with primary cure, therapeutic failure and secondary cure were associated with a significantly lower postoperative bladder neck mobility (P < 0.05). Postoperative hypermobility reduced the risk of therapeutic failure. In addition, women with therapeutic failure or secondary cure had a significantly lower MUCP than did those with primary cure (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The effectiveness of the TVT sling appears to depend on adequate postoperative urethral mobility and urethral closure pressure.

Tension-free vaginal tape surgery for stress urinary incontinence: a prospective multicentered study in Japan.
Ohkawa A, Kondo A, Takei M, Gotoh M, Ozawa H, Kato K, Ohashi T, Nakata M
Int J Urol. 2006 Jun;13(6):738-42.

AIM: To report the prospective multicentered study of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-one women with stress urinary incontinence were operated on by the TVT procedure and were followed up at 3, 12, and 24 months after surgery. Patients' age and body mass index (BMI) averaged 57 years and 23.9, respectively. Forty-nine women were classified as type I, 46 women type II and 56 women type III (McGuire's classification). Local anesthesia was used in the operations on 137 women (91%) and epidural or general anesthesia was used in 14 (9%). Surgical outcomes were analyzed with Kaplan-Meier survival curves. RESULTS: The subjective and objective cumulative cure rates 24 months later were 92% and 77%, respectively (P > 0.05). The TVT operation for women with type III (62%) resulted in a significantly lower cure rate compared to those with type I or with type II (83%) (P < 0.001). Post-operatively a urethral catheter was indwelt one day in 77 women (51%), two days in 14 (9%) and 3-7 days in 60 (40%). Surgical complications were encountered in 43 women (28%). The most frequent was bladder perforation in 24 women followed by postoperative difficulty in urination and de novo urgency. CONCLUSIONS: The TVT surgery was promising for the treatment of stress incontinence because of minimal surgical invasiveness and satisfactory surgical results. Women with type III incontinence resulted in fewer satisfactory outcomes than those with type I or II incontinence.

Comparison of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of propiverine and oxybutynin for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome.
Abrams P, Cardozo L, Chapple C, Serdarevic D, Hargreaves K, Khullar V
Int J Urol. 2006 Jun;13(6):692-8.

AIM: To compare the effects of propiverine and oxybutynin on ambulatory urodynamic monitoring (AUM) parameters, safety, and tolerability in patients with overactive bladder. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, crossover study. Patients (n = 77) received two of the following treatments during two 2-week periods: propiverine 20 mg once daily, propiverine 15 mg three times daily, oxybutynin 5 mg three times daily, and placebo. AUM parameters, salivary flow, visual near point, and heart rate were assessed. RESULTS: A consistent order in the efficacy between active treatment groups was observed for the reduction in mean involuntary detrusor contractions (IDCs; oxybutynin 15 mg </= propiverine 45 mg </= propiverine 20 mg). Differences between the oxybutynin and propiverine 20 mg groups were statistically significant for several AUM endpoints. Statistically significant differences between the oxybutynin and both propiverine groups were also noted in salivary flow rate and heart rate (oxybutynin 15 mg < both propiverine regimens) and in heart rate variability (both propiverine regimens < oxybutynin 15 mg). All active treatments lengthened visual near point. The incidence of dry mouth was significantly more pronounced in the oxybutynin group than in either propiverine group. Treatment with propiverine 45 mg resulted in the highest rates of constipation, lengthening of the visual near point, and effects on heart rate. CONCLUSIONS: Oxybutynin 15 mg was more effective than propiverine 20 mg in reducing symptomatic and asymptomatic IDCs in ambulatory patients. The primary differences between the two drugs were the incidence and type of adverse events, which varied with the antimuscarinic receptor specificity of each agent.

Risk of stress urinary incontinence twelve years after the first pregnancy and delivery.
Viktrup L, Rortveit G, Lose G
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Aug;108(2):248-54.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the impact of onset of stress urinary incontinence in first pregnancy or postpartum period, for the risk of symptoms 12 years after the first delivery. METHODS: In a longitudinal cohort study, 241 women answered validated questions about stress urinary incontinence after first delivery and 12 years later. RESULTS: Twelve years after first delivery the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence was 42% (102 of 241). The 12-year incidence was 30% (44 of 146). The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence 12 years after first pregnancy and delivery was significantly higher (P<.01) in women with onset during first pregnancy (56%, 37 of 66) and in women with onset shortly after delivery (78%, 14 of 18) compared with those without initial symptoms (30%, 44 of 146). In 70 women who had onset of symptoms during first pregnancy or shortly after the delivery but remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 40 (57%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. In 11 women with onset of symptoms during the first pregnancy or shortly after delivery but no remission 3 months postpartum, a total of 10 (91%) had stress urinary incontinence 12 years later. Cesarean during first delivery was significantly associated with a lower risk of incontinence. Other obstetric factors were not significantly associated with the risk of incontinence 12 years later. Patients who were overweight before their first pregnancy were at increased risk. CONCLUSION: Onset of stress urinary incontinence during first pregnancy or puerperal period carries an increased risk of long-lasting symptoms. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.

Short- and long-term results of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure in the treatment of female urinary incontinence.
Ankardal M, Heiwall B, Lausten-Thomsen N, Carnelid J, Milsom I
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(8):986-92.

Background. The aim was to describe the short- and long-term results of treatment for urinary incontinence (UI) in women using the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure at a single unit and to identify factors predictive of successful outcome. Material and methods. Consecutive female patients (n=707) treated for UI with the TVT procedure at Karlstad Hospital from November 1996 to June 2004 were included. After a standardized preoperative evaluation, the women were classified as having either stress urinary incontinence (SUI) or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI). The results of surgery were evaluated after 1, 2, and 5 years, by means of a postal questionnaire. An objective evaluation was performed after 5 years in a subsample of the first patients included (n=59). Factors influencing the cure rate were analyzed using multiple regression analysis. Results. The subjective cure rate was 83% after 1 year and 73% after 5 years. The objective cure rate was 83% in the subgroup after 5 years. Surgical time was 30+/-9 min (mean+/-SD). The rate of bladder perforations was 1.7%. In patients with MUI the cure rate was lower than in patients with SUI (after 5 years 54.9% versus 81.0%). Type of incontinence was the only independent variable found to influence surgical outcome. Conclusions. The TVT procedure, performed in over 700 women at a single gynecological unit, was found to be a safe and efficient surgical procedure. Type of incontinence was the only independent variable found to predict for outcome of surgery.

Is HCl duloxetine effective in the management of urinary stress incontinence after radical prostatectomy?
Zahariou A, Papaioannou P, Kalogirou G
Urol Int. 2006;77(1):9-12.

INTRODUCTION: Up to 70% of patients who undergo radical prostatectomy complain about urine leakage, but persistent stress incontinence 1 year after surgery affects <5% of them. HCl duloxetine is a dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that relieves the symptoms of stress urinary incontinence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of HCl duloxetine in the management of urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy and its impact in urodynamic parameters such as maximal urethral closure pressure (MUCP), abdominal leak point pressure (ALPP) and retrograde leak point pressure (RLPP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 18 men with stress urinary incontinence 12 months after radical prostatectomy. All underwent a pad test to quantify the degree of urine loss and a urodynamic evaluation before and after a three month treatment with HCl duloxetine. The intrinsic sphincter was evaluated by ALPP and RLPP and the striated sphincter by MUCP. RESULTS: At the pretreatment evaluation the mean ALPP was 52.1 cm H(2)O, the mean MUCP was 52.5 cm H(2)O and the mean RLPP was 43.1 cm H(2)O. After 3 months of HCl duloxetine treatment the mean ALPP was 59.1 cm H(2)O, the mean MUCP was 67.3 cm H(2)O and the mean RLPP was 45.1 cm H(2)O. There was a statistically significant correlation among RLPP, MUCP and ALPP before treatment. After HCl duloxetine treatment there was significant correlation between RLPP and ALPP. CONCLUSION: The use of HCl duloxetine results in mild increase of MUCP and in significant reduction of urine loss. Its action on the extrinsic sphincter does not provide a complete treatment option for postprostatectomy incontinence.


[Ultrasound for the diagnosis of female urinary incontinence]
Jimenez Cidre MA, Lopez-Fando Lavalle L, Quicios Dorado C, de Castro Guerin C, Fraile Poblador A, Mayayo Dehesa T
Arch Esp Urol. 2006 May;59(4):431-9.
OBJECTIVES: The value of ultrasonography for the study of female urinary incontinence has been redefined over the last years. METHODS: We review the literature about the value of ultrasound in the workup of females with urinary incontinence, mainly transperineal ultrasound for the female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). RESULTS: Many papers have been published over the last few years. Upper urinary tract ultrasound has not a place in the workup of genuine female SUI. Transperineal ultrasound allows to evaluate the mobility of the bladder neck and urethra, the thickness of the bladder wall, the funnel shape of the bladder neck, the presence of SUI or pelvic organ prolapse (POP), to visualize mesh implants, to help with biofeedback, and to evaluate changes after surgical treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasounds in general, and transperineal or translabial ultrasound in particular, are in the process of becoming the standard diagnostic method in urogynecology. Their wide availability, the standardization of parameters, the possibility of evaluating not only the bladder but also the levator ani muscle or pelvic organ prolapses (POP) contribute to this fact. It allows to obtain data in a non invasive way before and after therapy.

Frequency of de novo urgency in 463 women who had undergone the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for genuine stress urinary incontinence-A long-term follow-up.
Holmgren C, Nilsson S, Lanner L, Hellberg D
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Jun 30;.

BACKGROUND: To determine risk factors for the appearance of de novo urgency symptoms, and subsequent accompanying problems, after the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in women with stress urinary incontinence. METHOD: A structured preoperative analysis of the incontinence symptoms was made. A mailed questionnaire was distributed to 970 women that underwent the TVT procedure between 1995 and 2001. Average follow-up was 5.2 years (range 2-8 years). The questionnaire included specific questions on current urinary symptoms and incontinence. The disease-specific quality of life instruments IIQ-7 and UDI-6 were used to compare women with, and those without de novo urgency. RESULTS: Seven hundred and sixty women (78.3%) responded and 463 of those were identified as genuine stress incontinence preoperatively. De novo urgency occurred in 67 (14.5%) of the women. The frequency was similar irrespective of duration since the TVT procedure. The women that reported de novo urgency symptoms were compared with those without symptoms. Risk factors for occurrence of de novo urgency symptoms were older age (64.7 years versus 60.9 years; p=0.01), parity (2.6 versus 2.3; p=0.05), history of cesarean section (9.5% versus 2.5%; odds ratio 5.4), and history of recurrent urinary infections (29.7% versus 18.8%; odds ratio 1.6, but non-significant. De novo urgency had a severe impact on quality of life, as compared to the remaining study population. CONCLUSION: Old age, parity and history of cesarean section were risk factors for de novo urgency after TVT surgery. Postoperative de novo urgency symptoms are as bothersome for the patient as the preoperative stress urinary incontinence.

Overactive bladder made ridiculously simple?
Rosenberg MT
Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Jun;60(6):631-3.

Laparoscopic Burch colposuspension and the tension-free vaginal tape procedure.
Paraiso MF
Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Aug;18(4):385-90.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Minimally invasive procedures for urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The advantages of minimal access through laparoscopic and vaginal routes include smaller incisions, shortened hospital stay, decreased analgesia, rapid recovery and rapid return to work. The laparoscopic Burch colposuspension and the tension-free vaginal tape procedure were at the forefront of minimal access antiincontinence procedures. The most recent and significant publications regarding laparoscopic Burch colposuspension and tension-free vaginal tape procedure are highlighted in this article. RECENT FINDINGS: The laparoscopic Burch is time-consuming and requires a steep learning curve in laparoscopic suturing, thwarting its adoption and staying power. The advantages and success of the retropubic midurethral sling procedures such as tension-free vaginal tape have largely replaced all other antiincontinence procedures and have ignited the development and adoption of transobturator midurethral sling procedures and vaginal 'kit' procedures for pelvic organ prolapse. SUMMARY: Clinical trials show that laparoscopic Burch cure rates are equal or inferior to tension-free vaginal tape cure rates. Publications regarding laparoscopic Burch colposuspension have tapered significantly in the past year, which may represent the ebb of its utilization. Tension-free vaginal tape and other midurethral sling procedures may become the new 'gold standard' antiincontinence therapy.

Tolterodine extended release improves patient-reported outcomes in overactive bladder: results from the IMPACT trial.
Roberts R, Bavendam T, Glasser DB, Carlsson M, Eyland N, Elinoff V
Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Jun;60(6):752-8.

We evaluated the effect of tolterodine extended release (ER) on patient- and clinician-reported outcomes in a primary care setting. Patients had overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms for >or=3 months and were at least moderately bothered by their most bothersome symptom, as indicated on the patient-completed OAB Bother Rating Scale. Patients completed the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q), American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI), and Patient Perception of Bladder Condition at each visit; investigators completed the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement at week 12. By week 12, there were statistically significant and clinically meaningful decreases on the OAB-q and AUA-SI total and subscale scores (p < 0.0001). Seventy-nine per cent of patients experienced some improvement in their overall bladder condition. Physicians reported that 68% of patients were 'much improved' or 'very much improved'. For symptom-defined conditions, patient-reported outcomes are a valuable means for determining responses to treatment.

Symptom-specific efficacy of tolterodine extended release in patients with overactive bladder: the IMPACT trial.
Elinoff V, Bavendam T, Glasser DB, Carlsson M, Eyland N, Roberts R
Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Jun;60(6):745-51.

We evaluated the efficacy of tolterodine extended release (ER) for patients' most bothersome overactive bladder (OAB) symptom in a primary care setting. Patients with OAB symptoms for >or=3 months received tolterodine ER (4 mg q.d.) for 12 weeks. Among incontinent patients (n = 772), the most bothersome OAB symptoms were daytime frequency (28%), urgency urinary incontinence (UUI; 27%), nocturnal frequency (26%) and urgency (19%); among continent patients (n = 91), they were daytime frequency (47%), nocturnal frequency (42%) and urgency (10%). Sixty-nine per cent of patients had one or more comorbid conditions. By week 12, there were significant reductions in patients' most bothersome symptom: -80% for UUI, -78% for urgency episodes, -40% for nocturnal frequency and -30% for daytime frequency (p < 0.0001). The most common adverse events were dry mouth (10%) and constipation (4%). In primary care practice, bothersome OAB symptoms can be effectively and safely treated with tolterodine ER, even in patients with comorbid conditions.

High Rate of Vaginal Erosions Associated With the Mentor ObTapetrade mark.
Yamada BS, Govier FE, Stefanovic KB, Kobashi KC
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):651-4.

PURPOSE: The transobturator tape method is a newer surgical technique for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. Limited data exist related to complications with this approach or the types of mesh products used. We report our experience with vaginal erosions associated with the Mentor ObTapetrade mark and American Medical Systems Monarctrade mark transobturator slings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Beginning in December 2003 selected female patients with anatomic urinary incontinence were prospectively followed after placement of the Mentor ObTapetrade mark. Beginning in January 2004 we also began using the American Medical Systems Monarctrade mark in similar patients. Patients were admitted overnight after surgery, discharged on oral antibiotics, and seen in the clinic at 6 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: A total of 67 patients have undergone placement of the Mentor ObTapetrade mark and 9 of those patients (13.4%) have had vaginal extrusions of the sling. Eight patients reported a history of persistent vaginal discharge. One patient presented initially to an outside facility with a left thigh abscess tracking to the left inguinal incision site. Each patient was taken back to the operating room for mesh removal. A total of 56 patients have undergone placement of the AMS Monarctrade mark and none have had any vaginal erosions. CONCLUSIONS: Our high rate of vaginal extrusion using the ObTapetrade mark has led us to discontinue the use of this product in our institution. Continued followup of all of these patients will be of critical importance.

Comparison of the q-tip test and voiding cystourethrogram to assess urethral hypermobility among women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of surgery for stress urinary incontinence.
Walsh LP, Zimmern PE, Pope N, Shariat SF
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):646-50.

PURPOSE: We compared 2 measures of urethral hypermobility, the Q-tip test and voiding cystourethrogram, preoperatively in women recruited in 1 center participating in a multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing Burch colposuspension with autologous rectus fascia sling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, women with stress urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse stage 2 or less underwent a standardized standing voiding cystourethrogram and a Q-tip test at a 45 degree angle reclining position preoperatively. Urethral angle at rest and straining were measured with a radiological ruler (voiding cystourethrogram) or goniometer (Q-tip) by 2 different investigators blinded to each other findings. RESULTS: In 43 patients the mean urethral angle at rest and UAS were 20 degrees +/- 12 and 51 degrees +/- 20, by voiding cystourethrogram compared to 16 degrees +/- 9 and 58 degrees +/- 10 by Q-tip test, respectively. The mean angle difference (urethral angle with straining minus urethral angle at rest) was greater for the Q-tip test (42 degrees +/- 9) than that for the voiding cystourethrogram test (32 degrees +/- 17; p <0.05). Fewer patients (14% by Q-tip, 28% by voiding cystourethrogram) had urethral hypermobility using the definition of urethral angle at rest greater than 30, while almost all patients (91% by voiding cystourethrogram, 100% by Q-tip) had urethral hypermobility using the definition of urethral angle with straining greater than 30. However, using the definition of urethral angle with straining minus urethral angle at rest greater than 30, only 58% of patients had urethral hypermobility by voiding cystourethrogram compared to 98% by Q-tip. CONCLUSIONS: The voiding cystourethrogram and the Q-tip test measure urethral hypermobility differently. This may affect which patients are classified as having urethral hypermobility, and the choice of anti-incontinence surgery.

Therapeutic effect of multiple resiniferatoxin intravesical instillations in patients with refractory detrusor overactivity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.
Kuo HC, Liu HT, Yang WC
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):641-5.

PURPOSE: Previous study has shown that multiple intravesical instillations of resiniferatoxin (Sigma(R)) at 10 nM has therapeutic effects in patients with detrusor overactivity. To our knowledge the placebo effect of multiple instillations of low dose resiniferatoxin for neurogenic and nonneurogenic detrusor overactivity has not been investigated. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study we evaluated the therapeutic effects of this resiniferatoxin treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 54 patients with detrusor overactivity refractory to anticholinergics were enrolled and randomly treated with 4 weekly intravesical instillations of 10 nM resiniferatoxin (26) or vehicle, consisting of 10% ethanol in normal saline, as the control group (28). The clinical effects of treatment on incontinence grade, incontinence episodes, general satisfaction, lower urinary tract symptoms and urodynamic parameters were assessed. RESULTS: Three months after completing the 4 intravesical treatments the resiniferatoxin treatment group had a significantly higher percent of patients with excellent and improved results compared to the control group (19.2% vs 7.1% and 42.3% vs 14.2%, respectively, each p <0.001). Treatment remained effective at 6 months in 13 patients (50%) in the resiniferatoxin group but in only 3 (11%) in the control group (p <0.001). Bladder capacity was significantly increased and symptom scores significantly improved 3 months after treatment in the resiniferatoxin group but not in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple intravesical instillations of 10 nM resiniferatoxin were effective for improving the incontinence grade in 62% of patients at 3 months, of whom 50% maintained a therapeutic effect 6 months after treatment. The therapeutic effect of resiniferatoxin was significantly superior to that of placebo.

Urgency is the Core Symptom of Female Overactive Bladder Syndrome, as Demonstrated by a Statistical Analysis.
Hung MJ, Ho ES, Shen PS, Sun MJ, Lin AT, Chen GD
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):636-40.

PURPOSE: We determined overactive bladder symptoms in combination with other lower urinary tract symptoms and illustrated their relationships using a statistical analysis. Furthermore, we also describe the potential contributory factors and adaptation strategies in patients that are associated with overactive bladder subtypes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1,930 women with a mean age +/- SD of 46 +/- 15 years (range 15 to 91) with troubling lower urinary tract symptoms were successfully interviewed with a validated questionnaire at the urology and urogynecology clinics at 14 medical centers in Taiwan. The questionnaire was constructed to evaluate 6 lower urinary tract symptoms and 7 adaptation strategies. A log linear statistical model and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the associations among lower urinary tract symptoms and the potential overactive bladder contributory factors, respectively. RESULTS: No single or isolated symptom presented in patients with overactive bladder. Most patients reported a combination with other lower urinary tract symptoms. These female patients can be categorized into 3 groups, including 1 is associated with dry symptoms (urgency, frequency and nocturia), 1 associated with wet symptoms (urgency, urge incontinence and mixed stress incontinence) and a small group that may have overactive bladder symptoms combined with voiding difficulty symptoms. in contrast to patients with dry overactive bladder (urgency associated with frequency and/or nocturia without urge incontinence), after multiple logistic regression analysis patients with wet overactive bladder (urgency with urge incontinence) had a greater average age and higher body mass index, and made more adaptation efforts (p <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We used statistical analysis to determine and suggest that urgency is the core symptom of female overactive bladder syndrome and there are 3 distinctive overactive bladder subtypes, which differ in their symptom combinations. Different symptom combinations and patient characteristics affect female adaptation to overactive bladder syndrome.

Bladder reservoir function in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and healthy controls.
Hagstroem S, Kamperis K, Rittig S, Djurhuus JC
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):759-63.

PURPOSE: We investigated bladder reservoir function in children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and in healthy controls. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 18 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and 119 controls who were 7 to 13 years old were recruited. Children completed frequency volume charts and measurements of nocturnal urine production. Mean diuresis in the period preceding each voiding was calculated. Those with enuresis were grouped according to bladder capacity and hospitalized for 4 nights, including a baseline night and 3 with an oral water load. Enuresis volumes and post-void residual volume were estimated, allowing the calculation of bladder volume at the time of enuresis. RESULTS: Nine children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis were characterized as having normal bladder capacity and 9 had decreased bladder capacity. We found large intra-individual variability in daytime voided volume in all 3 groups of participants. Children with enuresis and small bladder capacity generally voided with volumes close to maximal voided volume. A total of 93 enuresis episodes were recorded. Large intra-individual variability was seen in bladder volume at enuresis and it was lower than maximal voided volume in more than 50% of episodes. Variability in bladder volume at enuresis was greatest in the patient group with decreased bladder capacity. We found a significant correlation between diuresis and bladder capacity in all groups during the day and night. CONCLUSIONS: There is a great intra-individual diurnal variability in voided volume in children with enuresis and in healthy children. Enuresis seems to occur at bladder volumes that are smaller and larger than the maximal voided volume obtained from voiding charts.

Desmopressin toxicity due to prolonged half-life in 18 patients with nocturnal enuresis.
Dehoorne JL, Raes AM, van Laecke E, Hoebeke P, Vande Walle JG
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):754-8.

PURPOSE: Desmopressin has been used extensively for primary nocturnal enuresis and it is associated with a low incidence of adverse effects. The only reported serious side effect is seizure or altered levels of consciousness resulting from water intoxication, which has been reported for the nasal spray. We describe 18 children with clinical symptoms of water intoxication due to the prolonged bioactivity of desmopressin nasal spray. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 18 patients with clinical suspicion of prolonged desmopressin bioactivity during treatment with intranasal desmopressin for primary nocturnal enuresis. The control group consisted of 50 children with primary nocturnal enuresis and proven nocturnal polyuria who were treated with the same desmopressin regimen. RESULTS: All patients had prolonged maximal urinary concentration capacity and delayed restoration of daytime diluting capacity (p <0.01). Of the patients 15 had the characteristic clinical symptoms of water intoxication with vomiting, headache, decreased consciousness and hyponatremia. We suspect that these symptoms are secondary to prolonged desmopressin bioactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged desmopressin bioactivity may increase the risk of water intoxication.

Desmopressin resistant nocturnal polyuria secondary to increased nocturnal osmotic excretion.
Dehoorne JL, Raes AM, van Laecke E, Hoebeke P, Vande Walle JG
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):749-53.

PURPOSE: We investigated the role of increased solute excretion in children with desmopressin resistant nocturnal enuresis and nocturnal polyuria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 42 children with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis and significant nocturnal polyuria with high nocturnal urinary osmolality (more than 850 mmol/l) were not responding to desmopressin. A 24-hour urinary concentration profile was obtained with measurement of urine volume, osmolality, osmotic excretion and creatinine. The control group consisted of 100 children without enuresis. RESULTS: Based on osmotic excretion patients were classified into 3 groups. Group 1 had 24-hour increased osmotic excretion, most likely secondary to a high renal osmotic load. This was probably diet related since 11 of these 12 patients were obese. Group 2 had increased osmotic excretion in the evening and night, probably due to a high renal osmotic load caused by the diet characteristics of the evening meal. Group 3 had deficient osmotic excretion during the day, secondary to extremely low fluid intake to compensate for small bladder capacity. CONCLUSIONS: Nocturnal polyuria with high urinary osmolality in our patients with desmopressin resistant monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis is related to abnormal increased osmotic excretion. This may be explained by their fluid and diet habits, eg daytime fluid restriction, and high protein and salt intake.

The impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorders on brainstem dysfunction in nocturnal enuresis.
Baeyens D, Roeyers H, Hoebeke P, Antrop I, Mauel R, Walle JV
J Urol. 2006 Aug;176(2):744-8.

PURPOSE: In a specialized university setting the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in general and particularly the inattentive subtype attention deficit hyperactivity disorder of the predominantly inattentive subtype is highly increased. We replicated previous research findings that enuresis is associated with a brainstem deficit and investigated the impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder on this brainstem deficit in enuresis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electromyography recorded startle eye blink modification with and without attentional modulation was used to measure brainstem functioning in 158 children between 6 and 12 years old. Performance in 3 enuresis groups, including children with enuresis, enuresis plus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder of the predominantly inattentive subtype and enuresis plus attention deficit hyperactivity disorder combined, respectively, was compared with that in normally developing controls and in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder subtypes without enuresis. RESULTS: In an automatic attentional task the enuresis groups showed decreased brainstem inhibition compared to that in the control and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder groups (p <0.006). In a controlled attentional task children with and without enuresis who had attention deficit hyperactivity disorder of the predominantly inattentive subtype were unable to show attentional modulation in all age groups (p <0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Startle eye blink modification research reveals a brainstem inhibition deficit in children with enuresis, which could explain why they are unable to remain dry at night. When additional attention is allocated to specific trials in the task, children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder of the predominantly inattentive subtype fail to optimize sensory gating. With respect to enuresis, this could result in an identification problem of bladder signals, leading to an inadequate or absent arousal effect in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder of the predominantly inattentive subtype.


Intravaginal electrical stimulation: a randomized, double-blind study on the treatment of mixed urinary incontinence.
Amaro JL, Gameiro MO, Kawano PR, Padovani CR
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(5):619-22.

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare effective and sham intravaginal electrical stimulation (IES) in treating mixed urinary incontinence. METHODS: Between January 2001 and February 2002, 40 women were randomly distributed, in a double-blind study, into two groups: group G1 (n=20), effective IES, and group G2 (n = 20), sham IES, with follow up at one month. Different parameters was studied: 1. clinical questionnaire; 2. body mass index; 3. 60-min pad test; 4. urodynamic study. The protocol of IES consisted of three 20-min sessions per week over a seven-week period. The Dualpex Uro 996 used a frequency of 4 Hz. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the demographic data of both groups. The number of micturitions per 24 h after treatment was reduced significantly in both groups. Urge incontinence was reduced to 15% in G1 and 31.5% in G2; there was no significant difference between the groups. In the analog wetness and discomfort sensation evaluations were reduced significantly in both groups. The pretreatment urodynamic study showed no statistical difference in urodynamic parameters between the groups. Ten percent of the women presented involuntary detrusor contractions. In the 60-min pad test, there was a significant reduction in both groups. In regards to satisfaction level, after treatment, 80% of G1 patients and 65% of G2 patients were satisfied. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups. CONCLUSION: Significant improvement was provided by effective and sham electrostimulation, questioning the effectiveness of electrostimulation as a monotherapy.

Abscess of the thigh and psoas muscle after transobturator suburethral sling procedure.
Agostini A, De Lapparent T, Bretelle F, Roger V, Cravello L, Blanc B
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(5):628-9.

Hysterectomy and incontinence: a study from the Swedish national register for gynecological surgery.
Engh MA, Otterlind L, Stjerndahl JH, Lofgren M
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(5):614-8.

BACKGROUND: Hysterectomy is one factor that has been suggested to be a risk factor for developing stress incontinence. In Sweden, with a population of 8.86 million, a national register was set up in 1997 in order to have data for assessing the quality of gynecological surgery for benign disorders. METHODS: Data in the Swedish national register for gynecological surgery during the period 1997-2002 were investigated. Surgical methods compared during this time period were: total hysterectomy (abdominal/laparoscopic, n=198/116), subtotal hysterectomy (abdominal/laparoscopic, n=163/86), and total hysterectomy (vaginal/laparoscopic assisted vaginal, n=265/7). Patients who underwent endometrial destruction (endometrial ablation, endometrial balloon treatment, n=187) were used as a control group. Only patients with no preoperative complaints were included. Outcome measures were answers to subjective questions asked pre- and postoperatively regarding urinary problems and incontinence. RESULTS: De novo symptoms of stress incontinence, urgency and urgency incontinence, and/or mixed incontinence were noted in all groups. No differences were found among the groups. CONCLUSION: Factors other than hysterectomy should be discussed causing stress incontinence in women.

Three-dimensional power Doppler measurement of perfusion of the periurethral tissue in incontinent women -- a preliminary report.
Liang CC, Chang SD, Chang YL, Wei TY, Wu HM, Chao AS
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(5):608-13.

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to test the hypothesis that decreased periurethral vascularization and blood flow might lead to urinary incontinence. Three-dimensional color histogram may better quantify the vasculature than traditional two-dimensional Doppler ultrasound imaging. METHODS: Between June 2002 and July 2003, 57 patients were invited to undergo three-dimensional power color Doppler study of the periurethral vessels before surgery. In group 1, 29 women with stress urinary incontinence underwent tension-free vaginal tape procedures and in group 2, 28 continent women underwent other procedures for treatment of benign gynecologic disease and without urological problems. We used 3 indices of color histogram to quantify the vascularization and blood flow within a tissue block from the bladder neck to the urethral meatus and the periurethral area within 5 mm of the urothelium borders. The values of 3 indices of histogram, vascularization index, flow index and vascularization-flow index, were analyzed. RESULTS: Judging from the values of vascularization index, flow index and vascularization-flow index generated in our study, significantly decreased periurethral vasculature was found in women with stress urinary incontinence and women in the postmenopausal status as compared with women in the continent group and those in the premenopausal status, respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional histogram measurement revealed less periurethral vessels and flow in women suffering from stress urinary incontinence, a finding that might play a role in the pathogenesis of stress urinary incontinence.

Quality of life in relation to TVT procedure for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.
Bakas P, Liapis A, Giner M, Creatsas G
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(6):748-52.

Background. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure as anti-incontinence surgery on patients' urinary symptoms and quality of life. Methods. Ninety-eight patients participated in the study. All patients were operated for urodynamic stress incontinence with the TVT procedure. Patients with prolapse more than first degree according to International Continence Society classification, previous anti-incontinence surgery, detrusor overactivity, or intrinsic sphincter deficiency were excluded from the study. Patients' quality of life assessment was performed with the use of the short form of Incontinence Impact Questionnaire and short form of Urinary Distress Inventory (UDI-6). Results. Mean follow-up time was 12.4 +/-4.2 months (range: 6-18 months). The cure rate for TVT procedure was 87.6%. There was a statistically significant improvement of quality of life postoperatively. In addition, the domains of UDI-6 concerning irritative symptoms and stress urinary incontinence symptoms showed statistically significant improvement postoperatively, while the domain concerning obstructive symptoms did not show statistically significant difference. Conclusions. Tension-free vaginal tape procedure as anti-incontinence surgery significantly improves the quality of life in female patients with urodynamic stress incontinence.

SPARC Sling System for Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence in the Elderly.
Dalpiaz O, Primus G, Schips L
Eur Urol. 2006 Apr 27;.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the safety and efficacy of the suprapubic arch (SPARC) sling procedure for the management of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in elderly women. METHOD: Forty-three women, aged 65-91 yr, underwent the SPARC procedure for urodynamic SUI. Before surgery, a complete medical history was obtained and a urogynecology examination and urodynamic test were performed. The objective cure rate was evaluated by clinical and urodynamic examination at 3, 6, and 12 mo and the subjective cure rate was assessed using a visual analogue score and a global patient impression questionnaire. RESULTS: No severe intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred. No patient referred de novo urge incontinence. Significant differences were found between the preoperative and postoperative number of daytime voidings (p<0.001), the pad weights and numbers of pads used (p<0.001), and the visual analogue score (p=0.021). No significant differences in preoperative and postoperative urodynamic parameters were reported. At the mean follow-up of 36+/-14 mo (range, 12-54 mo), objective and subjective cure rates were 91% and 95%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SPARC procedure is effective and offers a satisfactory cure rate without significant morbidity in elderly women with SUI.

A New Artificial Urinary Sphincter with Conditional Occlusion for Stress Urinary Incontinence: Preliminary Clinical Results.
Knight SL, Susser J, Greenwell T, Mundy AR, Craggs MD
Eur Urol. 2006 May 2;.

OBJECTIVES: To perform a preliminary clinical investigation to determine the safety and efficacy of a novel artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) with conditional occlusion for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence. METHODS: Male patients with urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence after a prostatectomy were implanted with the novel AUS. They were followed up over a period of 12 months and the device tested for efficacy by using objective measurements of urinary leakage and continence. We derived a new measure for continence called the Continence Index. RESULTS: We have demonstrated that the patients receiving the new AUS showed a reduction of greater than 10-fold in mean daily leakage volume from 770.6ml to 55.1ml. There was an overall improvement in the Continence Index from 54% to 97%. CONCLUSIONS: The new AUS with conditional occlusion provides good continence rates and enables adjustment of regulating pressure in situ.

Five-Year Outcomes of the Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Procedure for Treatment of Female Stress Urinary Incontinence.
Doo CK, Hong B, Chung BJ, Kim JY, Jung HC, Lee KS, Choo MS
Eur Urol. 2006 May 2;.

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in a Korean population. METHODS: We included 134 patients (mean age, 52.3+/-9.3 yr) who underwent the TVT procedure for SUI in three institutions and followed for 5 yr (mean, 67.0 mo; range, 60-76 mo) postoperatively. We analysed voiding diaries and complete multichannel urodynamic studies preoperatively as well as cough stress tests, uroflowmetry, and questionnaires postoperatively. RESULTS: The overall 5-yr success rates (cure/improved) were 94.9% (76.9% and 18.0%, respectively), with an 86.6% patient satisfaction rate. Although the success rates between 1 and 5 yr were similar (97.7% vs. 94.9%), the cure rate decreased from 90.1% to 76.9% (p<0.001) at 5 yr. The 5-yr cure rate for mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) was 72.0%, which was not significantly different from pure SUI (78.0%, p>0.05). Maximal flow rate dropped from 25.9+/-10.3ml/s to 20.4+/-8.6ml/s at 1 mo postoperatively and recovered to 24.8+/-8.5ml/s at 5 yr. Complications included bladder perforation in 5 patients (3.7%), tape cutting or release in 11 (8.2%), and persistent suprapubic pain in 3 (2.2%). Urgency and urge incontinence improved in 46.7% and 48.0% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: TVT was an effective and safe procedure for SUI and MUI with high success rates in the long-term follow-up. It also improved concomitant overactive bladder symptoms and initially reduced postoperative urine flow, which recovered over time.

[Trans-obturator-tape (TOT) for the surgical repair of stress urinary incontinence: our experience]
Schanz Pardo J, Ricci Arriola P, Sola Dalenz V, Tacla Fernandez X
Arch Esp Urol. 2006 Apr;59(3):225-32.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the TOT surgical technique in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: Prospective study of 49 patients undergoing TOT at the Gynecology Unit of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department in Barros Luco-Trudeau Hospital between November 2003 and January 2005. The mesh used was polypropylene, macropore, monofilament (Prolene). Median age was 52 years. The observational phase was completed in November 2005. RESULTS: Median operative time was 15 minutes. Thirty-two cases (65%) underwent a second gynecologic surgery. One patient had an intraoperative bladder lesion. In the immediate postoperative period there was one case of lower urinary tract infection and another acute pyelonephritis. At the end of the observation phase 47 (96%) patients were cured, 1 (2%) improved, and 1 (2%) had a failure. The failure appeared after a trauma three months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: The TOT is an effective technique for the correction of SUI. It is easier than TVT. Although rare, it is not free of complications.

Management of urinary incontinence in Medicare managed care beneficiaries: results from the 2004 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey.
Mardon RE, Halim S, Pawlson LG, Haffer SC
Arch Intern Med. 2006 May 22;166(10):1128-33.

BACKGROUND: Despite the high prevalence of urinary incontinence (UI) among older persons and the existence of effective treatments, UI remains underreported by patients and underdiagnosed by clinicians. We measured the occurrence of UI problems in Medicare managed care beneficiaries, frequency of physician-patient communication regarding UI, and frequency of UI treatment. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from the 2004 Medicare Health Outcomes Survey, which measured self-reported UI (accidental leakage of urine) and UI problems in the past 6 months, 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey health measures, discussions of UI with a health care provider, and receipt of UI treatment. RESULTS: The overall incidence of UI within the past 6 months was 37.3%, consistent with previous estimates. Problems with UI were strongly associated with poorer self-reported health. Mean 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey physical and mental health scores were lower by more than 5 points (on a 100-point scale, P<.001) for respondents with major UI problems when controlling for age, sex, race, Hispanic ethnicity, and major comorbidities. These differences were among the largest of any condition measured. Only 55.5% of those with self-reported UI problems reported discussing these problems during their recent visit to a physician or other health care provider. The rate of patient-reported UI treatment was 56.5% and was lower (P<.001) for older individuals (eg, 46.3% for those aged 90-94 years) or those with poor self-reported health status (50.5%). CONCLUSIONS: Among older persons, UI is common, underdiagnosed, and associated with substantial functional impairment. There appears to be considerable opportunity to mitigate the effects of UI on health and quality of life among community-dwelling older persons.

Tension-Free Vaginal Tape versus Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Obturator in Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence.
Liapis A, Bakas P, Giner M, Creatsas G
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006 May 16;62(3):160-164.

Background: To assess the efficacy and complications of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) versus tension-free vaginal tape obturator in women with urodynamic stress incontinence. Methods: Prospective, randomized study. Initially, 91 patients were included in the study and 89 of them were available at 12 months follow-up. Forty-six patients were subjected to classic TVT procedure and 43 to transobturator vaginal tape from inside to outside (TVT-O) operation. There was no significant difference between the groups for age, BMI, menopausal status and prolapse. No patients had cystocele greater than stage I. Subjective and objective cure and improvement rate, mean operative time, hospital stay and complications incidence were assessed. Results: Mean operative time was significant shorter in the TVT-O group (17.4 +/- 6.9 min) compared to the TVT group (26.7 +/- 8.6 min). There was no significant difference in the duration of hospital stay between two groups. The objective cure rate for TVT group was 89%, the improvement rate was 6.5%, the failure rate was 4.3% and the subjective cure rate 73.9%. The objective cure rate for TVT-O group was 90%, the improvement rate was 7.6%, the failure rate was 2.5% and the subjective cure rate 76.7%. The hemoglobin loss ranged between 1.0 +/- 0.5 g/dl for TVT group and 0.9 +/- 0.4 g/dl for TVT-O group. Conclusion: The TVT-O technique presents success rates comparable to the classic TVT method in the short term. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Effectiveness and tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin vs extended-release tolterodine in women with or without prior anticholinergic treatment for overactive bladder.
Anderson RU, Macdiarmid S, Kell S, Barada JH, Serels S, Goldberg RP
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 3;.

The efficacy and the tolerability of extended-release oxybutynin chloride, 10 mg daily, and extended-release tolterodine tartrate, 4 mg daily, in women with or without prior anticholinergic treatment for overactive bladder (OAB) were compared in a post-hoc analysis of data from the Overactive Bladder: Performance of Extended Release Agents (OPERA) trial. The patient population and study methods have been described previously (Diokno et al., for the OPERA Study Group, Mayo Clin Proc 78:687-695, 2003). Among the group with anticholinergic experience, extended-release oxybutynin was significantly more effective than extended-release tolterodine in reducing micturition frequency at last observation (p=0.052). Complete freedom from urge incontinence was reported by significantly more patients taking oxybutynin than tolterodine at last observation (23.6 vs 15.1%, p=0.038). In addition, among patients completing a full 12 weeks of oxybutynin treatment, significantly greater reductions were observed compared with those taking tolterodine on the primary efficacy variable, number of urge incontinence episodes (p=0.049), and the combined total of urge and non-urge episodes (p=0.012), although the differences between treatment groups were not significant at last observation. In the anticholinergic-naive group, efficacy and tolerability outcomes were similar across treatments, except that oxybutynin was associated with a significantly lower frequency of micturition at last observation (p=0.035). No efficacy differences favoring tolterodine were observed, and tolerability of the treatments was comparable. Dry mouth (mostly mild to moderate in severity) was reported significantly more often among participants taking extended-release oxybutynin than extended-release tolterodine (32.2 vs 19.2%, p=0.004), but only among those with previous anticholinergic experience. Discontinuation rates were comparably low across groups. The results demonstrate the appropriateness of initiating treatment for OAB with extended-release oxybutynin, particularly in women presenting with incontinence.

Incisional hernia after a tension-free vaginal tape procedure.
Duggan P, Williams R
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 12;.

A case is presented of an incisional hernia of the inguinal canal presenting 9 months after a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure and anterior vaginal repair. The TVT and repair procedure was complicated by prolonged postoperative urinary retention requiring midline incision of the tape for resumption of normal voiding. The patient had a hysterectomy several years earlier via a Pfannenstiel incision. No other risk factors for hernia were identified. There are no previous reports of TVT-related incisional hernia. We conclude that incisional hernia is a rare complication of the TVT procedure and that the characteristics of the TVT tape may contribute to late occurrence of herniation.

Severe soft tissue infection of the thigh after vaginal erosion of transobturator tape for stress urinary incontinence.
Karsenty G, Boman J, Elzayat E, Lemieux MC, Corcos J
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 24;.

Since the beginning of use of synthetic midurethral slings, several complications, usually benign, have been reported. Recently, three consecutive cases of severe thigh infection secondary to transobturator insertion of a synthetic tape alarmed us. This is a case report about these three cases and a review of literature about complications of transobturator tapes.

Quality of life in women with multiple sclerosis and overactive bladder syndrome.
Quarto G, Autorino R, Gallo A, De Sio M, D'Armiento M, Perdona S, Damiano R
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 May 13;.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of symptoms of overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) on the quality of life (QoL) in female patients with or without multiple sclerosis (MS) and their correlation with findings from urodynamics (UDS). We enrolled 107 female patients with clinically definite MS and urinary symptoms of OAB. One-hundred female patients with similar OAB symptoms were used as a control group. Data on OAB symptoms, onset and progression, and results of any previous investigation were obtained, and any urinary complications were documented. A complete UDS investigation was performed. Health status assessment was obtained using the Kings Health Questionnaire. Results showed that urinary symptoms had a greater impact on the QoL in patients with MS. Nevertheless, the perception of the severity of these symptoms was minor in the MS group compared to the control group. No significant correlations were found between the dysfunctions as detected by UDS and the OAB symptoms in both groups. Recurrent urinary tract infections represented the main complication in the study population. In conclusion, OAB symptoms have a major impact on the QoL in patients with MS, even if their perception of QoL impairment remains limited. Optimal management in these subjects should include a complete UDS assessment.

[Cellular therapy of the urethral sphincter insufficiency]
Yiou R
Prog Urol. 2005 Dec;15(6 Suppl 1):1293.

Delayed urethral erosion after tension-free vaginal tape.
Powers K, Lazarou G, Greston WM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Aug;17(4):422-5. Epub 2006 Apr 26.

Urethral erosions have been reported with various sling materials placed by means of various techniques. The patient often presents in the immediate postoperative period, although late presentations have been described. The diagnosis is made on cystoscopy, and mesh excision with urethral reconstruction is advocated. We present the cases of two patients with urethral erosion after mid-urethral polypropylene sling who presented 3 months after surgery with urethral pain, mid-urethral blockage and symptoms of bladder dysfunction. Urethroscopy revealed the mesh bridging the lumen of the urethra. Trans-vaginal mesh excision and layered urethral reconstruction was curative in both patients.

Vaginal revision of intravesical tension-free vaginal tape 44 h after initial placement: a case report.
Labin LC, Morse AN, Young SB
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 21;.

Unintentional cystotomy is a known complication of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure and is commonly diagnosed intraoperatively. Delayed diagnosis does occur and various reparative techniques have been described, some requiring laparotomy with intentional cystotomy and repair. We report a case where a 46-year-old woman underwent vaginal reconstructive surgery including placement of a tension-free vaginal tape, which was complicated by unilateral cystotomy. A delayed diagnosis of intravesical tape placement was made requiring reoperation. The patient underwent a minimally invasive transvaginal procedure for removal and immediate replacement of the malpositioned arm of the tape. We conclude that a transvaginal approach may be an acceptable technique for revision and replacement of the tension-free vaginal tape where cystotomy is identified within 44 h after the initial procedure. With this technique, a more invasive surgery including laparotomy with cystotomy might successfully be avoided.

Visibility of the polypropylene tape after tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in women with stress urinary incontinence: comparison of introital ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging in vitro and in vivo.
Schuettoff S, Beyersdorff D, Gauruder-Burmester A, Tunn R
Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jun;27(6):687-92.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether introital sonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) insertion can depict the polypropylene tape, and thus be used for patient follow-up. METHODS: The study comprised an experimental part, which investigated in-vitro visualization of the polypropylene tape in a model (phantom), and a clinical part, in which 20 women (mean age, 53.4 years) with clinically and urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence without prolapse were investigated by introital ultrasound and MRI before and 13 months after the TVT procedure. RESULTS: In the phantom, the polypropylene tape was depicted with a low signal intensity by MRI and as a highly echogenic structure by ultrasound. In the clinical study, introital ultrasound in a mediosagittal orientation depicted the vaginal tape in all patients: it was located under either the midurethra (n = 16) or the lower urethra (n = 4), and in either the muscular coat of the urethra (n = 8) or in the urethrovaginal space (n = 12), the tape was either flat (n = 6) or curled up (n = 14), and there was no retropubic visualization of the tape. Overall, depiction by MRI was limited, and was poorer in comparison with ultrasound, especially when the tape had a sub- or paraurethral location. Retropubically, however, MRI identified the tape near the periosteum of the pubic bone (55% of cases), in the retropubic space (37.5% of cases), or near the bladder wall (7.5% of cases). CONCLUSION: Sonography is recommended for evaluation of the suburethral and paraurethral tape portions, while MRI is suitable for retropubic evaluation after the TVT procedure. Copyright (c) 2006 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[REMEEX: A possible treatment option in selected cases of sphincter incompetence]
Campos-fernandes JL, Timsit MO, Paparel P, Devonec M, Leriche B, Leriche A, Ruffion A
Prog Urol. 2006 Apr;16(2):184-91.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the functional results and morbidity of adjustable tension suburethral tape (REMEEX) in the treatment of urinary incontinence due to severe sphincter incompetence (MUCP < 40 cm H2O) in patients presenting a contraindication to artificial sphincter operated between December 2001 and May 2004. Twelve patients (66.7%) had already undergone incontinence surgery. Ten patients (55.5%) had mixed urinary incontinence. The efficacy of the tape was considered to be good when incontinence resolved completely, partial when incontinence was decreased by > 50% and/or PVR > 100 ml. All other cases were considered to be failures. In April 2005, after a mean follow-up of 26.3 months, retrospective evaluation of the functional results was performed by means of a pad-test and a questionnaire comprising an MHU (urinary disability) score and a Ditrovie score. Complications after each intercurrent event were recorded. RESULTS: The initial efficacy of the tape was considered to be good in 13 patients (72.2%) and partial in 4 patients (22.2%) with only one initial failure. Eight patients (44.4%) required secondary adjustment after a mean interval of 5.2 months, with a failure rate of 62.5%. In April 2005, 10 patients (55.5%) had a good result, 2 patients (11.1%) required self-catheterization (partial efficacy) and 6 patients (33.4%) were considered to be failures. In terms of morbidity, we observed 2 bladder injuries (11.1%), 6 superinfections of the device (33.3%), 2 (11.1%) of which required removal of the material. Fifteen patients (83.3%) answered the questionnaire: 6 patients (40%) had an MHU score greater than 3. The mean Ditrovie score was 2.1. 9 patients (60%) had a score less than 2 and 4 patients (26.6%) had a score greater than 3. CONCLUSION: The results of this series, in patients in whom artificial sphincter was contraindicated, are satisfactory at the price of acceptable morbidity. Before defining the place of this device in the range of treatment options for sphincter incompetence, our results must be confirmed by a longer series.

Restoration of posterior aspect of rhabdosphincter shortens continence time after radical retropubic prostatectomy.
Rocco F, Carmignani L, Acquati P, Gadda F, Dell'Orto P, Rocco B, Bozzini G, Gazzano G, Morabito A
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2201-6.

PURPOSE: Prolonged postoperative incontinence is a major drawback of RRP. Age, scars in the rhabdosphincter, nonnerve sparing surgery and postoperative sphincter insufficiency can cause temporary or definitive urinary incontinence. We believe that sphincter deficiency is the main cause of early incontinence. Urinary leakage results from the shortening of anatomical and functional sphincter length due to caudal retraction of the urethral sphincteric complex and disruption of the median posterior fibrous raphe. We describe a modification of the Walsh RRP that overcomes caudal retraction, reconstructs the posterior fibrous raphe and decreases time to continence. The primary study end point was early continence rate assessment. Long-term continence (1 year) and erectile function assessment were secondary end points. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To avoid caudal retraction of the urethrosphincteric complex, before completing the vesicourethral anastomosis the posterior semicircumference of the sphincter is joined to the residuum of Denonvilliers' fascia and fixed to the posterior bladder wall 1 to 2 cm cranial and dorsal to the new bladder neck. Vesicourethral anastomosis is subsequently performed with care taken not to involve the neurovascular bundles. A total of 161 patients with clinically confined disease underwent modified RRP (group 1). They were compared with a historical series of 50 patients who underwent standard RRP (group 2). Early continence was defined as no pad use but patients using 1 diaper were also considered continent. Continence, assessed prospectively as the number of pads daily, was evaluated 3, 30 and 90 days, and 1 year after catheter removal. The continence state was assessed by a multivariate logistic model. Erectile function was evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire preoperatively and after 18 months in patients younger than 65 years who underwent nerve sparing surgery. RESULTS: In group 1, 116 (72%), 127 (78.8%) and 139 patients (86.3%) were continent 3, 30 and 90 days after catheter removal compared with 7 (14%), 15 (30%) and 23 (46%), respectively, in group 2. One-year continence rates were 96% and 90%, respectively. Erectile function was similar in groups 1 and 2 (46% and 42%, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that continence was significantly influenced by operation type, stage and patient age. CONCLUSIONS: Careful reconstruction of the posterior aspect of the rhabdosphincter markedly shortens time to continence.

Botulinum-A toxin injections into the detrusor muscle decrease nerve growth factor bladder tissue levels in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.
Giannantoni A, Di Stasi SM, Nardicchi V, Zucchi A, Macchioni L, Bini V, Goracci G, Porena M
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2341-4.

PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of BTX-A on visceral afferent nerve transmission by measuring bladder tissue NGF levels in patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity before and after intravesical treatment with BTX-A. We also compared the bladder tissue NGF content with clinical and urodynamic data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 23 patients underwent clinical evaluation and urodynamics with detection of the UDC threshold, maximum pressure and maximum cystometric capacity before, and at the 1 and 3-month followups. Endoscopic bladder wall biopsies were also obtained at the same time points. NGF levels were measured in tissue homogenate by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin). RESULTS: At 1 and 3 months mean catheterization and incontinent episodes were significantly decreased (p <0.05 and <0.001, respectively). On urodynamics we detected a significant increase in the UDC threshold and maximum cystometric capacity, and a significant decrease in UDC maximum pressure at the 1 and 3-month follow-ups compared to baseline (each p <0.001). At the same time points we detected a significant decrease in NGF bladder tissue content (each p <0.02). CONCLUSIONS: BTX-A intravesical treatment induces a state of NGF deprivation in bladder tissue that persists at least up to 3 months. As caused by BTX-A, the decrease in acetylcholine release at the presynaptic level may induce a decrease in detrusor contractility and in NGF production by the detrusor muscle. Alternatively BTX-A can decrease the bladder level of neurotransmitters that normally modulate NGF production and release.

Treatment for unsuccessful tension-free vaginal tape operation by shortening pre-implanted tape.
Lo TS, Wang AC, Liang CC, Long CY, Lee SJ
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2196-9; discussion 2199-200.

PURPOSE: We studied the efficacy of shortening the pre-implanted suburethral tape in patients with recurrent urodynamic stress incontinence after a TVT operation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 14 women, including 6 with ISD, were treated for recurrent urodynamic stress incontinence after the initial TVT operation by performing the shortening procedure under local anesthesia. Urodynamics, a 1-hour pad test, introital ultrasonography of the urethra and a cotton swab test were done before the procedure and 1 year postoperatively. RESULTS: All 14 patients completed the shortening procedure. Mean patient age was 47.2 years (range 43 to 66). Mean time between initial TVT and the shortening procedure was 4 months (range 3 to 14). Ten patients (71.4%) were objectively cured and treatment failed in 4 (2 with ISD and 2 with a fixed urethra). Mean operative time was 17 minutes (range 10 to 25). No intraoperative surgical complications were observed. The 1-hour pad test showed a decrease from a median of 9.0 gm to 1.0. Median postoperative hospital stay was 1 day (range 1 to 4). Spontaneous voiding with adequate post-void residual urine was noted in all patients before discharge home. CONCLUSIONS: Shortening a pre-implanted TVT tape for the treatment of recurrent urodynamic stress incontinence is a safe, effective and minimally invasive option requiring only a short hospital stay. However, ISD and an immobile urethra seem to be risk factors for failure. Long-term followup is needed to determine if this surgery achieves long-lasting results.

Inside out transobturator vaginal tape for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: interim results of a prospective study after a 1-year minimum followup.
Waltregny D, Reul O, Mathantu B, Gaspar Y, Bonnet P, de Leval J
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2191-5.

PURPOSE: We analyzed the results of a prospective, observational trial designed to assess the safety and efficacy of the TVT-O procedure for female SUI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative evaluations included physical examination, and urinary symptom and quality of life scale questionnaires. RESULTS: Between March 2003 and December 2004, 253 patients with clinical and urodynamic diagnoses of SUI who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in the trial and underwent the TVT-O procedure. No significant intraoperative complications were observed. One-year minimum followup was available on 99 of the initial 102 patients, of whom 16 had undergone concomitant pelvic organ prolapse surgical treatment. The SUI complete cure rate was 91%. No patient had vaginal or urethral erosion. Four patients required tape release or section. Frequency and urge symptoms improved after the operation (p <0.001). The severity of obstructive symptoms slightly increased postoperatively in the group of patients who did not undergo associated pelvic organ prolapse treatment (p <0.05), while maximum flow rates somewhat decreased (p <0.001) and post-void residual urine volumes somewhat increased (p <0.005). Most patients reported a significant decrease in incontinence severity and improvement in quality of life (p <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study, which suggest that the TVT-O procedure is a safe and efficient surgical treatment for female SUI, warrant further comparative evaluation of this procedure with retropubic and outside in transobturator approaches in appropriately designed, prospective, randomized trials.

Outcomes following erosions of the artificial urinary sphincter.
Raj GV, Peterson AC, Webster GD
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2186-90; discussion 2190.

PURPOSE: Artificial urinary sphincter urethral cuff erosion occurs in up to 5.0% of cases, presenting a complex management problem. We examine our experience with the eroded AUS, relating to preoperative risk factors, operative management and outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 637 patients undergoing bulbar urethral AUS implantation from 1990 to 2003 for demographic and surgical variables. RESULTS: Of the 637 records reviewed, 46 patients underwent 54 explantations of the AUS device for erosions, including 13 who had the primary implant performed at our institution and 33 being referred for management of erosion after implantation elsewhere. Our institution erosion rate was 2.2%. Mean followup after AUS reimplant following erosion was 27.8 months (range 1 to 180). Comorbidities were more prevalent in patients with erosions included hypertension (p = 0.006), coronary artery disease (p = 0.03), prior radiation therapy (p = 0.006) and prior AUS revisions (p = 0.0001). A majority of patients had persistent mild incontinence (0 to 1 pad daily in 29 or 56.8%), moderate (1 to 3 pads daily in 9 or 17.4%) and severe (more than 3 pads daily in 6 or 11.8%) incontinence after secondary AUS implantation. Patients who underwent reimplantation after AUS cuff erosions have a significantly higher rate of second erosions (in 16, 34.8%) within an average of 6.7 months (range 3 to 24), including our own 11.8% institutional rate (in 4). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that patients with comorbidities including hypertension, coronary artery disease, prior radiation therapy and prior AUS revisions are more likely to have erosions of their AUS. Nevertheless, continence can still be salvaged using various strategies which optimize use of the remaining healthy urethral tissue.

Failure of sacral nerve stimulation due to migration of tined lead.
Deng DY, Gulati M, Rutman M, Raz S, Rodriguez LV
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2182-5.

PURPOSE: Stimulation of the sacral nerves is a commonly used treatment for frequency, urgency, urge incontinence, retention and other types of voiding dysfunction. Minimally invasive placement of a percutaneous permanent quadripolar tined lead into the sacral foramen has been described. No lead migration has been reported. We report on our experience with lead migration and the subsequent failure of InterStim in a large cohort of patients with a focus on possible diagnostic and salvage techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between February 2002 and April 2005 tined lead electrodes were implanted in the S3 foramen in 235 patients using the InterStim system. Patients with a good response during the testing phase (greater than 50% improvement) underwent placement of an implantable pulse generator. Position was confirmed by radiographic evaluation intraoperatively. Sacral radiographs were obtained at the first postoperative visit, after IPG placement and whenever there was a change in symptomatic response. RESULTS: There were 5 patients (2.1%) in whom treatment failed after a successful trial of stimulation due to lead migration. This was seen as early as 3 weeks and as late as 8 months. Migration of the lead occurred between first and second stage implantation in 1 of the 5 cases, and occurred after the second stage in 4 of 5. Anterior migration was noted in 4 patients and posterior migration was noted in 1. CONCLUSIONS: Lead migration after placement of the tined lead can occur and thus sacral radiographs should be routinely used. This complication can be easily resolved without significant morbidity to the patient.

Predictors of success for first stage neuromodulation: motor versus sensory response.
Cohen BL, Tunuguntla HS, Gousse A
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2178-80; discussion 2180-1.

PURPOSE: We investigated whether intraoperative motor or sensory response is more predictive of successful sacral neuromodulation using the InterStim system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 35 patients with medically refractory frequency, urgency and urge incontinence were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent lead placement for quadripolar test stimulation under local anesthesia with intravenous sedation. Confirmation of correct lead placement was by observation of known motor and sensory responses that result from third sacral nerve stimulation. Motor and sensory responses were documented intraoperatively. Patients had a 1-week trial of stimulation, and those who had greater than 50% improvement in symptoms had placement of the implantable pulse generator. Those without at least 50% improvement in their symptoms had the quadripolar lead removed. RESULTS: Of the 35 patients enrolled 21 had successful quadripolar test stimulation and went on to permanent implantable pulse generator placement. Of the patients who had successful quadripolar test stimulation 95% demonstrated positive intraoperative motor response whereas only 21.4% of patients with unsuccessful quadripolar test stimulation demonstrated positive motor response. If only a positive sensory response was elicited, patients had only a 4.7% chance of having a positive quadripolar test stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: A positive quadripolar test stimulation (greater than 50% improvement in symptoms) with InterStim sacral neuromodulation is more likely when intraoperative lead placement results in positive motor response vs only sensory response.

Vaginal mesh extrusion associated with use of mentor transobturator sling.
Morey AF
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2164-5.

Complications of transvaginal silicone-coated polyester synthetic mesh sling.
Morey AF
J Urol. 2006 Jun;175(6):2164-5.

Experience with 100 cases treated with botulinum-a toxin injections in the detrusor muscle for idiopathic overactive bladder syndrome refractory to anticholinergics.
Schmid DM, Sauermann P, Werner M, Schuessler B, Blick N, Muentener M, Strebel RT, Perucchini D, Scheiner D, Schaer G, John H, Reitz A, Hauri D, Schurch B
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):177-85.

PURPOSE: In this prospective, nonrandomized, ongoing study we evaluated the efficacy and safety of botulinum-A toxin injections in the detrusor muscle to treat patients with idiopathic overactive bladder resistant to conventional treatment, such as anticholinergic drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 23 men and 77 women with a mean age of 63 years (range 24 to 89) with nonneurogenic overactive bladder, including urgency-frequency syndrome, and incontinence despite the administration of maximal doses of anticholinergics were consecutively treated with injections of 100 U botulinum-A toxin in the detrusor muscle at 30 sites under cystoscopic guidance. Micturition diary, full urodynamics, neurological status and urine probes were performed in all participants before treatment. Bladder biopsies were done only in cases of suspected bladder fibrosis or unclear findings. Special attention was given to reflex volume, maximal bladder capacity, detrusor compliance, post-void residual urine, urgency and frequency/nocturia. Clinical, urodynamic and quality of life assessments were performed at baseline, and 4, 12 and 36 weeks after botulinum-A toxin treatment. RESULTS: Overall after 4 and 12 weeks 88% of our patients showed significant improvement in bladder function in regard to subjective symptoms, quality of life and urodynamic parameters (p <0.001). Urgency disappeared in 82% of the patients and incontinence resolved in 86% within 1 to 2 weeks after botulinum-A toxin injections. Mean frequency decreased from 14 to 7 micturitions daily (-50%) and nocturia decreased from 4 to 1.5 micturitions. Mean maximal bladder capacity increased 56% from 246 to 381 ml, mean detrusor compliance increased from 24 to 41 ml/cm H(2)O and pretreatment detrusor instability (mean reflex volume 169 ml) resolved in 74% of patients. Mean volume at first desire to void increased from 126 to 212 ml and mean urge volume increased from 214 to 309 ml. There were no severe side effects except temporary urine retention in 4 cases. Only in 8 patients was the clinical benefit poor and analysis revealed preoperative low detrusor compliance. Mean efficacy duration +/- SD was at least approximately 6 +/- 2 months and then symptoms began to increase. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that intradetrusor botulinum-A toxin injections may be an efficient and safe treatment option in patients with severe overactive bladder resistant to all conventional treatments.

Nerve sparing open radical retropubic prostatectomy-does it have an impact on urinary continence?
Burkhard FC, Kessler TM, Fleischmann A, Thalmann GN, Schumacher M, Studer UE
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):189-95.

PURPOSE: We prospectively assessed the role of nerve sparing surgery on urinary continence after open radical retropubic prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated a consecutive series of 536 patients who underwent open radical retropubic prostatectomy with attempted bilateral, unilateral or no nerve sparing, as defined by the surgeon, without prior radiotherapy at a minimum followup of 1 year with documented assessment of urinary continence status. Because outlet obstruction may influence continence rates, its incidence and management was also evaluated. RESULTS: One year after surgery 505 of 536 patients (94.2%) were continent, 27 (5%) had grade I stress incontinence and 4 (0.8%) had grade II stress incontinence. Incontinence was found in 1 of 75 (1.3%), 11 of 322 (3.4%) and 19 of 139 patients (13.7%) with attempted bilateral, attempted unilateral and without attempted nerve sparing, respectively. The proportional differences were highly significant, favoring a nerve sparing technique (p <0.0001). On multiple logistic regression analysis attempted nerve sparing was the only statistically significant factor influencing urinary continence after open radical retropubic prostatectomy (OR 4.77, 95% CI 2.18 to 10.44, p = 0.0001). Outlet obstruction at the anastomotic site in 33 of the 536 men (6.2%) developed at a median of 8 weeks (IQR 4 to 12) and was managed by dilation or an endoscopic procedure. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of incontinence after open radical retropubic prostatectomy is low and continence is highly associated with a nerve sparing technique. Therefore, nerve sparing should be attempted in all patients if the principles of oncological surgery are not compromised.

Prediction of medicare drug formulary drugs for treatment of overactive bladder.
Grocela JA, Kanji A, Ternullo J
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):252-6.

PURPOSE: With the establishment and signing into law the Medicare and Prescription Drug Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003, also known as Medicare Part D, medical costs are expected to soar. In fact, the program is expected to cost more than a trillion dollars through 2015. Establishment of the Medicare Part D drug formulary will allow cost containment but still absorb patient and physician preferences as well as a consideration of efficacy and safety data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Potential Medicare formulary choices were examined in the anticholinergic class, as commonly used by urologists, and small in number of available drugs. Formulary selection parties and issues were individually analyzed, including the government in respect to cost containment, patients in relation to efficacy and cost, physicians in relation to preferences and influence and drug companies in relation to lobbying power, country of base of operations and market shares. Costs to Medicare and patients were calculated using discount Internet sites for pricing and simulated using Medicare Part D benefits. RESULTS: Generic oxybutynin is likely to be included because it is the least expensive to patients and Medicare, but it has the lowest efficacy. Detrol(R) LA is likely to be the long acting choice due to efficacy, cost and manufacture by a United States based company. CONCLUSIONS: A simulation of cost analysis of anticholinergics for treatment of overactive bladder would help urologists better understand the Medicare formulary selection process.

Increasing costs of urinary incontinence among female medicare beneficiaries.
Anger JT, Saigal CS, Madison R, Joyce G, Litwin MS
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):247-51.

PURPOSE: We measured the financial burden of urinary incontinence in the United States from 1992 to 1998 among women 65 years old or older. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed Medicare claims for 1992, 1995 and 1998 and estimated spending on the treatment of urinary incontinence. Total costs were stratified by type of service (inpatient, outpatient and emergency department). RESULTS: Costs of urinary incontinence among older women nearly doubled between 1992 and 1998 in nominal dollars, from $128 million to $234 million, primarily due to increases in physician office visits and ambulatory surgery. The cost of inpatient services increased only slightly during the period. The increase in total spending was due almost exclusively to the increase in the number of women treated for incontinence. After adjusting for inflation, per capita treatment costs decreased about 15% during the study. CONCLUSIONS: This shift from inpatient to outpatient care likely reflects the general shift of surgical procedures to the outpatient setting, as well as the advent of new minimally invasive incontinence procedures. In addition, increased awareness of incontinence and the marketing of new drugs for its treatment, specifically anticholinergic medication for overactive bladder symptoms, may have increased the number of office visits. While claims based Medicare expenditures are substantial, they do not include the costs of pads or medications and, therefore, underestimate the true financial burden of incontinence on the aging community.

Re: Autologous Fascial Sling vs Polypropylene Tape at Short-Term Followup: A Prospective Randomized Study B. S. Wadie, A. Edwan and A. M. Nabeeh J Urol, 174: 990-993, 2005.
Goldman HB
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):411-2.

Is it Reasonable to Treat Refractory Voiding Dysfunction in Children With Botulinum-A Toxin?
Radojicic ZI, Perovic SV, Milic NM
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):332-336.

PURPOSE: We present our results with botulinum-A toxin transperineal pelvic floor/external sphincter injection combined with behavioral and biofeedback reeducation in children with voiding dysfunction who had been resistant to previously applied therapies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight boys and 12 girls between 7 and 12 years old (mean age 9) with recurrent urinary tract infection, an interrupted or fractional voiding pattern and high post-void residual urine in whom behavioral, short biofeedback and alpha-blocker therapies had failed were included in the study. They were treated with botulinum-A toxin at a dose of 50 to 100 U. Botulinum-A toxin was injected transperineally into the pelvic floor and/or external sphincter in all patients. In boys the sphincter was localized endoscopically before injection (endoscopically assisted transperineal approach). Behavioral and biofeedback reeducation started 15 days after injection. RESULTS: Followup was between 9 and 14 months. All patients were without urinary tract infection and fever, while 5 were still on chemoprophylaxis. Six months after treatment residual urine decreased in 17 of 20 patients by 0 to 130 ml (mean +/- SD 45.75 +/- 32.17 ml, t = 6.360, p <0.001). Nine patients reestablished a normal voiding curve and 8 showed improvement. Three did not manifest any significant improvement. In 1 girl transitory incontinence resolved spontaneously within 48 hours. There were no other complications. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of botulinum is transitory. However, it can break the circle of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia and the period when it is sustained can be used for retraining the patient in normal voiding. At this moment botulinum-A toxin is one of last options in refractory cases of voiding dysfunction.

The effect of botulinum-a toxin in incontinent children with therapy resistant overactive detrusor.
Hoebeke P, De Caestecker K, Vande Walle J, Dehoorne J, Raes A, Verleyen P, Van Laecke E
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):328-31.

PURPOSE: We determined the effect of detrusor injection of botulinum-A toxin in a cohort of children with therapy resistant nonneurogenic detrusor overactivity. This prospective study included therapy resistant children with overactive bladder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the study period of 19 months 10 boys and 11 girls were included. All patients showed decreased bladder capacity for age, urge and urge incontinence. Main treatment duration before inclusion was 45 months. A dose of 100 U botulinum-A toxin (Botox(R)) was injected in the detrusor. RESULTS: Side effects were evaluated in all 21 included patients. The side effects reported were 10-day temporary urinary retention in 1 girl and signs of vesicoureteral reflux with flank pain during voiding in 1 boy, which disappeared spontaneously after 2 weeks. No further examinations were done since the boy refused. Two girls experienced 1 episode each of symptomatic lower urinary tract infection. Eight girls and 7 boys with a minimum followup of 6 months represent the study group for long-term evaluation. In this study group after 1 injection 9 patients showed full response (no more urge and dry during the day) with a mean increase in bladder capacity from 167 to 271 ml (p <0.001). Three patients showed a partial response (50% decrease in urge and incontinence) and 3 remained unchanged. Eight of the 9 full responders were still cured after 12 months, while 1 of the initially successfully treated patients had relapse after 8 months. The 3 partial responders and the patient with relapse underwent a second injection with a full response in the former full responder and in 1 partial responder. CONCLUSIONS: Botulinum-A toxin injection in children with nonneurogenic overactive detrusor is an excellent treatment adjunct, leading to long-term results in 70% after 1 injection.

The daytime alarm: a useful device for the treatment of children with daytime incontinence.
Van Laecke E, Wille S, Vande Walle J, Raes A, Renson C, Peeren F, Hoebeke P
J Urol. 2006 Jul;176(1):325-7.

PURPOSE: We present the results of the use of a daytime wetting alarm as treatment for therapy resistant daytime wetting in children with an overactive detrusor. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a retrospective study we reviewed the files of 63 children treated with a daytime alarm because of persistent daytime wetting. Results were considered a complete success when the children were completely dry after treatment, a partial success when there was greater than 50% improvement in daytime wetting and a failure when no change was observed in daytime symptoms. RESULTS: During a study period of 25 months 63 children were treated with a daytime alarm at the department of pediatric urology. The mean treatment period was 14 days. At a followup of 12 months treatment failed in 20 children (32%), 21 (33%) had partial success and 22 (35%) were successfully treated. CONCLUSIONS: In children with therapy resistant daytime wetting and an overactive detrusor the daytime alarm may be a useful treatment tool. Complete cure of daytime incontinence can be attained in 35% of patients, almost a third have improvement in their complaints and training fails in a third.

Effect of Childhood Dysfunctional Voiding on Urinary Incontinence in Adult Women.
Minassian VA, Lovatsis D, Pascali D, Alarab M, Drutz HP
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jun;107(6):1247-1251.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a history of childhood dysfunctional voiding is associated with urinary incontinence in adulthood. METHODS: Using a case-control study, we surveyed patients presenting with or without urinary incontinence. Cases were patients referred to a tertiary urogynecology clinic, and controls were patients referred to a general gynecology clinic. Patients completed a validated childhood questionnaire about dysfunctional voiding. A total score of 6 or more in girls is indicative of dysfunctional voiding, a condition characterized by urgency, frequency, constipation, urinary or fecal incontinence, and/or urinary tract infections. Using an alpha of 0.05, a power of 80%, and a baseline prevalence of dysfunctional voiding of 8%, we determined that 170 patients were needed to show a 3-fold difference between groups. RESULTS: Cases (n = 84) and controls (n = 86) had similar baseline characteristics except for body mass index and incidence of previous pelvic surgery. Although the total dysfunctional voiding score was higher in cases than controls (7.3 versus 5.0, respectively; P = .001), the difference in the number (%) of patients with history of childhood dysfunctional voiding between the 2 groups was not significant (47 [56%] versus 36 [42%], respectively; odds ratio 1.76, 95% confidence interval 0.96-3.24; P = .07). When all patients from both groups were combined, there was a higher prevalence of a history of childhood dysfunctional voiding in women with or without current urinary frequency (P = .004), urgency (P = .03), stress incontinence (P = .01), and urge incontinence (P = .009). CONCLUSION: Women with adult lower urinary tract symptoms may have a higher prevalence of history of childhood dysfunctional voiding. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-2.

Prospective study evaluating efficacy and safety of Adjustable Continence Therapy (ProACT) for post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence.
Trigo-Rocha F, Gomes CM, Pompeo AC, Lucon AM, Arap S
Urology. 2006 May;67(5):965-9.

OBJECTIVES: To examine a new prosthesis, the Adjustable Continence Therapy (ProACT), to determine its ability to treat effectively post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence. Urinary incontinence is one of the most significant complications of radical prostatectomy. Although the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) is considered the standard treatment for this condition, many men seek a simpler and less expensive treatment option. METHODS: From November 2000 to March 2004, 25 patients with severe post radical prostatectomy urinary incontinence were treated using the ProACT device. The preoperative evaluation included pad count, Valsalva leak point pressure determination, and Incontinence Quality-of-Life scores. In the follow-up, the same parameters, as well as complications, were analyzed and compared with the baseline measurements to assess the efficacy. RESULTS: The follow-up period was 6 to 48 months (mean 22.4). Of the 25 patients, 23 had follow-up data available for analysis. The improvements in pad count, Incontinence Quality-of-Life score, and Valsalva leak point pressures from baseline to the last follow-up examination were all significant (P <0.05). Overall, of the 23 patients followed up, 15 (65.2%) were continent using 0 to 1 pad daily and satisfied, 3 (13%) were improved but unsatisfied, and 5 (22%) did not have any improvement. Balloon adjustments were performed in all patents to achieve continence. Revision surgery was required in 4 (17%) of 23 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The use of ProACT represents a safe and effective treatment for post radical prostatectomy incontinence with a good degree of patient satisfaction and a low complication rate. Postoperative adjustments were necessary in most patients and were undertaken as a simple outpatient visit.

Frequency of wetting is predictive of response to anticholinergic treatment in children with overactive bladder.
Van Arendonk KJ, Austin JC, Boyt MA, Cooper CS
Urology. 2006 May;67(5):1049-53; discussion 1053-4.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the variables relative to the response of oxybutynin treatment in children with daytime urinary incontinence. METHODS: The records of patients seen for voiding problems between 1999 and 2003 were reviewed. Patients taking oxybutynin for 3 months or longer were included in the study. Patients with structural or neurologic bladder abnormalities and those taking oxybutynin at the initial visit were excluded. Age, sex, uroflowmetry findings, postvoid residual urine volume, duration and severity of symptoms before oxybutynin, urinary tract infection history, constipation, and the duration, dosage, and adverse effects of oxybutynin treatment were evaluated. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test for categorical variables, the two-sample t test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuous and ordinal variables, and the linear mixed model analysis for uroflow data. RESULTS: Eighty-one patients met the inclusion criteria. After an average follow-up of 1.2 years, 31 (38.3%) were dry, 25 (30.9%) had experienced significant improvement, 19 (23.5%) had experienced slight improvement, and 6 (7.4%) were unchanged. No significant differences were detected between those who became dry and those with little to no improvement with respect to age, sex, duration of symptoms, follow-up, uroflow pattern, postvoid residual urine volume, or bladder capacity. Those children presenting with decreased frequency of wetting episodes were significantly more likely to obtain daytime continence. The most common side effects were constipation (18.5%), dry mouth (17.3%), and flushing (13.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Children with daytime incontinence presenting with the lowest frequency of wetting were most likely to achieve continence. The frequency of wetting should be considered a significant prognostic variable when assessing the results of therapeutic intervention trials.

Lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary incontinence, sexual function and quality of life after radical prostatectomy and external beam radiation therapy: real life experience in Austria.
Ponholzer A, Brossner C, Struhal G, Marszalek M, Madersbacher S
World J Urol. 2006 Apr 11;.

The objective of this study was to assess lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), urinary incontinence (UI), erectile dysfunction (ED) and quality of life after radical prostatectomy (RPE) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) in a "real-life" setting. A consecutive series of patients undergoing routine follow-up after RPE and EBRT at 28 Austrian institutions were analyzed. Men who received adjuvant therapy were excluded. All patients completed a questionnaire on (a) LUTS and UI, (b) sexual function and (c) quality of life. A total of 364 patients following RPE and 82 after EBRT entered this study and were compared in a matched pair analysis (1:1) based on age, PSA at diagnosis and follow-up (RPE: n=82; EBRT: n=82). Mean time-interval between treatment and current investigation was 4.6 years for RPE and 4.4 years for EBRT (n.s.). UI was reported by 41.3% after RPE and 18.8% after EBRT (P=0.001). Urgency was more frequent after EBRT, this difference, however, did not reach statistical significance. Moderate to severe ED (IIEF-5, <17) was present in 80.0% after RPE and in 80.8% after EBRT (n.s.). On a ten-point scale, RPE-patients rated their quality of life higher (7.3) than after EBRT (6.7) (P=0.01). In this "real-life" setting, RPE and EBRT had significant, yet divergent effects on LUTS, UI and sexual function. The respective numbers were substantially higher than those usually reported by physician-directed studies and centers of excellence.

Minimal clinically important differences in incontinence quality-of-life scores in stress urinary incontinence.
Yalcin I, Patrick DL, Summers K, Kinchen K, Bump RC
Urology. 2006 May 31;.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinically relevant reference points for the Incontinence Quality of Life (I-QOL) questionnaire scores in women with stress urinary incontinence and compare them with the treatment effects observed with duloxetine and placebo. METHODS: Using data from 1133 women with predominant stress urinary incontinence in two randomized, placebo-controlled duloxetine studies, the within-treatment and between-treatment minimal clinically important differences (MCIDs) were obtained by anchoring the I-QOL scores to the validated Patient Global Impression of Improvement scale (PGI-I). The within-treatment MCID (mean I-QOL for women rating their condition "a little better" with treatment) and between-treatment MCID (difference in scores between the group ratings of "no change" and "a little better") were derived. The treatment effects were compared with these MCIDs. Real-time urinary diaries were completed, along with the I-QOL and PGI-I. RESULTS: The within-treatment and between-treatment MCID for the I-QOL total score was 6.3 and 2.5, respectively. The total and subscale scores had almost identical MCIDs. Duloxetine 80 mg significantly improved the I-QOL total and subscale scores. Treatment differences in the I-QOL scores exceeded the between-treatment MCID and the duloxetine I-QOL treatment effect exceeded the within-treatment MCID. The number of patients needed to treat to gain an additional I-QOL responder was 6.8. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in I-QOL scores should be greater than the within-treatment MCID, and differences between two treatments should be greater than the between-treatment MCIDs, for statistically significant differences to be considered clinically meaningful. We propose 2.5 points as a reasonable guide for the I-QOL between-treatment MCID and 6.3 points for the within-treatment MCID.


Changes in the MRI morphology of the stress continence control system after TVT (tension-free vaginal tape) insertion.
Tunn R, Schuettoff SA, Gauruder-Burmester A, Beyersdorff D
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 May 4;.

OBJECTIVE: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to investigate whether tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) insertion (according to Ulmsten) leads to morphologic changes of the stress continence control system. METHODS: Twenty women (mean age 53.4 years) with clinically and urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence without prolapse were examined by MRI before and 13 months after TVT insertion. RESULTS: Postoperative MRI showed a signal intensity loss of the suburethral portion of the endopelvic fascia in the area of the anterior vaginal wall in 9/20 women with additional signal loss of the paraurethral portion of the fascia in 3/20 women. No morphologic changes of the levator ani muscle and the urethra were seen postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: TVT insertion does not damage the structures of the stress continence control system or impact on their topographic relationships. MRI identified no excessive scar formation resulting from integration of the TVT.

TVT and TVT-Obturator: Comparison of two operative procedures.
Neuman M
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2006 Apr 16;.

AIM: To compare two anti-incontinence operations: the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) and the TVT-Obturator for the first two 75-patient groups. METHODS: One surgeon operated on two patient groups with urodynamically proven urinary stress incontinence. The first 75-patient group in 1998 included the first TVT procedures performed according to Ulmsten [Ulmsten U, Henriksson L, Johnson P, Varhos G. An ambulatory surgical procedure under local anesthesia for treatment of female urinary incontinence. Int Urogynecol J 1996;7:81-6]. Follow-up lasted for 5-6 years. The second 75-patient group in 2004 included the first TVT-Obturator operations performed according to [De Leval J. Novel surgical technique for the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence: transobturator vaginal tape inside-out. Eur. Urol. 2003;44:724-30]. Follow-up lasted for 6-13 months. RESULTS: The two patient groups were similar from the demographic and therapeutic points of view. The TVT-Obturator procedure required neither bladder catheterization nor intra-operative diagnostic cystoscopy. TVT-related bladder penetration (8.0%), post-operative voiding difficulties (5.0%), intra-operative bleeding (4.0%), post-operative field infection (2.7%), and post-operative pelvic floor relaxation (1.3%) were not noted with the TVT-Obturator. The early therapeutic failure rates were 2.7% for the TVT and 1.3% for the TVT-Obturator, and neither bowel nor urethral injuries were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: The surgeons' learning curves of these two minimally invasive surgical procedures for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence are comparable. The safety and cost-effectiveness of the TVT are well-established. The TVT-Obturator, a novel mid-urethral sling, was designed to overcome some of the TVT-related operative complications. The TVT-Obturator patients seem to have less intra-operative and post-operative surgical complications than the TVT patients. However, long-term comparative data collection is required prior to drawing solid conclusions concerning the superiority of one of these two operative techniques.

[Spanish registry of the TRT Reemex system in women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI)]
Moreno Sierra J, Marques Queimadelos A, Arano Beltran P, De La Fuente Perez P, Cerezuela Requena JF, Cortes Otero E, Amat Tardiu L, Sousa Escandon A, Ruiz Caballero J, Gambini Ricapa J, Urgell Morera S, Santisteban J, Valls Porcel M, Arnaiz Esteban F, Cam
Arch Esp Urol. 2006 Mar;59(2):169-74.

OBJECTIVES: Due to the absence of randomized studies, the Spanish Reemex Working Group started a registry to analyze and review the results of a large group of patients with mid-term and long-term follow-up to obtain conclusions based on clinical experience. METHODS: A registry of 715 patients who underwent surgical intervention for insertion of the SUI readjustable prosthesis Reemex TRT (tension free readjustable tape) in 15 Spanish hospitals (40% urology departments, 60% gynecology departments). The registry was established to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the sling adjustability concept in the surgical treatment of female SUI. The Spanish Working Group was able to evaluate results of the Reemex system in 683 patients of a total of 715. Mean age was 59.9 yr (range 21-87) with a mean follow-up of 23 months (6-93). The group includes: 30.2% patients with mixed incontinence, 73.1% patients with urodynamic intrinsic sphincteric deficit, 35.7% patients with previous history of failed surgical interventions for urinary incontinence, and 54.3% previous pelvic floor associated operations. All patients were evaluated preoperatively with history, physical examination and urinary incontinence questionnaire. Each follow-up visit included incontinence questionnaire, physical examination and stress test. RESULTS: Cure rate was 92.2%, with 6.9% improvement and 0.9% failures. Readjustment was performed in 416 patients (60.9%) as a second phase of surgery over the following 24-48 hours, before hospital discharge. 80 patients (11.7%) were readjusted in the mid- or long-term (between 6 and 8 months after surgery). The level of support of the sling was successfully reduced in three patients between 6 and 14 months after surgery. No other patient suffered voiding difficulties in the long-term. 1.7% of the patients needed extraction of the tensor due to persistent abdominal wall seroma. 0.8% presented vaginal extrusion of the sling. CONCLUSIONS: The Reemex system is a minimally invasive technique with consistent results and even improved in heterogeneous groups of patients including intrinsic sphincter defficiency, reoperations, mixed incontinence and associated pathologies.

Long-term results of the tension-free vaginal tape operation in an unselected group of 129 stress incontinent women.
Kuuva N, Nilsson CG
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(4):482-7.

BACKGROUND: This study was undertaken to examine the long-term effects and effectiveness of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in an unselected group of women. METHOD: One hundred and twenty-nine stress urinary incontinent women (including primary, recurrent, mixed, and low pressure urethra cases) were studied prospectively and examined according to a strict protocol at a mean time of 6 years after their TVT operation. Cough and pad tests were used for objective evaluation, whereas visual analog scale and patients' verbal estimation were applied for subjective evaluation. RESULTS: As assessed by the cough stress test and the pad test, 74 and 81% of the women were totally cured, respectively. Symptoms possibly indicating reduced urine flow were reported from 17% of the women and recurrent urinary tract infections from 9.3% of the women. The de novo urge rate was 4.7%. The tape was visualized in 3.1% of the women and necessitated resection in 1.6% of the cases due to subjective discomfort. No serious or unexpected adverse events were revealed. CONCLUSION: The TVT operation appears to be a safe and effective anti-incontinence procedure in all female stress incontinence subgroups.

Influence of the Severity of Stress Urinary Incontinence on Quality of Life, Health Care Seeking, and Treatment: A National Cross-Sectional Survey.
Gasquet I, Tcherny-Lessenot S, Gaudebout P, Goux BB, Klein P, Haab F
Eur Urol. 2006 May 3;.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) symptoms in women and to evaluate the severity of these symptoms and resulting functional impairment with regard to urinary symptoms, quality of life (QoL) impairment, medical care seeking, and care facilities. METHODS: A national population based, cross-sectional study in France was conducted through an anonymous questionnaire that was completed by telephone. A randomized sample was extracted from the French telephone directory, December 2002 to March 2003. The main outcome measures were symptom severity, functional impairment, non SUI-related urinary symptoms, Contilife((c)) QoL scale, medical care seeking, and treatment. In total, 6,675 women aged 18-70 were selected and 5,160 questionnaires were completed and analyzed. RESULTS: The point-prevalence of SUI symptoms was 19.5% (1.1% for individuals with severe symptoms; 2.8% for those with severe functional impairment). Symptom severity and functional impairment were associated with older age, longer duration of symptoms, higher frequency of comorbid urinary symptoms, and altered QoL (all p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: SUI symptoms are frequent in French women, causing embarrassment and negatively affecting their QoL. Though some could benefit from an effective therapy, only the most severely affected women who report SUI symptoms seek help and receive treatment.

Measurement of Tension-Free Vaginal Tape Trocar Insertion and Exit Forces.
Yip SK, Pang MW, Sahota DS
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006 Apr 11;62(1):55-60.

Background/Aims: This study aims to establish a model to measure the forces required for tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) trocar application using a pressure transducer. Methods: A 3.5 x 3.5 cm pressure transducer was constructed from piezo-resistive material. The transducer digitally recorded the surface contact pressure (pressure = force/area) profile continuously during TVT trocar application. Recordings were successfully obtained from 24 subjects. Results: The mean (standard error) peak contact pressures during application at the right and left side vaginal walls, and right and left side abdominal walls were 1.05 (0.12) pounds per square inch (psi), 1.08 (0.21) psi, 2.49 (0.3) psi and 2.49 (0.3) psi, respectively. On both the right and left side, pair-wise comparisons between trocar insertion and exit forces were significantly different (p < 0.001). Conclusion: A model has been developed by which TVT trocar application forces can be objectively measured. The TVT trocar exit force is substantially greater than the insertion force, regardless of side. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Reductions in overactive bladder-related incontinence from pooled analysis of phase III trials evaluating treatment with solifenacin.
Cardozo L, Castro-Diaz D, Gittelman M, Ridder A, Huang M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 20;.

The embarrassment and social stigma associated with urinary incontinence (UI) in overactive bladder syndrome (OAB) sufferers is a major reason for individuals to seek help for their condition. An analysis of 1,873 subjects with OAB with UI was conducted to assess the efficacy of solifenacin in reducing incontinence in a pooled population from four phase III clinical trials, stratified by severity of incontinence, urgency, and other key factors at baseline. Subjects were randomized to either 5 or 10 mg of solifenacin once daily or placebo for 12 weeks. More than 50% of the total population became continent at study end, with either dose of solifenacin (P<0.01 vs placebo). Significant reductions in incontinence episodes and higher rates of attainment of continence vs placebo were observed irrespective of age or severity of incontinence or urgency at baseline with solifenacin treatment. Treatment was well tolerated, with the majority of adverse events being mild in nature. Solifenacin is an effective antimuscarinic agent for the treatment of incontinence associated with OAB.

Urinary incontinence symptoms during and after pregnancy in continent and incontinent primiparas.
Thomason AD, Miller JM, Delancey JO
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 20;.

OBJECTIVE: Examine patterns of urinary incontinence during and after pregnancy, as recalled by incontinent and continent primiparas. STUDY DESIGN: Primiparous women reporting no pre-pregnancy incontinence, were recruited 6 to 9 months postpartum. Those reporting current continence and demonstrating a negative stress test were considered "Primiparous Continent" (PC, n=64). Those reporting current incontinence and demonstrating a positive stress test were considered "Primiparous Incontinent" (PI, n=57). Subjects self-administered a questionnaire recalling leakage during and after pregnancy. RESULTS: Sixteen percent of PC women leaked during pregnancy. Of these, 70% experienced frequent leakage during pregnancy. Seventy-eight percent of PI women leaked both during and after pregnancy. Several patterns arose surrounding leakage frequency for PI women: 19% only leaked frequently during pregnancy, 4% only leaked frequently after pregnancy, and 51% leaked frequently both during and after pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Nearly five times as many primiparous incontinent women, compared with primiparous continent women, leaked during pregnancy.

A 3-month preclinical trial to assess the performance of a new TVT-like mesh (TVTx) in a sheep model.
Rezapour M, Novara G, Meier PA, Holste J, Landgrebe S, Artibani W
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 21;.

The objective of this study was to evaluate in a sheep model the performance of a new polypropylene mesh (TVTx), which is intended as a less invasive treatment for female stress urinary incontinence. Eight female sheep were used in this study, each one being implanted with eight TVTx samples. At each time-point (weeks 1, 2, 4, and 12) seven TVTx were pulled out, while one TVTx was carefully dissected for histological investigations. One TVTx and one TVT, moreover, were inserted and immediately pulled out for obtaining the initial pullout forces in all sheep. The initial pullout values of TVT and TVTx were overlapping. The pullout forces of TVTx were >5 N (500 g) and increasing from weeks 1 to 12 (p<0.001). Histology revealed good tissue integration of TVTx in the tissue within 12 weeks after implantation. No abnormal histological findings were observed. This data could support the realization of a clinical trial with the TVTx mesh.

Incidence of stress urinary incontinence among women in Turkey.
Biri A, Durukan E, Maral I, Korucuoglu U, Biri H, Tyras B, Bumin MA
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 21;.

The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of stress urinary incontinence among women at the age of 15 and above who applied to the primary health care centers in Ankara, Turkey. We applied the urinary stress incontinence questionnaire to 2,601 women at the age of 15 or above who consulted to the "mother-child health care and family planning centers" in January 2002. To evaluate the urinary incontinence status with respect to age groups and other risk factors, chi-square test was used. Stress incontinence prevalence was 16.1% in our population. Age was a statistically significant risk factor affecting the incidence of stress incontinence. As the number of gravida increases, the frequency of stress incontinence increases (p<0.05). Presence of a systemic disease was also an important risk factor (p<0.05). Alcohol use and smoking were not found to affect the incidence of urinary stress incontinence (p>0.05). As urinary incontinence greatly influences life quality and social and psychological status of the person, and also creates economic burden, predisposing factors of stress incontinence should be well defined and measures should be taken to encourage women experiencing this problem to visit a doctor and to get an efficient treatment.

Delayed urethral erosion after tension-free vaginal tape.
Powers K, Lazarou G, Greston WM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 26;.

Urethral erosions have been reported with various sling materials placed by means of various techniques. The patient often presents in the immediate postoperative period, although late presentations have been described. The diagnosis is made on cystoscopy, and mesh excision with urethral reconstruction is advocated. We present the cases of two patients with urethral erosion after mid-urethral polypropylene sling who presented 3 months after surgery with urethral pain, mid-urethral blockage and symptoms of bladder dysfunction. Urethroscopy revealed the mesh bridging the lumen of the urethra. Trans-vaginal mesh excision and layered urethral reconstruction was curative in both patients.

Re: Midurethral Tissue Fixation System (TFS).
Rechberger T, Bogusiewicz M, Jankiewicz K
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Apr;46(2):177-8.

Re: Midurethral Tissue Fixation System sling - a 'micromethod' for cure of stress incontinence - preliminary report and Tissue Fixation System posterior sling for repair of uterine/vault prolapse - a preliminary report.
Dietz HP
Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 2006 Apr;46(2):174.

Stem cell therapy for urinary stress incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1801.

Intraurethral muscle-derived cell injections increase leak point pressure in a rat model of intrinsic sphincter deficiency.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1801.

Urinary incontinence in US women. A population-based study.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1800.

Comparison of orthotopic sigmoid and ileal neobladders: continence and urodynamic parameters.
Albertsen PC
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1767-8.


Post-robotic prostatectomy urinary continence: Characterization of perfect continence versus occasional dribbling in pad-free men.
Rodriguez E Jr, Skarecky DW, Ahlering TE
Urology. 2006 Mar 25;.

OBJECTIVES: To review and characterize two groups of men who report being pad-free after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RLRP): those with occasional incontinence and those with complete control. METHODS: The study included 106 out of a total of 195 men who underwent RLRP. Inclusion requirements were adequate follow-up and no-pad continence status. All patients completed self-administered American Urological Association symptom score (AUAss) and continence questionnaires and underwent measurement of peak urinary flow rates, postvoid residual volumes, and voided volumes (VV) before and 3 months after surgery. All data and standard clinical characteristics were entered prospectively into an electronic database. RESULTS: Two distinct groups reported wearing no pads: the "perfect" group (n = 32) reported never leaking, and the "imperfect" group (n = 74) reported occasional leakage but did not wear pads. Preoperatively, the "imperfect" group was older (62.2 versus 59 years) and had more urinary symptoms (all P <0.05). Postoperatively, the "imperfect" group took longer to achieve a pad-free status (median 39.8 versus 19.3 days), had larger prostates (mean 50.9 versus 43.2 g), had lower VV (324 versus 405 mL), and more urinary symptoms (AUAss 7.4 versus 4.3; all P <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Sixty-nine percent of men who attain "pad-free continence" after RLRP have occasional urinary leakage. Preoperatively, these men are characteristically older and have larger prostates, AUAss, and bother scores. Postoperatively, the "imperfect" group takes longer to achieve pad-free status and has smaller bladder capacities and more urinary symptoms. These results suggest that an overactive detrusor is the likely contributing etiology.

Bladder augmentation using Pelvicol implant for intractable overactive bladder syndrome.
Barrington JW, Dyer R, Bano F
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):50-3. Epub 2005 Jul 7.

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an implant of porcine dermis to augment the bladder in women with refractory overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). Twelve women underwent a Pelvicol bladder augmentation. A visual analogue score for severity of incontinence and a quality of life questionnaire was carried out pre-operatively and at 12 months post-operatively. Follow up cystoscopy was carried out in three women in addition. Three women were dry and cured; five women were significantly improved; two women were slightly improved and the procedure was unsuccessful in the remaining two women. There were no significant complications and voiding was spontaneous in every case. A bladder augmentation using porcine dermis may have a role in the surgical management of non-neuropathic women with OAB that has failed to respond to conservative therapy.

Transobturator tape erosion associated with leg pain.
Mahajan ST, Kenton K, Bova DA, Brubaker L
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):66-8. Epub 2005 Jun 18.

A 39 year-old vaginal multipara status postpubovaginal sling in 2002 and a transobturator tape procedure in 2004 presented with persistent stress incontinence and vaginal polypropylene mesh erosion. Ten days later, she presented to the emergency room with severe right groin pain, difficulty walking, fever, and chills. She described shooting pain originating from the right inguinal ligament radiating down her right leg anteriorly. Although her neurologic examination was normal, palpation of the right obturator internus muscle reproduced her pain. MRI clearly revealed the course of the mesh tape through the obturator muscles and marked increase in the size of the right adductor and obturator internus muscles, apparently compressing the adjacent neurovascular fascicle. The patient was taken to the operating room where the polypropylene tape was easily removed through the vaginal erosion. Mesh cultures were positive for bacteroides fragilis. She experienced complete symptom resolution within 1 week of tape removal.

Abdominal obesity is associated with stress urinary incontinence in Korean women.
Han MO, Lee NY, Park HS
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):35-9. Epub 2005 Jul 15.

This study investigated the relationship between abdominal obesity and stress urinary incontinence in Korean women. Women aged 30 and over, who visited the Department of Family Medicine of Asan Medical Center were recruited to participate in this study. Anthropometric measurements including body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were taken, and associated factors of stress urinary incontinence was assessed by questionnaire. Stress urinary incontinence was significantly associated with physical work, vaginal delivery, and high waist circumference. In comparison with women in the lowest quartile of waist circumference, the odds ratios (OR) for stress urinary incontinence in women in the second, third, and fourth quartiles were increased significantly (1.79, 95% CI 1.07-2.98; 3.50, 95% CI 2.02-6.07; and 6.07, 95% CI 3.23-11.40, respectively). Our results indicate that high waist circumference may be a risk factor associated with stress urinary incontinence in women.

The ability of history and a negative cough stress test to detect occult stress incontinence in patients undergoing surgical repair of advanced pelvic organ prolapse.
Kleeman S, Vassallo B, Segal J, Hungler M, Karram M
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):27-9. Epub 2005 Aug 11.

To determine if a negative preoperative reduction cough stress test is a viable method of detecting occult stress incontinence or urge incontinence in women undergoing surgical repair of advanced pelvic organ prolapse. A retrospective chart review was done on all patients who denied any urinary complaints and had repair of advanced pelvic organ prolapse, grade two or greater, without the addition of an anti-incontinence procedure. Additionally patients had a simple office filling study done at the time of initial examination that failed to show the sign of stress incontinence or detrusor instability. Any urinary dysfunction that developed postoperatively was noted. A total of 53 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of these patients, one patient (1.9%) developed genuine stress incontinence, and one patient complained of urgency (1.9%). Patients without urinary complaints and a negative office filling study, who were present for surgical correction of advanced pelvic organ prolapse, have a low incidence of developing occult stress incontinence. Further work-up would not be cost effective.

Reasons for and treatment of surgical complications with alloplastic slings.
Petri E, Niemeyer R, Martan A, Tunn R, Naumann G, Koelbl H
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan;17(1):3-13. Epub 2005 Jun 18.

Suburethral slings with tension-free vaginal tapes have become a popular treatment for stress urinary incontinence. Case reports on singleton complications are numerous and of clinical interest. Four European centers for urogynecology report on 328 surgical reinterventions after tension-free slings. Poor surgical technique is the most frequent cause of problems (45%), followed by incorrect indication (38%). The most frequent symptom is functional or anatomical outlet obstruction; perforation or penetration and defect healing are rare, but, apparently more frequent than described in studies or follow-up series previously.

Urethral hypermobility after anti-incontinence surgery-a prognostic indicator?
Viereck V, Pauer HU, Hesse O, Bader W, Tunn R, Lange R, Hilgers R, Emons G
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 15;.

The aim of this study was to define the concept of hypermobility of the bladder neck and determine its effects on the cure rate and postoperative complications in patients undergoing colposuspension. In a retrospective study, 310 patients who underwent primary colposuspension for urodynamically proven genuine stress urinary incontinence were assessed by introital ultrasound before surgery and during follow-up for up to 48 months postoperatively. A total of 152 women completed 48 months of follow-up. Mobility of the bladder neck during straining was described as linear dorsocaudal movement (LDM) with LDM >15 mm being defined as hypermobility. The overall objective cure rate was 90.0% at 6-month follow-up vs 76.8% at 48-month follow-up (Kaplan-Meier estimators). Urge symptoms occurred in 12.6% (39/310) of the women and de novo urge incontinence in 2.3% (7/310). Bladder neck hypermobility was significantly reduced after anti-incontinence surgery, from 67.1% (208/310) before surgery to 5.5% (17/310) immediately after surgery (P<0.0001). Postoperative hypermobility was associated with a higher recurrence rate. In the hypermobility group, 52.9 and 34.0% of the patients were continent for up to 6 and 48 months, respectively, as opposed to 92.2 and 79.2% in the group without hypermobility (P<0.0001). Women with postoperative hypermobility had a 3.2-fold higher risk of recurrence within 48 months. Bladder neck hypermobility after surgery was also associated with postoperative voiding difficulty (P=0.0278). Patients in whom hypermobility of the bladder neck diagnosed before surgery persists after colposuspension have a higher risk of recurrence and are more likely to develop postoperative complications than those without this hypermobility.

Estrogen therapy and urinary incontinence: what is the evidence and what do we tell our patients?
Waetjen LE, Dwyer PL
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 15;.

The effect of cannabis on urge incontinence in patients with multiple sclerosis: a multicentre, randomised placebo-controlled trial (CAMS-LUTS).
Freeman RM, Adekanmi O, Waterfield MR, Waterfield AE, Wright D, Zajicek J
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 22;.

Objective: To test whether cannabinoids reduce urge incontinence episodes without affecting voiding in patients with multiple sclerosis. This was part of the multicentre trial of the Cannabinoids in Multiple Sclerosis (CAMS) study. Subjects and methods: The CAMS study randomised 630 patients to receive oral administration of cannabis extract, Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or matched placebo. For this substudy subjects completed incontinence diaries. Results: All three groups showed a significant reduction, p<0.01, in adjusted episode rate (i.e. correcting for baseline imbalance) from baseline to the end of treatment: cannabis extract, 38%; THC, 33%; and placebo, 18%. Both active treatments showed significant effects over placebo (cannabis extract, p=0.005; THC, p=0.039). Conclusion: The findings are suggestive of a clinical effect of cannabis on incontinence episodes in patients with MS. This is in contrast to the negative finding of the CAMS study, where no difference was seen in the primary outcome of spasticity.

Validity of the incontinence severity index: comparison with pad-weighing tests.
Sandvik H, Espuna M, Hunskaar S
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 18;.

The incontinence severity index (ISI) consists of two questions, regarding frequency and amount of leakage. It categorizes urinary incontinence (UI) into slight, moderate, severe, and very severe. The purpose of this study was to test its validity. The index was compared with the results of pad-weighing tests performed by 200 incontinent women referred to a hospital clinic and 103 at a primary care incontinence clinic. Inconvenience was scored by a six-level Likert scale. Mean pad-weighing results (grams per 24 hours, 95% confidence intervals) were 7 (4-10) for slight, 39 (26-51) for moderate, 102 (75-128) for severe, and 200 (131-268) for very severe UI. Spearman's correlation coefficient for pad-weighing results and severity index was 0.58 (p<0.01), and inconvenience increased significantly with increasing severity. The ISI demonstrated good criterion validity against 24-h pad tests. Good construct validity was indicated by a clear link between ISI and inconvenience.

Postpartum urinary incontinence: a comparison of vaginal delivery, elective, and emergent cesarean section.
Chin HY, Chen MC, Liu YH, Wang KH
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 28;.

The aim of this study was to assess the impact of delivery on the pelvic floor and whether cesarean section (C/S) can prevent pelvic floor injury. Five hundred thirty nine women were divided into three groups according to the delivery method adopted: elective C/S, emergent C/S, and vaginal delivery. A urinary incontinence questionnaire survey was conducted around 1 year postpartum. Emergent C/S may be a major risk factor for postpartum urinary incontinence and interfere with the benefit of elective C/S for preventing pelvic floor injury. Hence, not all C/S deliveries can reduce the likelihood of postpartum urinary incontinence. The key lies in whether the C/S is performed before labor.

Complications associated with transobturator sling procedures.
Boyles SH, Edwards R, Gregory W, Clark A
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 28;.

This study aims to determine the complications associated with trans-obturator slings as reported to a national database. We required "MAUDE", a database that collects reports of complications associated with medical devices and which is maintained by the Food and Drug Administration. We searched for complications associated with three different, commercially available trans-obturator slings. We then tabulated the results by type of complication, by date of occurrence, and by type of sling. Between January 2004 and July 2005, 140 reports of 173 complications associated with trans-obturator tapes were reported to the MAUDE database. Previously unreported injuries, such as obturator nerve injuries, large blood losses (>/=600cc), and ischiorectal fossa abscesses, were documented. Serious complications occur with the trans-obturator tape systems, but the rates are unknown due to database limitations. The type of complication appears to differ between devices and this may reflect different implantation systems and different polypropylene mesh formulations. Improved tracking of device complications is necessary to maximize patient safety.

Impact of stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder on micturition patterns and health-related quality of life.
Oh SJ, Ku JH
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 31;.

We examined the impact of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) on micturition habits and health-related quality of life (QOL). A total of 250 Korean women were included in the study. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36) and the King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) were used to assess QOL in the patient (SUI, n=158 and OAB, n=92) and control (n=70) groups. A control group was recruited at the Health Promotion Center of our hospital. Each of the dimension scores in the SF-36 represents better health, while that of the KHQ does worse health perception. On the frequency-volume charts, patients with OAB had more nighttime voids than those with SUI (P=0.001). Of the eight domains in the SF-36 questionnaire, four domains were significantly different between the control and OAB groups. Patients with SUI had a significantly lower score on one domain than the controls. Between the SUI and OAB groups, only one domain showed a significant difference. Regarding the KHQ, all domain scores in control subjects were significantly lower than those in the SUI and OAB groups. Between the SUI and OAB groups, the OAB group had higher scores on 'general health perception' and 'sleep/energy disturbances', while the scores of 'physical limitations' and 'severity measures' were higher in the SUI group. Women with OAB have a higher number of nocturic episodes than those with SUI, but the QOL is not less affected by SUI than by OAB. Furthermore, simultaneous disease-specific QOL instruments should be used in the evaluation of urinary incontinence because the generic QOL instrument is not a sensitive tool for measuring QOL in this population.

Trans-obturator surgery for stress urinary incontinence: 1-year follow-up of a cohort of 52 women.
Dobson A, Robert M, Swaby C, Murphy M, Birch C, Mainprize T, Ross S
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 31;.

This study was a 1-year follow-up of a cohort of 52 women who underwent trans-obturator tape (TOT) procedures using Obtape. Follow-up information was available for 45/52 (87%) women. The rate of erosions was 8/52 (15%). Among 34 women examined, 26% experienced tenderness on palpation of operative site, and 72% were objectively cured on pad test. Forty women completed questionnaires (median Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7, 0; median Urogenital Distress Inventory-6, 17) and of those, 93% would recommend TOT to a friend. We found a high rate of erosions among our cohort. Our high rate of erosions may be a result of our review of the majority of the cohort, and it is likely related to the specific device used (Obtape). The majority of women were satisfied with the outcome. Before introducing new procedures into widespread clinical practice, it is important to rigorously investigate their outcomes.

Needle suspension of the bladder neck for stress urinary incontinence: objective results at 11 to 16 years.
Moser F, Bjelic-Radisic V, Tamussino K
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 31;.

We analyzed the objective and subjective long-term outcomes of women who underwent needle suspension of the bladder neck 11 to 16 years previously. A total of 132 women underwent a needle suspension procedure at our institution between 1986 and 1991. In a retrospective cohort study, 63 of these women were evaluated by clinical examination, urodynamic testing, cough stress test, and standardized personal interview. Objective continence was defined as no loss of urine either during cystometry or during coughing with the bladder filled to 300 ml. The objective continence rate was 56% (25/45) and the subjective continence rate was 41% (26/63). With regard to patient satisfaction, only 38% (24/63) of the studied patients considered themselves completely cured, and an additional 30% (19/63) improved. The objective and subjective long-term results of needle suspension of the bladder neck are modest. Long-term complications such as urinary retention and overactive bladder syndrome are rare.

Prevalence of incontinence in women with benign joint hypermobility syndrome.
Jha S, Arunkalaivanan AS, Situnayake RD
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 31;.

The objective of this study was to determine whether the prevalence of urinary and anal incontinence in women with benign joint hypermobility syndrome (BJHS) was more than in a control group without this condition. The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) and the Manchester Health Questionnaire were sent to 30 patients with benign joint hypermobility syndrome and 30 healthy women without this condition and results were compared. It was found out that the prevalence of urinary incontinence in the study group we surveyed was 18/30 and in the control group was 9/30 (60 vs 30%; p=0.037). Twenty-three percent (7/30) of the women with BJHS had a problem with anal incontinence but none of the controls had problems with anal incontinence (23 vs 0%; p=0.01). Therefore, the prevalence of both urinary and anal incontinence appears to be significantly higher in women with BJHS when compared to women without this condition.

Prediction of successful voiding immediately after outpatient mid-urethral sling.
Barron KI, Savageau JA, Young SB, Labin LC, Morse AN
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 1;.

We set out to identify predictors of successful voiding immediately after outpatient mid-urethral sling. The charts of 126 patients who underwent an outpatient mid-urethral sling procedure were identified. Using discharge without a urinary catheter as the dependent variable, logistic regression analysis modeled the relationship of independent variables including demographic, preoperative urodynamic, and perioperative variables. Sixty-one percent of the patients passed their immediate postoperative voiding trial. Logistic regression analysis revealed that parity >/=3, Valsalva leak point pressure >60 cm H(2)O, and high preoperative anxiety remained independently associated with successful voiding. Identifying preoperative variables that are associated with successful voiding after mid-urethral sling may be useful in helping to accurately shape patient expectations and identify those most likely to benefit from preoperative teaching of self-catheterization.

Redo midurethral synthetic sling for female stress urinary incontinence.
Tsivian A, Neuman M, Yulish E, Shtricker A, Levin S, Cytron S, Sidi AA
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 1;.

Tension-free transvaginal tape (TVT) placement has recently become the preferred therapeutic approach for female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in some centers. There are, however, no clearcut guidelines of how to treat patients in whom the procedure has failed. We describe our experience with repeat midurethral synthetic sling (MUS) implantation after a failed similar procedure. Twelve women (mean age 64.3 years) who had undergone a MUS procedure [TVT-9, intravaginal sling (IVS)-2, transobturator tape (TOT)-1] for SUI underwent a repeat MUS (TVT-5, IVS-4, TOT-3) due to persistent or recurrent SUI. The time from the first to the second procedure was 1-48 months. Eleven out of 12 patients (91.7%) achieved full continence (mean follow-up of 23.2 months, range 14-44). We conclude that a repeat MUS for persistent or recurrent SUI is a viable option for patients after an unsuccessful MUS procedure.

Significance of tension in tension-free mid-urethral sling procedures: a preliminary study.
Paick JS, Oh JG, Shin JW, Kim SW, Ku JH
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Apr 5;.

We report the results of the release and tape-shortening techniques in polypropylene pubovaginal slings. Of female patients who had undergone mid-urethral sling procedures [tension-free vaginal tape procedure and suburethral polypropylene (SPARC)], in cases in which postoperative retention occurred, the patients were offered release or tape cutting. Women reporting postoperative urinary incontinence underwent a tape-shortening procedure. In these patients, the tape was shortened by the use of clips. Mean follow-up time after the release and/or the shortening operations was 9.9 months (range 6-18). A total of 15 women, ranging from 41 to 75 years old (mean 58.3) were included in this study. Upon the latest follow-up, six women exhibited prolonged urinary retention and subsequently underwent a release procedure (n=5) or a tape-cutting procedure (n=1). After the release procedure, all patients remained continent, but one patient's urinary retention issues were not resolved, and she subsequently underwent a tape-cutting. Both of the patients who underwent the cutting procedure then developed recurrent stress urinary incontinence. The tape-shortening technique was conducted with nine patients. Seven of these patients recovered their continence, and no one patient experienced any urinary retention or other voiding difficulties. Two patients reported only minimal stress leakage and elected to undergo no further interventions. Our findings suggest that tension plays a substantial role in tension-free mid-urethral sling procedures.

[Urodynamic changes after transobturator suburethral tape]
Bracq A, Fourmarier M, Boutemy F, Bats M, Turblin JM, Saint F, Petit J
Prog Urol. 2006 Feb;16(1):62-6.

INTRODUCTION: Prospective study of urodynamic changes induced by transobturator insertion of suburethral tape a dip-stick under-urethral. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 women with pure (12) or mixed (13) stress urinary incontinence were operated by this technique, allowing urodynamic assessment and completion of the MHU urinary disability questionnaire. Three operators performed these 25 tape insertions in 2 centres (Amiens and St Quentin hospitals) according to a standardized technique. Six months after the operation, patients were reviewed by clinical examination, MHU questionnaire and urodynamic assessment. RESULTS: The cure rate at 6 months was 80% (20 patients) and the improvement rate was 20% (5 patients). The maximum flow rate decreased from 23.6 ml/s to 18.9 ml/s (p = 0.02) and the post-voiding residual volume increased from 26.8 ml to 66.8 ml (p = 0.01). Urethral resistance increased from 0.16 to. 0.25 (p = 0.03) and maximum closure pressure increased from 43.8 to 47.5 cm H2O (p = 0.02). These results demonstrate the obstructive nature of this suburethral tape. The results of the MHU questionnaire showed accentuation of dysuria (p = 0.04) and improvement of stress urinary incontinence (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This prospective study confirms the efficacy of this technique, but analysis of the urodynamic studies and the MHU questionnaire demonstrates obstruction. Long-term surveillance of these patients by uroflowmetry and residual urine appears to be useful to detect possible progression to chronic urinary retention.

Placard-shaped in situ vaginal wall sling for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence.
Mustafa M, Wadie BS
Int J Urol. 2006 Feb;13(2):132-4.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a simple and economic procedure using a placard-shaped in situ anterior vaginal wall sling for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence, with or without cystocele repair. METHODS: From July 2003 to July 2004, 14 female patients (mean age 45.21 years, range 37-57) were operated upon because of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) with the placard-shaped in situ anterior vaginal wall sling technique. The average follow-up period was 11 months (range 4-14.5 months). Twelve patients were operated primarily with this technique and only two patients had undergone previous surgeries for the treatment of SUI (one patient had had two previous surgeries and the other had had one previous surgery). In all patients urethral hypermobility or/and bladder prolapse were observed. Filling cystometry showed sufficient bladder capacity with no detrusor overactivity. RESULTS: No urinary retention was observed in any patient in the postoperative period. While 11 patients have 100% cure of incontinence, three patients started leakage of urine after 1-2 months after the operation (one patient had been operated upon twice before (and who was diabetic and obese) and two patients were primarily repaired by our technique). In two patients, suprapubic tenderness and redness were observed, and were treated by oral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs. CONCLUSION: The placard technique is simple, cost-effective and has low incidence of urinary retention in the post-operative period. The success rate seems to be satisfactory and it can be applicable to patients who are primary cases of SUI with average body mass index. Yet longer term follow up and larger number of patients are needed before final conclusion can be drawn.

Effects of behavioral and drug therapy on nocturia in older incontinent women.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Apr;175(4):1434-5.

Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of developing urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2004 Dec;172(6 Pt 1):2503-4.

High rate of vaginal extrusion of silicone-coated polyester sling.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2004 Dec;172(6 Pt 1):2500.

Understanding the burden of stress urinary incontinence in Europe: a qualitative review of the literature.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2004 Dec;172(6 Pt 1):2499.

A prospective randomized trial comparing tension-free vaginal tape and transobturator suburethral tape for surgical treatment of stress urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2004 Dec;172(6 Pt 1):2501.

Does Burch colposuspension cure coital incontinence?
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2004 Dec;172(6 Pt 1):2500-1.

Urodynamic verification of an overactive bladder is not a prerequisite for antimuscarinic treatment response.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2004 Dec;172(6 Pt 1):2499-2500.

The impact of detrusor overactivity on bladder function in younger and older women.
Pfisterer MH, Griffiths DJ, Rosenberg L, Schaefer W, Resnick NM
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1777-83.

PURPOSE: We examined the relationship of DO and aging, and bladder function in female volunteers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 85 cognitively competent, fully functional female volunteers who were 22 to 90 years old (median age 54) with and without symptoms suggestive of DO. Comprehensive assessment included a bladder diary, uroflowmetry and videourodynamics. We examined predefined urodynamic and diary variables for associations with DO and age, summarizing results in the 3 subgroups no DO, intermediate DO and clinically relevant DO. RESULTS: Compared to women without DO those with DO showed a decrease in maximum cystometric capacity (558 vs 448 ml), mean daytime voided volume (260 vs 175 ml) and volume at strong desire to void (363 vs 283 ml) but an increase in maximum isovolumetric pressure (41 vs 64 cm H(2)O) and maximum detrusor pressure during involuntary contraction (intermediate and relevant DO 22 and 37 cm H(2)O, respectively). The positive association between increased detrusor contraction strength and DO was present at younger ages but absent in older subjects. Maximum urethral closure pressure and detrusor contraction strength decreased significantly with age. CONCLUSIONS: From young adulthood to old age DO appears to affect bladder function parameters. It is associated with decreased bladder capacity and increased bladder sensation. Moreover, in younger adults DO is also associated with increased detrusor contraction strength, which is an association not seen in older individuals. This age associated loss of muscle function may be related to sarcopenia, implying that different treatments may be appropriate in older adults.

Nerve growth factor and prostaglandins in the urine of female patients with overactive bladder.
Kim JC, Park EY, Seo SI, Park YH, Hwang TK
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1773-6.

PURPOSE: NGF and PGs in the bladder can be affected by pathological changes in the bladder and these changes can be detected in urine. We investigated changes in urinary NGF and PGs in women with OAB. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study groups included 65 women with OAB and 20 without bladder symptoms who served as controls. Evaluation included patient history, urinalysis, a voiding diary and urodynamic studies. Urine samples were collected. NGF, PGE(2), PGF(2alpha) and PGI(2) were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and compared between the groups. In addition, correlations between urinary NGF and PG, and urodynamic parameters in patients with OAB were examined. RESULTS: Urinary NGF, PGE(2) and PGF(2alpha) were significantly increased in patients with OAB compared with controls (p <0.05). However, urinary PGI(2) was not different between controls and patients with OAB. In patients with OAB urinary PGE(2) positively correlated with volume at first desire to void and maximum cystometric capacity (p <0.05). Urinary NGF, PGF(2alpha) and PGI(2) did not correlate with urodynamic parameters in patients with OAB. CONCLUSIONS: NGF and PGs have important roles in the development of OAB symptoms in female patients. Urinary levels of these factors may be used as markers to evaluate OAB symptoms.

Spiral sling salvage anti-incontinence surgery in female patients with a nonfunctional urethra: technique and initial results.
Rutman MP, Deng DY, Shah SM, Raz S, Rodriguez LV
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1794-9.

PURPOSE: Female patients with severe urethral incompetence are a unique surgical challenge. Urethral closure and continent diversion are often the next step in the treatment of these patients. We present a technique that provides circumferential coaptation of the urethra as a salvage procedure in this severe subset of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively evaluated 47 patients who had a spiral sling. A 1 x 15 cm piece of soft polypropylene mesh was prepared with a zero polyglactin suture applied at each end. A clamp was used to pass the mesh between the urethra and pubis. The ends of the mesh were crossed at the ventral aspect of the urethra, creating a complete circle around the urethra. The sutures were transferred to the suprapubic area and tied without tension. The surgical outcome was determined by patient self-assessment, including symptom, bother and quality of life questionnaires. RESULTS: Mean patient age was 59 years. At presentation patients had undergone a mean of 2.6 incontinence procedures and wore a mean of 6 pads daily. Mean daily pad use decreased to 0.9 (p <0.005). Preoperatively mean SUI symptom severity and bother scores were 2.8 and 2.9, respectively, on a scale of 0-none to 3-severe. Postoperatively these values decreased to 0.6 and 0.4, respectively (each p <0.005). There was a mean 87% overall improvement in symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The spiral sling is an effective salvage transvaginal procedure that may be considered in a small subset of female patients with a nonfunctional urethra as a last resort before urethral closure procedures.

The long-term results of pubovaginal sling surgery using acellular cross-linked porcine dermis in the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence.
Giri SK, Hickey JP, Sil D, Mabadeje O, Shaikh FM, Narasimhulu G, Flood HD
J Urol. 2006 May;175(5):1788-93.

PURPOSE: Acellular cross-linked porcine dermis is a potential substitute for rectus fascia as a sling material with the advantage of decreased morbidity. However, the long-term efficacy is unknown. We compared the 3-year efficacy of PD vs autologous rectus fascia as a sling material for pubovaginal sling surgery in the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between July 2000 and December 2001 a total of 101 consecutive, nonrandomized patients with USI underwent a PD (51) or RF (50) sling procedure. Patients were assessed at 6 weeks, and at 3, 6 and 12 months postoperatively. Urodynamic study was repeated in cases of treatment failure. A detailed survey questionnaire was mailed to all patients at least 36 months after surgery and all responders were then retested by telephone interview by a blinded assessor. The primary outcome measure was patient perceived success rate (cured or improved) at least 36 months after PVS. Secondary outcome measures were patient satisfaction 36 months after surgery, durability of success with time and reoperation rate. RESULTS: Complete data were available on 94 patients (48 treated with PD and 46 treated with RF sling). The groups were well matched for age, leak point pressure, prior incontinence surgery and urge symptoms. Pubovaginal sling was successful (cured or improved) in 37 (80.4%) patients treated with RF but in only 26 (54%) patients treated with PD 36 months after surgery (Fisher's exact test p = 0.009; 95% CI 8.03, 44.4). Treatment failure occurred by 9 months after RF and by 24 months after PD sling procedure. Repeat urodynamic study showed USI to be the cause of treatment failure in 18 (37.5%) of 20 patients treated with PD but in only 3 (6.5%) of 8 patients treated with RF. CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that use of the PD sling, although reducing early morbidity, results in a significantly inferior long-term cure rate in comparison to the RF sling. Therefore, acellular cross-linked porcine dermis should not be used as a substitute for rectus fascia.

Efficacy of duloxetine in the treatment of diverse women with stress urinary incontinence.
Weinstein DL, Cohen JS, Liu C, Meadows ES, Plouffe L Jr, Muram D
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):1S.

The "costs" of urinary incontinence for women.
Subak LL, Brown JS, Kraus SR, Brubaker L, Lin F, Richter HE, Bradley CS, Grady D
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4):908-16.

OBJECTIVE: To estimate costs of routine care for female urinary incontinence, health-related quality of life, and willingness to pay for incontinence improvement. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study at 5 U.S. sites, 293 incontinent women quantified supplies, laundry, and dry cleaning specifically for incontinence. Costs were calculated by multiplying resources used by national resource costs and presented in 2005 United States dollars (2005). Health-related quality of life was estimated with the Health Utilities Index. Participants estimated willingness to pay for 25-100% improvement in incontinence. Potential predictors of these outcomes were examined using multivariable linear regression. RESULTS: Mean age was 56 +/- 11 years; participants were racially diverse and had a broad range of incontinence severity. Nearly 90% reported incontinence-related costs. Median weekly cost (25%, 75% interquartile range) increased from 0.37 dollars (0, 4 dollars) for slight to 10.98 dollars (4, 21 dollars) for very severe incontinence. Costs increased with incontinence severity (P < .001). Costs were 2.4-fold higher for African American compared with white women (P < .001) and 65% higher for women with urge compared with those having stress incontinence (P < .001). More frequent incontinence was associated with lower Health Utilities Index score (mean 0.90 +/- 0.11 for weekly and 0.81 +/- 0.21 for daily incontinence; P = .02). Women were willing to pay a mean of 70 dollars +/- 64 dollars per month for complete resolution of incontinence, and willingness to pay increased with income and greater expected benefit. CONCLUSION: Women with severe urinary incontinence pay 900 dollars annually for incontinence routine care, and incontinence is associated with a significant decrement in health-related quality of life. Effective incontinence treatment may decrease costs and improve quality of life. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III.

Tension-free vaginal tape: complications reported in the manufacturers and users device experience database.
Boudreaux-Nippert DJ, Norton PA, Sharp HT, Peltier MA
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):10S.

The effect of childhood dysfunctional voiding on urinary incontinence in adult women.
Minassian VA, Lovatsis D, Pascali D, Alarab M, Drutz HP
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):47S.

Impact of Transdermal Oxybutynin on Quality of Life in Patients With Overactive Bladder: Results From the MATRIX Study.
Lucente VR, Goldberg RP, Davila GW, Gonick CW, Parker RL, Dahl NV
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):74S-5S.

Predicting voiding dysfunction after incontinence surgery.
Dunn TS, Hurt LC, Hessler BJ
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):46S.

Randomized Comparison of GYNECARE TVT and Boston Scientific Lynx Suprapubis Mid-Urethral Sling.
Agarwala N, Griffin J
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):46S-7S.

Efficacy of extended-release oxybutynin stratified by severity of urinary urge incontinence.
Sand PK, Karram M
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):77S.

Five-Year Follow-Up Comparing Tension-Free Vaginal Tape and Colposuspension.
McCracken GR, Henderson NA, Kives SL, Ashe RG
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4_Supplement):77S.

Impact of Transdermal Oxybutynin on Nocturia and Related Symptoms in Overactive Bladder: Results From MATRIX Study.
Davila GW, Sand PK, Gonick CW, Parker RL, Dahl NV
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):76S.

Impact of Transdermal Oxybutynin on Depression Symptoms in Patients With Overactive Bladder: Results of the MATRIX Study.
Sand PK, Lucente VR, Parker RL, Goldberg RP, Dahl NV
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):76S.

MATRIX Results: Quality-of-Life Impact of Transdermal Oxybutynin in Women Older Than 45 Years and Younger Than 45 Years With Overactive Bladder.
Goldberg R, Davila GW, Lucente V, Sand PK, Gonick CW, McIlwain M
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):75S.

Postoperative use of antibiotics in patients with a tension-free vaginal tape.
Dinsmore RD Jr, Washington B, Hines B
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr;107(4 Suppl):102S.

Factors impacting self-care for urinary incontinence.
Milne JL, Moore KN
Urol Nurs. 2006 Feb;26(1):41-51.

INTRODUCTION: Behavioral strategies such as pelvic floor muscle exercises (PFME), bladder retraining, and dietary modifications are generally considered to be the first line of treatment for urinary incontinence (UI). Yet little is understood about the client's abilities/motivation to manage their UI in the home setting. Self-care, the ability of clients to act on their own behalf to achieve and maintain health, is a fundamental component of these strategies. Despite the frequently chronic nature of UI, there is growing evidence that such maintenance of behavioral therapies is sporadic at best. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to enhance understanding of self-care strategies that individuals with UI employ, the perceived benefits of these strategies, the factors that influence their self-care choices, and the factors that impede or facilitate maintenance of behavioral therapies. METHOD: In this qualitative descriptive study, individual and focus group interviews with community-dwelling participants were conducted to enhance understanding regarding the participants' management of UI at home and why they maintain certain strategies and not others. Data were collected via loosely constructed individual (n=25) and focus group (n=3) interviews to facilitate open discussion of participants' perceptions. RESULTS: Thirty-eight individuals (33 women and 5 men) participated in the study. Analysis of data resulted in a major category of self-care strategies related to UI that was further subcategorized into factors that facilitated PFME and barriers to PFME performance. Factors that facilitated PFME included: (a) realistic goals and expectation, (b) positive affirmation, (c) follow up, and (d) maintaining an exercise routine. Barriers noted were: (a) insufficient information, (b) characteristics of the exercises, (c) competing interests, (d) financial cost, and (e) minor psychosocial impact. CONCLUSIONS: This study described the self-care strategies that participants with UI had initiated and maintained and additionally explored the perceived facilitators and barriers to self-care choices. Two major themes emerged: (a) self-care efforts were motivated by desire for a normal daily lifestyle and (b) participants were motivated to maintain strategies by the ability to visualize progress and by knowledge that they were progressing. These findings support the need for client-focused teaching that is grounded in the individual's daily realities and goals.

Acupuncture for urinary urgency in women over 50: what is the evidence?
O'Dell KK, McGee S
Urol Nurs. 2006 Feb;26(1):23-30.

Efficacy of sacral neuromodulation for symptomatic treatment of refractory urinary urge incontinence.
Latini JM, Alipour M, Kreder KJ Jr
Urology. 2006 Mar;67(3):550-3; discussion 553-4.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and complications of sacral neuromodulation as therapy for refractory urinary urge incontinence. METHODS: Forty-one patients (mean age 54.3 +/- 15.8 years) with urge incontinence refractory to conservative therapy (ie, pharmacologic, behavioral, biofeedback therapy) were retrospectively evaluated. The patients included those who received permanent one-staged or two-staged InterStim implants. Surgical implantation of the InterStim was performed in patients who experienced a greater than 50% reduction in urge incontinence symptoms, as documented by voiding diaries during a 3 to 7-day test stimulation period. RESULTS: Ninety percent of patients had 50% or greater improvement in presenting symptoms and quality-of-life parameters after InterStim implantation, with a median follow-up of 12 months (interquartile range 12 to 26.5) for single-stage and 4.5 months (interquartile range 1.5 to 12) for staged implants (P = 0.0003 Wilcoxon rank-sum test). Patients with urge incontinence had a significant reduction in mean leaking episodes (from 8.8 to 2.3 per day, P = 0.0001), with a significant decrease in the mean number of pads used (from 4.7 to 0.82 per day, P < 0.0001). No patient experienced operative complications, and postoperative complications were encountered in 29% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Our results have demonstrated that sacral neuromodulation is a safe and effective approach for the treatment of urinary urge incontinence that is refractory to other more conservative forms of treatment.

Translating overactive bladder questionnaires in 14 languages.
Acquadro C, Kopp Z, Coyne KS, Corcos J, Tubaro A, Choo MS
Urology. 2006 Mar;67(3):536-40.

OBJECTIVES: Overactive bladder (OAB) affects millions of people worldwide. Identifying patients and measuring OAB's impact on symptom severity and patients' health-related quality-of-life is necessary to ensure proper treatment and facilitate communication among patients, clinicians, and caregivers. To accomplish this, the Overactive Bladder questionnaire (OAB-q) and its subsets instruments, the OAB-q Short-Form and the OAB-V8, were developed in U.S. English. To measure the impact of OAB cross-culturally, we performed the linguistic validation of these instruments in Danish, English (Canada), French (Canada and France), Italian (Switzerland), German (Switzerland), Korean, Norwegian, Polish, Portuguese (Brazil), Romanian, Swedish, and Turkish. The linguistic validation was conducted following a rigorous method to ensure conceptual equivalence between the original and its translations. METHODS: In each country, a specialist monitored the process, which included six steps: (1) two forward translations; (2) comparison and reconciliation of the translations; (3) back-translation; (4) comparison of the source and back-translation; (5) review by one urologist or gynecologist; and (6) a comprehension test using patients. RESULTS: The translation of symptom-related adjectives such as "uncomfortable," "sudden," "accidental," "uncontrollable" proved challenging. The subtle differences in the meaning of symptomatic items increased the difficulties to find equivalents. Issues regarding the appropriateness of certain concepts and idiomatic terms emerged during cognitive debriefing. The terms "urge," "desire," "urination," "commute," "drowsy," and "escape routes" were not retained literally and were replaced by colloquial expressions. CONCLUSIONS: The 14 versions of the OAB-q, OAB-q Short-Form, and OAB-V8 were successfully validated linguistically to facilitate data collection cross-culturally and the international comparison of symptom bother and health-related quality of life in patients with OAB.

Effect of tension-free vaginal tape operation on urethral closure function.
Koelle D, Windisch J, Doerfler D, Marth C, Kropshofer S
Urology. 2006 Mar;67(3):524-8; discussion 528-9.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether the tension-free vaginal tape operation changes urethral hypermobility, funneling, and urethral urodynamic parameters in different parts of the urethra. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of our first 80 unselected female patients (age 36 to 78 years, median 53) undergoing a tension-free vaginal tape procedure. Urethral pressure profile measurements were done before and 6 and 12 months after the operation. Lateral cystography was performed before and after surgery in 50 patients. Of the 80 women, 29 had previously undergone prolapse or incontinence surgery. Parameter-free techniques were used for statistical evaluation. RESULTS: Five patients were lost to follow-up. On an intention-to-treat basis, 66% of the patients were objectively and subjectively cured, 20% were objectively dry but subjectively occasionally incontinent, and 14% had treatment failure. The maximal urethral closure pressure at rest showed no significant changes (median baseline and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, 44, 40, and 38 cm H(2)O, respectively). The pressure transmission ratio increased in the proximal urethra (median 107.5%, 122.5%, and 123.5% at baseline and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, respectively, P <0.05) and distal urethra (median 80%, 112%, 107.5% at baseline and 6 and 12 months postoperatively, respectively, P <0.01). The downward movement of the bladder neck during the Valsalva maneuver decreased (median 2.3 cm preoperatively versus 1.7 cm postoperatively, P <0.001). Urethral rotation was diminished (median 35.5 degrees versus 23 degrees , P <0.01). Funneling was seen postoperatively in only 5 of 25 preoperative cases. CONCLUSIONS: The tension-free vaginal tape procedure stabilizes the urethra anatomically and improves funneling and pressure transmission ratios all along the urethra. The maximal urethral closure pressure at rest decreased without statistical significance.

Re: David-Montefiore E, Frobert J-L, Grisard-Anaf M, Lienhart J, Bonnet K, Poncelet Ch, Darai E, Peri-Operative Complications and Pain after the Suburethral Sling Procedure for Urinary Stress, Incontinence: A French Prospective Randomised Multicentre Stud
Darai E, David-Montefiore E
Eur Urol. 2006 Feb 24;.

Interview with Chris Chapple Overactive Bladder: Tackling the Problem.
McKillop C
Eur Urol. 2006 Mar 10;.

Artificial Urinary Sphincter: 11-Year Experience in Adolescents with Congenital Neuropathic Bladder.
Lopez Pereira P, Somoza Ariba I, Martinez Urrutia MJ, Lobato Romero R, Jaureguizar Monroe E
Eur Urol. 2006 Mar 3;.

OBJECTIVE: We assess our experience over the last 11 years in the use of an artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) to treat urinary incontinence in children with neuropathic bladders. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between 1994 and 2005 an AUS was implanted in 35 patients (mean age 14.4; range 11.5-18). Upper urinary tract (UUT) evaluations and urodynamic studies were performed in all patients pre- and post-AUS implantation. Thirteen patients underwent enterocystoplasty combined with AUS placement and 22 underwent AUS implantation alone. RESULTS: An AUS was implanted in 35 patients. Mean follow-up is 5.5 years (range 0.4-11 years). Nine mechanical malfunctions occurred in seven patients (20%). Of the 22 patients who underwent AUS implantation alone, seven (31.2%) eventually required an enterocystoplasty because of unexpected bladder behaviour changes, usually within three years of AUS implantation. In seven patients (20%), a continent catheterisable stoma was made (before or during the follow-up) because of problems with clean intermittent catheterisation (CIC) through the urethra. Three AUS (8.6%) were removed because of sphincter erosion at the bladder neck. All 32 patients (91.4%) with the AUS currently in place are dry, three void their bladders spontaneously, and 29 need CIC. CONCLUSIONS: AUS must be considered as an elective treatment in the surgical management of these patients because it produces better continence rates than other methods. However, these patients need long-term follow-up because their bladder behaviour may undergo unexpected clinically asymptomatic changes that could negatively affect their UUT and require bladder augmentation.

Interaction of duloxetine and warfarin causing severe elevation of international normalized ratio.
Glueck CJ, Khalil Q, Winiarska M, Wang P
JAMA. 2006 Apr 5;295(13):1517-8.

Recurrent stress incontinence is associated with decreased neuromuscular function in the striated urethral sphincter.
Kenton K, Mahajan S, Fitzgerald MP, Brubaker L
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar 28;.

OBJECTIVE: The study aim was to compare urethral neuromuscular function in stress incontinent women with and without previous incontinence surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Urethral electromyographic (EMG) data for women with recurrent urodynamic stress incontinence following 1 previous continence procedure were compared to age- and parity-matched women with urodynamic stress incontinence (USI) without previous incontinence surgery. The cases with recurrent USI included 13 women with 1 previous sling and 13 women with 1 previous Burch. EMG signals were obtained at rest, with cough, and during pelvic floor contraction using an automated software program. EMG data from recurrent cases were compared with controls. RESULTS: Women with recurrent stress incontinence after 1 previous continence procedure had lower quantitative EMG values than women without previous surgery. Specifically, we observed that women with previous sling had significantly lower quantitative EMG values with cough (P = .007), while baseline and squeeze values were not significantly different. Women with previous Burch had cough EMG values intermediate between the control and previous sling group, which trended toward statistical significance (P = .057). CONCLUSION: Women with recurrent urodynamic stress incontinence after previous slings have poorer urethral neuromuscular function than stress incontinent women without previous incontinence surgery.

[Evaluation of the Global Abdominal Method (ABDO-MG) in the treatment of urinary incontinence]
Godbout M, Le Tu M, Watier A, Black R
Prog Urol. 2005 Sep;15(4):756-61.

AIMS OF STUDY: Assessment of the Abdominal Global Method (ABDO-MG) in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence or mixed incontinence with stress predominance in women. METHODS: Thirty patients with clinically and urodynamically proven genuine stress incontinence or mixed incontinence with stress predominance were enrolled. Patients had 4 weeks of ABDO-MG technique under supervision and a home unit to do their exercises, then 8 weeks of home exercises without home unit or supervision. We compared the results for each patient before the treatment, at 4 and 12 weeks post initiation of the technique. Main outcome measures were short Pad test with standardized bladder volume and exercises as well as self-report of degrees of incontinence. RESULTS: The data showed improvement in leakage on short Pad test from 82.0 g before versus 38.8 g and 24.8 g at 4 and 12 weeks respectively (p = 0.0002). Seventeen of thirty patients were completely dry. All patients reported improvement of their condition after 4 weeks of exercises and almost cure at 12 weeks (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating the clinical efficacy, both objectively and subjectively, of the technique ABDO-MG in the treatment of genuine stress urinary incontinence and mixed incontinence with stress predominance in women. Our data are encouraging, however long-term study with control group is warranted.

Urinary Incontinence in a Group of Primiparous Women in the Czech Republic.
Sottner O, Zahumensky J, Krcmar M, Brtnicka H, Kolarik D, Driak D, Halaska M
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006 Mar 2;62(1):33-37.

Background/Aim: Not only the process of childbirth itself, but also processes during pregnancy seem to be strongly associated with urinary incontinence (UI). According to some epidemiological studies, UI during pregnancy occurs in 23-70% of the pregnant women. These studies also documented some risk factors (e.g., race, age, or body mass index). The aim of our study was to explore the prevalence of UI during pregnancy in the Czech Republic. Methods: 474 primiparas who gave birth at our maternity ward from June 14, 2004, through January 31, 2005, received a questionnaire. The questionnaire concentrated on the occurrence and presentation of UI before and during pregnancy . Results: 339 women (72%) completed the questionnaire. UI and the length of pregnancy are significantly related. We found a baseline UI prevalence before pregnancy of 17%, but before delivery one of 64%. We did not find any statistically significant relation between the prevalence of UI during pregnancy and body mass index before pregnancy as well as before delivery, weight gain during pregnancy, age, and birth weight. Conclusion: Our results show that pregnancy is a risk factor for the development of UI. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Age Is Not a Limiting Factor for Midurethral Sling Procedures in the Elderly with Urinary Incontinence.
Ku JH, Oh JG, Shin JW, Kim SW, Paick JS
Gynecol Obstet Invest. 2006 Feb 6;61(4):194-199.

Objective: The object was to evaluate clinical outcome of the midurethral sling procedures in the elderly compared with middle-aged women. Methods: A total of 266 women who underwent midurethral sling procedures with at least follow-up greater than 6 months were included in the study. Patients were divided as the elderly group (65 years old or older, n = 60) and the middle-aged group (45-64 years old, n = 206). Results: Although postoperative urge symptoms were more prevalent in the elderly group (25.0%) than in the middle-aged group (6.3%), there were no significant differences between the two groups for the rates of postoperative urge incontinence (p = 0.159). Stress incontinence was cured by 91.3% in the middle-aged group and 85.0% in the elderly group, respectively (p = 0.158). Conclusions: Age does not seem to be a significant risk factor for failure of midurethral sling procedures. Copyright (c) 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.

True prevalence of urinary incontinence among female nursing home residents.
Anger JT, Saigal CS, Pace J, Rodriguez LV, Litwin MS
Urology. 2006 Feb;67(2):281-7.

OBJECTIVES: Urinary incontinence is a significant problem in nursing home residents in the United States. Estimates of its prevalence have often been based on data from medical records obtained at nursing home admission. To measure the sensitivity of this method of defining the prevalence of urinary incontinence among female nursing home residents, we examined data from a clinical survey. METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Nursing Home Survey, which collected information from nursing homes for each resident concerning admission diagnoses, presence of an indwelling Foley catheter or ostomy, need for assistance from equipment or personnel in using the toilet, and difficulty controlling urination. RESULTS: Residents' medical records revealed a very low rate of admission diagnoses of incontinence. However, clinical queries revealed a high prevalence of bladder dysfunction. More than one half of all female nursing home residents were reported to have "difficulty controlling urination," and more than one half needed assistance in using the toilet. CONCLUSIONS: Although only 1% to 2% of nursing home residents have a diagnosis of urinary incontinence, the true prevalence of bladder dysfunction in this group is much greater. The sharp divergence of National Nursing Home Survey data from published studies on the prevalence of incontinence in nursing homes highlights the limitations of using administrative data to study the epidemiology of bladder dysfunction.

Multicenter phase III trial studying trospium chloride in patients with overactive bladder.
Rudy D, Cline K, Harris R, Goldberg K, Dmochowski R
Urology. 2006 Feb;67(2):275-80.

OBJECTIVES: To study the efficacy and safety of trospium chloride in treating overactive bladder. Trospium chloride is an anticholinergic agent with predominantly peripheral nonselective antimuscarinic activity and thus has potential therapeutic value in treating patients with overactive bladder. METHODS: Patients with overactive bladder were randomized on a 1:1 basis to either placebo or trospium chloride 20 mg twice daily in this 12-week, multicenter, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. The primary endpoint was the change in the average number of toilet voids per 24 hours. The secondary efficacy variables were changes in the average void urgency severity, volume per toilet void, urge frequency, number of daily urge urinary incontinence episodes, and daytime sleepiness. RESULTS: A total of 658 patients were randomized at 52 sites. Trospium chloride significantly decreased the average number of daily toilet voids, average urgency severity, urge frequency, and urge urinary incontinence episodes and increased the average volume per void at weeks 1, 4, and 12. All effects occurred by the end of week 1 and all improved and were sustained throughout the 12-week study. Adverse events included dry mouth and constipation. CONCLUSIONS: Trospium chloride had significant and sustained effectiveness beginning at the end of week 1 and continuing through 12 weeks of treatment. Trospium chloride was also safe and generally well tolerated.

Periurethral mass formations following bulking agent injection for the treatment of urinary incontinence.
Madjar S, Sharma AK, Waltzer WC, Frischer Z, Secrest CL
J Urol. 2006 Apr;175(4):1408-10.

PURPOSE: Durasphere(R) is gaining popularity as a bulking agent for treating women with stress urinary incontinence. We present a series of patients with periurethral mass formation following Durasphere(R) injection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The charts of 135 women with a mean age of 69.4 years (range 46 to 83) who underwent Durasphere(R) periurethral injections were retrospectively reviewed. Patients who had a periurethral mass were identified and their clinical data were collected and analyzed. RESULTS: Four patients (2.9%) were diagnosed with periurethral mass formation 12 to 18 months (average 14.7) following a Durasphere(R) injection. Clinical presentation varied, including irritative voiding symptoms, pelvic pain and urinary incontinence. All patients were found to have a tender and tense periurethral mass. A radiopaque mass was revealed during videourodynamic study in 1 patient. Incision, and transvaginal and endoscopic drainage or transvaginal excision were used to treat these masses. Intraoperative and pathological findings as well as operative outcomes are presented. CONCLUSIONS: Irritative or obstructing voiding symptoms, pelvic pain or a periurethral mass in patients with a history of Durasphere(R) or other periurethral bulking agent injection should alert the physician to the possibility of periurethral mass formation. The true incidence of this late complication remains to be determined.

When the sling is too proximal: a specific mechanism of persistent stress incontinence after pubovaginal sling placement.
Morey AF
J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 1):986.

Sacral neuromodulation in women with idiopathic detrusor overactivity incontinence: decreased overactivity but unchanged bladder contraction strength and urethral resistance during voiding.
Groen J, Ruud Bosch JL, van Mastrigt R
J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 1):1005-9; discussion 1009.

PURPOSE: We evaluated the effect of sacral (S3) nerve neuromodulation on voiding in women with idiopathic detrusor overactivity incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic measurements in all patients implanted in 1990 to 2003 were reconsidered. Patients were included if these measurements, which were done at baseline and after 6 months, could be analyzed completely and reliably. Maximum detrusor pressure, amplitude of the highest involuntary detrusor contraction and end fill volume were used as parameters characterizing the degree of detrusor overactivity. Urethral resistance and bladder contraction strength during voiding were characterized by the bladder outlet obstruction index, the urethral resistance factor, average pressure, the slope of the low pressure side of the pressure flow plot, the bladder contractility index and the bladder contraction strength parameter. RESULTS: A total of 33 women were included. Detrusor overactivity parameters were significantly improved at followup. In addition, the supine position of the patient during filling in followup measurements proved less provocative with respect to overactivity than the standing position in the majority of measurements at baseline. Consequently bladder volumes at which voiding was initiated were considerably higher at followup. Changes in the parameters characterizing urethral resistance and bladder contraction strength during voiding were not unambiguous. However, exactly those parameters that appeared volume independent in a previous study were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed the depressant effect of sacral (S3) nerve neuromodulation on detrusor overactivity. No effect on urethral resistance and bladder contraction strength during voiding could be demonstrated using volume independent parameters.

Safety and tolerability of tolterodine for the treatment of overactive bladder in men with bladder outlet obstruction.
Abrams P, Kaplan S, De Koning Gans HJ, Millard R
J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 1):999-1004; discussion 1004.

PURPOSE: Antimuscarinic therapy for men with OAB and BOO is perceived as a potential risk for urinary retention. Using pressure flow urodynamics, we evaluated the safety of tolterodine vs placebo in men with OAB and BOO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Men (older than 40 years) with BOO and confirmed detrusor overactivity were randomized to tolterodine (2 mg twice daily in 149) or placebo (in 72) for 12 weeks. Primary end points were Qmax and pdetQmax. RESULTS: Median treatment differences in Qmax (-0.7 ml per second, 95% CI -1.6 to 0.4) and pdetQmax (-7 cm H2O, 95% CI -3 to 11) were comparable. Tolterodine significantly reduced the BOOI vs placebo (-9 vs 0, p < 0.02). There were significant treatment differences in volume to first detrusor contraction (+59 ml, 95% CI 19-100) and maximum cystometric capacity (+67 ml, 95% CI 35-103), favoring tolterodine over placebo (p < 0.003). Change in PVR was significantly greater among patients treated with tolterodine (+25 ml) than placebo (0 ml, p < 0.004). There were no significant between-group differences in the incidence of adverse events. Urinary retention was reported by 1 patient treated with placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Tolterodine did not adversely affect urinary function in men with OAB and BOO. Urinary flow rate was unaltered, and there was no evidence of clinically meaningful changes in voiding pressure and PVR or urinary retention. Tolterodine was well tolerated. These results suggest that antimuscarinics can be safely administered in men with BOO.

Brain activation during detrusor overactivity in patients with Parkinson's disease: a positron emission tomography study.
Kitta T, Kakizaki H, Furuno T, Moriya K, Tanaka H, Shiga T, Tamaki N, Yabe I, Sasaki H, Nonomura K
J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 1):994-8.

PURPOSE: Patients with Parkinson's disease often have urine storage symptoms, such as urinary urgency, frequency and incontinence, which are induced by detrusor overactivity. However, little is known of the mechanisms inducing detrusor overactivity in this disease. We have previously examined the human brain response to bladder filling in healthy male volunteers using positron emission tomography. We hypothesized that brain activation patterns in response to bladder filling would be different in patients with Parkinson's disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nine male patients with Parkinson's disease were catheterized via the urethra for bladder filling and intravesical pressure monitoring. We performed positron emission tomography, consisting of tasks 1 and 2. For task 1 the bladder was maintained empty via the urethral catheter. For task 2 room temperature water was dripped for bladder filling until the onset of detrusor overactivity. Data acquisition for task 2 was done during detrusor overactivity. Data on each scan were summed on a computer and further analyzed using a statistical parametric mapping procedure. RESULTS: Significant brain activation during detrusor overactivity was found in the periaqueductal gray, supplementary motor area, cerebellar vermis, insula, putamen and thalamus. The most prominent activation was found in the cerebellum. The pons was not activated during detrusor overactivity. CONCLUSIONS: Alteration in brain activation sites in response to bladder filling may be related to the pathophysiology of detrusor overactivity in patients with Parkinson's disease.

Childhood urinary symptoms predict adult overactive bladder symptoms.
Fitzgerald MP, Thom DH, Wassel-Fyr C, Subak L, Brubaker L, Van Den Eeden SK, Brown JS
J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Pt 1):989-93.

PURPOSE: A relationship between childhood urinary symptoms and adult lower urinary tract symptoms in women is often clinically suspected. In this analysis we investigated the relationship between childhood and adult urinary symptoms in middle-aged women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population based cohort of 2,109 women 40 to 69 years old who were members of a large health maintenance organization was randomly selected from age and race strata. Through self-reported questionnaires, women recalled a childhood history of and current urinary lower urinary tract symptoms, including frequent daytime urination, nocturia, urinary incontinence, nocturnal enuresis and UTIs. Current incontinence was also classified as urge or stress incontinence. Multivariate analysis was used to evaluate the association between childhood and current lower urinary tract symptoms controlling for age, race, hysterectomy status, parity, oral estrogen use, body mass index and diabetes. RESULTS: Women who reported childhood daytime frequency were more likely to report adult urgency (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.3-2.6, p < 0.001). Frequent nocturia in childhood was strongly associated with adult nocturia (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5, p < 0.001). Childhood daytime incontinence was associated with adult urge incontinence (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-5.9, p < 0.05), as was childhood nocturnal enuresis (OR 2.7, CI 1.3-5.5, p < 0.01). A history of more than 1 childhood UTI was associated with adult UTIs (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.5-4.5, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood urinary symptoms and UTIs were significantly associated with adult overactive bladder symptoms. There is a need to investigate the significance of childhood symptoms as predictors of eventual adult disorders to determine whether treatment of childhood symptoms will alter the prevalence of eventual adult disorders, and if such a history should alter clinical care of the older adult with OAB symptoms.

Long-term effects of dextranomer endoscopic injections for treatment of urinary incontinence: an update of a prospective study of 31 patients.
Lottmann HB, Margaryan M, Bernuy M, Grosz A, Aigrain Y, Lortat-Jacob S, Lackgren G
J Urol. 2006 Apr;175(4):1485-9.

PURPOSE: A prospective study was initiated 7 years previously to assess the efficacy of endoscopic dextranomer based implants for pediatric structural incontinence. Preliminary results revealed that at 3 years 50% of the patients were either dry or significantly improved. We report long-term results in the same cohort of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 33 children and adolescents 5 to 18 years old with severe incontinence due to sphincteric incompetence (exstrophy-epispadias complex in 13, neuropathic bladder in 16, bilateral ectopic ureter in 4) were enrolled. Of the patients 13 underwent 2 and 4 underwent 3 treatment sessions to achieve a definitive result. Mean injected volume was 3.9 ml (range 1.6 to 12) per session. At each evaluation patients were considered cured (dryness interval 4 hours), significantly improved (minimal incontinence requiring no more than 1 pad daily and no further treatment required) or treatment failures (no significant improvement). Videourodynamics were used to study the evolution of the bladder capacity, activity and compliance. A total of 31 patients were followed 3 to 7 years after the last injection. RESULTS: At 3 years after treatment 15 of 30 patients (50%) were dry or improved. One patient who had leakage after 3 years of dryness due to bladder deterioration subsequently underwent ileocystoplasty. At 4 years 12 of 25 patients (48%) were dry or improved. At 5 years 9 of 21 patients (43%) were dry, as were 4 of 11 (36%) at 6 years and 2 of 5 (40%) at 7 years of followup. The success rate according to pathological evaluation was comparable in neuropathic bladders (7 of 14, or 50%), exstrophy (3 of 6, or 50%) and epispadias (3 of 7, or 43%). Of 12 patients who underwent bladder neck plasty before the injection of bulking agent 7 (58%) were either dry or improved. The success rate was higher in males (13 of 23, or 57%) than in females (3 of 8, or 38%). Also, at puberty 2 males who were improved became dry. Bladder capacity increased in 12 of 18 initially small bladders and remained normal and stable in 9, while 4 initially dry patients had development of recurrent leakage secondary to bladder deterioration and underwent augmentation. Otherwise, there were no long-term side effects observed related to the injection of the bulking agent. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic treatment of severe organic urinary incontinence with dextranomer is durable for up to 7 years of followup in 40% of the patients.

A comparison of periurethral blood flow resistive indices and urethral closure pressure of incontinent women.
Hall R, Kkhalsa S, Qualls C, Rogers RG
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 7;.

This study correlated Doppler resistive indices (RIs) with maximum urethral closure pressures (MUCPs) in women with stress urinary incontinence. We hypothesized that urethral blood flow would be inversely correlated to urethral closure pressures. Fifty-three women underwent spectral Doppler waveform analyses of periurethral vasculature to calculate RI. Urethral morphology including pubovesicular length (PVL) with and without cough was measured. MUCPs were obtained according to International Continence Society guidelines. Physical exam and history were also obtained. Correlation coefficients were calculated for comparisons of Doppler measurements and closure pressures. Fifty patients were required to detect a difference between no correlation and a modest correlation of 0.38 with 80% power and alpha of 0.05. Significance is set at p<0.05. Measurements were reproducible between Doppler waveforms and MUCP measurements (all p=NS). RI was not correlated with age, parity, MUCP, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 scores, urethral length, or urethral width (all p=NS). RI and MUCP were likewise not associated with history of diabetes, hypertension, or anterior vaginal prolapse to or beyond the hymen (all p=NS). MUCP was negatively correlated with age (r=-0.33, p=0.01) even when controlled for hormonal status (ANCOVA, p=0.003) and positively correlated with urethral/bladder neck diameter (r=27, p=0.05), PVL (r=0.30, p=0.03), and PVL with cough (r=0.36, p=0.009).

TVT vs Monarc: a comparative study.
Dietz HP, Barry C, Lim Y, Rane A
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 7;.

Following the success of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT), there has been considerable interest in technique modifications such as the transobturator approach for implant placement. We attempted to elucidate possible anatomical and clinical differences between the two methods in a retrospective cohort study. One hundred and fourteen women who had undergone TVT or Monarc implantation were assessed by or under the supervision of the senior author, with identical tensioning technique. They were followed up by an interview, uroflowmetry, and translabial 3D ultrasound. There were significant differences for patient satisfaction (P=0.013), subjective overall cure/improvement (P=0.0018), and the symptom of poor stream (P=0.03), all favoring the Monarc group. On imaging Monarc tapes appeared more proximal at rest (P=0.006) and Valsalva (P=0.002) and remained further from the symphysis pubis on Valsalva (P=0.01). At 9 months follow-up, there was no significant difference as regards to cure rates for stress incontinence between the two suburethral slings. Monarc tapes are located more proximally and may be less obstructive, judging from a lower incidence of symptoms of voiding dysfunction. Patient satisfaction and overall subjective cure/improvement were higher after Monarc. In summary, the Monarc is an effective TVT alternative, achieving cure of stress incontinence by similar means. It may be less obstructive, resulting in improved patient satisfaction.

Changing prevalence and knowledge of urinary incontinence among Hong Kong Chinese women.
Wong T, Lau BY, Mak HL, Pang MW, Cheon C, Yip SK
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Mar 7;.

A territory-wide telephone survey was conducted in Hong Kong to assess the prevalence, knowledge, and treatment-seeking behaviour of Chinese women with urinary incontinence, using validated Chinese version of Urogenital Distress Inventory (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire (IIQ-7). Women, 540, aged between 17 to 77 years were interviewed. Of the respondents, 40.8% reported stress urinary incontinence, 20.4% had urge incontinence and 15.9% had mixed incontinence. Among these, 16.0% reported quality of life impairment; 9.3% felt frustrated with low morale, and 15.2% had nervous and anxiety problems. However, as many as 78.3% of the respondents did not know that stress urinary incontinence is a disease entity, and 60.6% thought that leakage of urine was a normal aging process. For those respondents having stress urinary incontinence, the first treatment of choice was physiotherapy. The second choice was medication, and surgical treatment was the last option. Respondents with stress urinary incontinence showed higher education level.

[Management of serious infectious complications of transobturator suburethral tape: report of 2 cases]
Al Nakib M, Garcia G, Bastide C, Tomatis L, Ragni E, Rossi D
Prog Urol. 2005 Sep;15(4):707-9.

Suburethral TVT tape has become immensely popular since its invention in 1995. A new transobturator surgical approach was proposed in 2001, resulting in a modification of the quality of the tape available from various suppliers. The authors present 2 cases of obturator foramen abscess related to suburethral Uratape, occurring a long time after the procedure and requiring complete removal of the tape. These infections can be prevented by using good quality tape, which must be made from monofilament large-mesh woven polypropylene. The tape must be completely removed as early as possible in the case of vaginal erosion, even asymptomatic, via a transobturator approach, if necessary.

[Transobturator surgery for female urinary continence: from outside to inside or from inside to outside: a comparative anatomic study]
Spinosa JP, Dubuis PY, Riederer B
Prog Urol. 2005 Sep;15(4):700-6.

OBJECTIVE: Transobturator route is now largely used for the positioning of the supporting sub uretral tape in the surgical treatment of female urinary incontinence. This operation can be done using the original technique from the outside to the inside or by inside to outside. Our anatomic study evaluates the specific dangers of each MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our study is based on the dissection of seven fresh bodies, therefore 14 obturator regions. The dissections were done after the positioning of the tape from outside to inside on one side and inside to outside on the other side. We particularly studied the distances separating the tape from the inferior pudendal vascular bundle and the posterior branch of the obturator nerve. RESULTS: With the inside - outside technique there is a greater proximity between the path of the tape and the studied structures, therefore the risk of damage is greater. CONCLUSIONS: The two techniques are not equivalent. There are less vascular and neurological risk using the original outside to inside technique.

[Anatomy of obturated foramen. Application to trans-obturator slings]
Cohen D, Delmas V, Boccon-Gibod L
Prog Urol. 2005 Sep;15(4):693-9.

The development of the trans-obturator sling in the treatment of female incontinence created a renewal of interest for the study of the anatomy of the obturator region, as shows the recent anatomical studies published on the subject. The objective being to consider the risks of bladder and vasculo-nervous injuries of this new way. The risk of wound of the bladder is small as concerns this technique of the mode of insetion of the sling (outside inside or inside outside) because the sling is in a strictly perineal way. The risk of damage caused in the vasculo-nervous elements of the obturator region is weak considering the position of the sling with regard to the main pedicles. These are either for distance of the sling for the obturator and femoral vessels and the saphenous vein, or protected by the obturator bone frame for the pudendal pedicle and the anterior branch of the obturator artery, or they are reduced to the state of capillaries or nerve ending. The trans-obturator sling presents the advantage to allow a strictly perineal, horizontal situation of the sling, which restores the system of a natural sub-urethral vaginal sling, avoiding complications due to the penetration of the Retzius space and of the pelvian cavity.

[Place of duloxetine in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence]
Roupret M, Richard F, Chartier-Kastler E
Prog Urol. 2005 Sep;15(4):689-92.

Urinary incontinence is a public health problem, as more than three million women in France are concerned by this problem. The prevalence of stress urinary incontinence is about 40% among these women. Duloxetine is a molecule developed for the oral treatment of stress urinary incontinence. It is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, which acts by increasing urethral sphincter tone. In several phase III trials, duloxetine administered orally at a high dose of 80 mg per day, significantly reduced episodes of incontinence. Total scores on the Incontinence Quality of Life questionnaire (I-QOL) were more markedly improved by duloxetine than by placebo. Nausea was an adverse effect observed in more than 25% of cases and required discontinuation of treatment in some patients. However, the encouraging preliminary results of duloxetine in this indication must be confirmed during phase IV post-marketing clinical trials.

Duloxetine for Male Stress Incontinence.
Chapple CR
Eur Urol. 2006 Feb 24;.

[TVT associated with other gynecological operations in the same procedure: results and complications]
Sola Dalenz V, Pardo Schanz J, Ricci Arriola P, Guiloff Fische E, Chiang Miranda H
Arch Esp Urol. 2005 Dec;58(10):983-8.

OBJECTIVES: We report our experienced with TVT combined with other gynecological procedures, and the complications appeared intraoperative and during the immediate postoperative period. METHODS: Between October 2001 and March 2004 76 patients underwent TVT procedures following the classic technique in the Urogynecology and Vaginal Surgery Unit of Las Condes Clinic. Median age was 53 years old. Urodynamic tests had demonstrated genuine stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (49 cases), intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD) (5 cases), and mixed urinary incontinence (MUI) (22 cases). In 61 cases (80.3%) TVT was associated with another gynecological surgery. RESULTS: 82 gynecological operations were associated to TVT Twenty one patients underwent 2 procedures (34%) and 40 patients one (66%). Laparoscopic surgery 25 cases (41%). Vaginoplasty was the most frequent procedure in 49 cases (80%), laparoscopic hysterectomy 17 (28%), vaginal hysterectomy 5 (8%), laparoscopically assisted vaginal hysterectomy 5 (8%), laparoscopic tubal ligation 3 (5%), Gargiulo operation 1 (2%), annexectomy 1 (2%), and trachelectomy 1 (2%). Introoperative complications appeared in 4 patients (6.6%). 3 cases of bladder perforation (5%), and 1 case of parietal peritoneum perforation (1.6%). No surgical intervention was necessary to solve complications. Two cases of transitory acute urinary retention appeared in the immediate postoperative period. CONCLUSIONS: Our clinical experience demonstrates that the combination of TVT with other gynecological operations in the same procedure is effective and safe. It enables a more comprehensive solution of patient's problems in the same procedure without increasing morbidity.

Health care discussions and treatment for urinary incontinence in U.S. women.
Melville JL, Newton K, Fan MY, Katon W
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar;194(3):729-37.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine the proportions of women with urinary incontinence who had discussed their condition with a health care provider or received treatment and to identify factors associated with seeking health care. STUDY DESIGN: The study was a population-based, age-stratified postal survey of 6000 women aged 30 to 90 years enrolled in a large health maintenance organization in Washington state. RESULTS: The response rate was 64% (n = 3536) after applying exclusion criteria. Eighty percent (n = 1160) of women with urinary incontinence completed a detailed set of questions on care seeking and treatments. Fifty percent had discussed their incontinence with a health care provider, 21% reported receiving surgery or prescription medication, 10% reported performing Kegel exercises, and 48% reported wearing a pad to absorb urine daily or weekly. The following factors were significantly associated with odds of discussing urinary incontinence with a health care provider: age (50 to 69 years, adjusted odds ratio 1.5 [1.1 to 2.0]; 70 to 89 years, adjusted odds ratio 1.9 [1.4, 2.7]); duration of urinary incontinence (2 to 5 years, adjusted odds ratio 1.9 [1.3 to 2.8]; more than 5 years, adjusted odds ratio 2.8 [2.0,4.1]); severe urinary incontinence (adjusted odds ratio 1.7 [1.2 to 2.6]); and greater effect on daily activities (adjusted odds ratio 2.7 [1.9,3.8]). CONCLUSION: Among women with urinary incontinence, one half have discussed their incontinence with a health care provider and one third have received any form of treatment.

Patient-centered surgical outcomes: the impact of goal achievement and urge incontinence on patient satisfaction one year after surgery.
Mahajan ST, Elkadry EA, Kenton KS, Shott S, Brubaker L
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar;194(3):722-8.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess factors that influence patient satisfaction 1 year after pelvic reconstructive surgery. STUDY DESIGN: We previously reported the objective success, goals, and expectations of a cohort of 78 patients 3 months after surgery. A second blinded independent physician investigator contacted the same patients by phone to reassess these items 1 year after surgery. Data were analyzed with the Spearman correlation, the Mann-Whitney test, the chi-squared test of association, and the Friedman test. RESULTS: Seventy patients (89%) of the original cohort completed the second assessment. Although group satisfaction and goal achievement were stable (P < .01), 70% of patients reported a change in their satisfaction ratings between 3 months and 1 year (rho = 0.3). Reduced satisfaction between 3 and 12 months after surgery was strongly associated with decreased goal achievement (rho = 0.47; P = .006). Fifty-six percent of patients reported urge incontinence symptoms after surgery (44% de novo and 12% persistent). Urge incontinence was the most common reason for patient dissatisfaction after surgery (P = .04). CONCLUSION: Symptoms of urge incontinence and reduced achievement of subjective surgical goals are associated with decreased long-term patient satisfaction after reconstructive pelvic surgery.

Overactive Bladder: Prevalence and Implications in Brazil.
Teloken C, Caraver F, Weber FA, Teloken PE, Moraes JF, Sogari PR, Graziottin TM
Eur Urol. 2006 Feb 9;.

OBJECTIVES: To assess overactive bladder (OAB) prevalence, associated factors and implications in a young population. METHODS: An independent population-based study was carried out. A self-applicative questionnaire covering urinary symptoms, coping strategies, quality of life and treatment seeking behavior was developed. RESULTS: A total of 848 subjects between 15 and 55 years completed the questionnaire. The overall prevalence of OAB was 18.9%. Women were significantly more affected than men (p=0.001). All age groups were equally affected (p=0.152). Subjects with OAB reported significant impairment on household chores (p=0.009), physical activities (p=0.016), sleep (p<0.001), work (p<0.001), social life (p<0.001) and sexual life (p<0.001). In addition, OAB individuals present higher prevalence of depression (p=0.036), anxiety (p<0.001), shame (p<0.001) and tiredness (p<0.001) OAB was independently associated to sexual life impairment (OR=3.36, 95% CI=1.20-9.39). Only 27.5% of OAB subjects sought for medical counseling. CONCLUSIONS: OAB is a highly prevalent condition, even in such a young population. It affects both genders, yet it is more frequently observed in women. OAB is an important health condition, with serious impact on quality of life and sexual function. A large percentual of individuals remain unrecognized, under treated and consequently suffer for long periods of time.

The Validation of the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC): A Single-item Global Measure for Patients with Overactive Bladder.
Coyne KS, Matza LS, Kopp Z, Abrams P
Eur Urol. 2006 Jan 24;.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and responsiveness of a global measure for overactive bladder (OAB), the Patient Perception of Bladder Condition (PPBC). METHODS: Post-hoc analyses were conducted on two 12-wk clinical trials for OAB (study 1: n=865; study 2: n=520). In addition to the PPBC, patients completed two condition-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures, the Overactive Bladder Questionnaire (OAB-q) and King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ), and bladder diaries at baseline and 12 wk. Validity of the PPBC was evaluated through correlations with baseline diaries, OAB-q, and KHQ. The responsiveness of the PPBC was evaluated using correlations and general linear models to assess the degree of association between change in PPBC and change in the diaries, OAB-q, and KHQ. RESULTS: Both samples were primarily women and white with mean ages of 61.0 and 58.8 yr. The majority of patients were incontinent (75.3% and 80.4%) with the greatest proportion of patients indicating that they had "moderate problems" (47.5% and 51.2%) on the PPBC at baseline. Significant correlations were present at baseline and among change scores between the PPBC and the bladder diaries (p<0.001), OAB-q (p<0.001), and KHQ (p<0.01). In both studies, patients with major PPBC improvement had significantly greater reductions in frequency, urgency episodes, incontinence episodes, and Symptom Bother and significantly greater improvements in HRQL than patients with only a minor PPBC improvement. CONCLUSION: The PPBC, a global patient-reported measure of bladder condition, demonstrated good construct validity and responsiveness to change. These findings support the use of the PPBC as a global assessment of bladder condition among patients with OAB.

Incidence and Remission of Female Urinary Incontinence Over 6.5 Years: Analysis of a Health Screening Project.
Wehrberger C, Temml C, Ponholzer A, Madersbacher S
Eur Urol. 2006 Feb 24;.

OBJECTIVES: To analyse the incidence and remission of female urinary incontinence (UI) over 6.5 years and to identify risk factors for the development of UI. METHODS: Women who underwent a health investigation in 1998 or 1999 in the area of Vienna completed the Bristol Female Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms questionnaire. In 2005, all women (n=925) aged >/=20 yr in 1999 who were still living in the area of Vienna were invited to recomplete the questionnaire. RESULTS: The response rate was 47.7% (n=441; age range, 20-84 yr), and the mean follow-up was 6.5 yr. The overall prevalence of UI was 32% at baseline and increased to 43% in 6.5 years. The mean annual cumulative incidence of UI was 3.9%, with the lowest rate (2.3%) in the youngest age group (20-39 yr) and the highest (7.3%) in those aged 70 yr or older. The mean annual full remission rate was 2.9%, with no clear age dependency. More than half (55.6%) of the women with a full remission had only a mild form of UI at baseline. In a multivariate analysis, urgency (p=0.008) and age (p=0.024) were correlated to the risk of de novo UI. CONCLUSIONS: This longitudinal study demonstrates that UI is not necessarily a progressive process but rather is a dynamic one.


Five cases of tape erosion after transobturator surgery for urinary incontinence.
Robert M, Murphy M, Birch C, Swaby C, Ross S
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;107(2):472-4.

BACKGROUND: Before introducing the transobturator tape into our practice we undertook 52 transobturator tape procedures. The transobturator tape procedures were undertaken with an "outside-in" approach, using nonwoven polypropylene mesh with average pore size of 50 mum. CASES: Five cases of vaginal erosions have been identified, 1 complicated by a groin abscess. All cases required further procedures to trim (n = 3), resect (n = 1) or remove (n = 1) the tape. One woman had a tension-free vaginal tape procedure. To date, 3 women remain incontinent. CONCLUSION: Possible reasons for the complications include 1) surgical inexperience (unlikely, given that we have undertaken more than 2000 tension-free vaginal tape procedures without similar complication rates); 2) inherent susceptibility of the "hammock" position of the transobturator tape; or 3) the nonwoven polypropylene tape with mesh size of 50 mum itself may predispose to erosion or abscess.

A multicenter evaluation of urinary incontinence management and outcome in spina bifida.
Lemelle JL, Guillemin F, Aubert D, Guys JM, Lottmann H, Lortat-Jacob S, Moscovici J, Mouriquand P, Ruffion A, Schmitt M
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):208-12.

PURPOSE: We describe urinary continence management and outcome in patients with spina bifida to identify the procedures that are most successful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a multicenter retrospective cohort study medical charts were studied. At the same time in a cross-sectional survey sociodemographic characteristics, orthopedic features and urinary continence were described based on the frequency of leakage from the viewpoint of patients or close relatives using a Likert scale of 5 items, namely 1-leakage permanent to 5-leakage never. RESULTS: A total of 421 patients were included, of whom 191 (45%) had been medically treated with a normal voiding pattern according to the patient viewpoint in 21%, clean intermittent catheterization in 61% and no specific bladder emptying method in 18%. The mean leakage score +/- SD was 2.74 +/- 1.55. On the other hand, 230 patients (55%) were surgically treated. Except for 23 patients who underwent noncontinent urinary diversion 207 were considered for treatment and continence description. The mean leakage score was 3.45 +/- 1.60. An artificial urinary sphincter in male and females, and a sling or Kropp technique in females were satisfactory when bladder enlargement was not required. In cases of bladder augmentation without continent diversion an artificial urinary sphincter in males and a bladder neck sling or cinch, Kropp and Young-Dees procedures in females have provided the best results. In cases of bladder enlargement with continent urinary diversion bladder neck closure or a wrap have provided the best results whatever the patient sex. CONCLUSIONS: Many factors may influence the choice of a technique, such as patient sex, bladder characteristics or orthopedic conditions. However, since to our knowledge no randomized, controlled study has been yet performed, definitive conclusions on the best way to achieve urinary continence in patients with spina bifida cannot be established.

Urinary incontinence--who should we trust and what should be asked?
Zimmern P
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):423-4.

Human muscarinic receptor binding characteristics of antimuscarinic agents to treat overactive bladder.
Maruyama S, Oki T, Otsuka A, Shinbo H, Ozono S, Kageyama S, Mikami Y, Araki I, Takeda M, Masuyama K, Yamada S
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):365-9.

PURPOSE: We characterized the binding affinities of several antimuscarinic agents in human muscarinic receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Competitive inhibitory effects of antimuscarinic agents on specific NMS [H] (PerkinElmer Life Sciences, Boston, Massachusetts) binding were examined in human tissue homogenates and in CHO-K1 cell membranes expressing human muscarinic receptor subtypes. RESULTS: Oxybutynin, propiverine, tolterodine, the respective metabolites DEOB, DPr-P-4(N-->O) and 5-HM, and darifenacin inhibited in concentration dependent fashion specific [(3)H]NMS binding in homogenates of the human bladder and parotid gland as well as in membranes of CHO-K1 cell lines expressing human muscarinic M(1) to M(5) receptor subtypes. Based on inhibition constant values the inhibitory effects of tolterodine, 5-HM and DPr-P-4(N-->O) were 1.4 to 1.7 times greater in the bladder than in the parotid gland, whereas the inhibitory effects of oxybutynin, DEOB, propiverine and darifenacin were 2 to 10 times greater in the parotid gland. Consequently tolterodine, 5-HM and DPr-P-4(N-->O) compared with oxybutynin, DEOB, propiverine and darifenacin were found to show 3 to 4 times greater affinity to muscarinic receptors in the human bladder than in the parotid gland. Tolterodine and 5-HM were 2-fold more potent for inhibiting specific [(3)H]NMS binding at cell membranes expressing the M(2) vs the M(3) subtype. Conversely oxybutynin, DEOB, propiverine, DPr-P-4(N-->O) and darifenacin showed 2 to 22 times higher affinity to the M(3) than to the M(2) subtype. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with oxybutynin, tolterodine, 5-HM and DPr-P-4(N-->O) may bind more selectively to muscarinic receptors in the human bladder than in the parotid gland.

Differences in prevalence of urinary incontinence by race/ethnicity.
Thom DH, van den Eeden SK, Ragins AI, Wassel-Fyr C, Vittinghof E, Subak LL, Brown JS
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):259-64.

PURPOSE: We compared the prevalence of urinary incontinence by type among white, black, Hispanic and Asian-American women. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The RRISK is a population based cohort study of 2,109 randomly selected middle-aged and older women. Incontinence and other variables were assessed by self-report questionnaires and in person interviews. Labor and delivery and surgical data were abstracted from medical records archived since 1946. Logistic regression was used to estimate the OR with 95% CIs for incontinence while adjusting for covariates. RESULTS: The age adjusted prevalence of weekly incontinence was highest among Hispanic women, followed by white, black and Asian-American women (36%, 30%, 25% and 19%, respectively, p <0.001). Type of incontinence also differed among groups, with weekly stress incontinence prevalence being 18%, 15%, 8% and 8% (p <0.001), and weekly urge incontinence prevalence being 10%, 9%, 14% and 7% (p <0.001). After adjustment for age, parity, hysterectomy, estrogen use, body mass, menopausal status and diabetes, the risk of stress incontinence remained significantly lower in black (adjusted OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.57) and Asian-American (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.86) women compared to white women. In contrast, the risk of urge incontinence was similar in black (adjusted OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.79-1.81) and Asian-American (adjusted OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.52-1.43) women compared to white women. CONCLUSIONS: Significant differences in the adjusted risk of stress incontinence among Hispanic, white, black and Asian-American women suggest the presence of additional, as yet unrecognized, risk or protective factors for stress incontinence.

Is the bladder a reliable witness for predicting detrusor overactivity?
Hashim H, Abrams P
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):191-4; discussion 194-5.

PURPOSE: We determined how well the symptoms of OAB syndrome correlate with urodynamic DO using International Continence Society definitions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included adult males and females 18 years or older who attended a tertiary referral center for urodynamics from February 2002 to February 2004. Patients were selected based on OAB syndrome symptoms (urgency, urgency urinary incontinence and frequency). The percent of patients who had symptoms alone or in combination and DO was calculated. RESULTS: There was a better correlation in results between OAB symptoms and the urodynamic diagnosis of DO in men than in women. Of men 69% and 44% of women with urgency (OAB dry) had DO, while 90% of men and 58% of women with urgency and urgency urinary incontinence (OAB wet) had DO. Stress urinary incontinence seems to have accounted for the decreased rates in women since 87% of women with urgency urinary incontinence also had the symptom of stress urinary incontinence. The ICS definition does not specify what constitutes abnormal voiding frequency. Analysis of results showed that increasing voiding frequency did not have any effect on increasing the accuracy of diagnosis of DO except in women with 10 or more daytime micturition episodes. CONCLUSIONS: The bladder is a better and more reliable witness in men than in women with a greater correlation between OAB symptoms and urodynamic DO, more so in the OAB wet than in OAB dry patients.

Severe mesh complications following intravaginal slingplasty.
Molloy WB
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;107(2):423.

Severe mesh complications following intravaginal slingplasty.
Richardson PA
Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;107(2):422.

Safety of carbon bead injection for incontinence in patients taking warfarin.
McCrery RJ, Appell RA
Urology. 2006 Jan;67(1):97-9.

OBJECTIVES: To determine the safety of the use of Durasphere in patients receiving warfarin anticoagulation. METHODS: This case series included patients requiring long-term anticoagulation who also had intrinsic sphincteric deficiency or mixed urinary incontinence, and bladder outlets without hypermobility. All patients, with the exception of the 1 man in the study, were treated under local anesthesia with periurethral carbon bead injections, while receiving therapeutic doses of warfarin. RESULTS: Between 1999 and 2004, 20 such patients received carbon bead injections, on 36 different occasions, during therapeutic warfarin administration. Two complications related to the anticoagulation were encountered, one minor complication of a small periurethral hematoma and the other more severe, with a patient developing urinary retention and intravesical hemorrhage. CONCLUSIONS: In most cases, the injection of carbon beads under local anesthesia in patients receiving therapeutic warfarin anticoagulation can be safely performed without reversal of the anticoagulation.

Life with incontinence.
Gartley C
Lancet. 2006 Jan 7;367(9504):68.

Urinary incontinence in women.
Norton P, Brubaker L
Lancet. 2006 Jan 7;367(9504):57-67.

Urinary incontinence is common in women, but is under-reported and under-treated. Urine storage and emptying is a complex coordination between the bladder and urethra, and disturbances in the system due to childbirth, aging, or other medical conditions can lead to urinary incontinence. The two main types of incontinence in women, stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence, can be evaluated by history and simple clinical assessment available to most primary care physicians. There is a wide range of therapeutic options, but the recent proliferation of new drug treatments and surgical devices for urinary incontinence have had mixed results; direct-to-consumer advertising has increased public awareness of the problem of urinary incontinence, but many new products are being introduced without long-term assessment of their safety and efficacy.

Overactive bladder: a better understanding of pathophysiology, diagnosis and management.
Wein AJ, Rackley RR
J Urol. 2006 Mar;175(3 Suppl):S5-S10.

PURPOSE: We reviewed current information regarding the updated definitions, prevalence, etiologies, disease burden, and management of OAB from a number of perspectives, including professional impact and patient quality of life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published literature and current treatment concepts were reviewed regarding the understanding and management of OAB. RESULTS: OAB is a symptom syndrome including urinary urgency with or without urinary incontinence, usually with frequency and nocturia. Approximately 17% of the adult population experience OAB. There are evolving theories regarding its pathophysiology and the mechanism of action of the most commonly prescribed pharmacological therapy (antimuscarinic agents). Treatment primarily revolves around improving quality of life. CONCLUSIONS: Behavioral therapy combined with pharmacological therapy often will bring about acceptable outcomes for patients with OAB. Modalities such as botulinum toxin injections, neuromodulation, and various surgical interventions also are showing encouraging results in more refractory patients.

Pharmacological treatment of women awaiting surgery for stress urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):631-2.

Predictors of treatment response to behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy for urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):630-1.

Behavioral treatment options for urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):630-1.

The role of pelvic floor muscle training in urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):630-1.

Who will benefit from pelvic floor muscle training for stress urinary incontinence?
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):629-31.

Pelvic floor muscle training is effective in treatment of female stress urinary incontinence, but how does it work?
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):629-31.

New objective measures to quantify stress urinary incontinence in a novel durable animal model of intrinsic sphincter deficiency.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):227.

Three-dimensional ultrasonography to assess long-term durability of periurethral collagen in women with stress urinary incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter deficiency.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):226.

The treatment of stress incontinence--is there a role for laparoscopy?
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):225-6.

A randomised trial comparing open Burch colposuspension using sutures with laparoscopic colposuspension using mesh and staples in women with stress urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):225-6.

Laparoscopic Burch colposuspension versus Tension-Free Vaginal Tape: a randomized trial.

Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):224-6.

Randomized clinical trial comparing Suprapubic Arch sling (SPARC) and Tension-Free Vaginal Tape (TVT): one-year results.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):224-6.

Tension-free vaginal tape: a prospective subjective and objective outcome analysis.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):223, 225-6.

Seven-year follow-up of the tension-free vaginal tape procedure for treatment of urinary incontinence.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):223, 225-6.

Incidence of pubic osteomyelitis after bladder neck suspension using bone anchors.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):222-3.

Complications from transvaginal pubovaginal slings using bone anchor fixation.
Wein AJ
J Urol. 2006 Jan;175(1):222-3.

Long-term durability of the distal urethral polypropylene sling procedure for stress urinary incontinence: minimum 5-year followup of surgical outcome and satisfaction determined by patient reported questionnaires.
Rutman M, Itano N, Deng D, Raz S, Rodriguez LV
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):610-3.

PURPOSE: We report on the long-term outcomes of the distal urethral polypropylene sling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a prospective study of all consecutive patients who underwent a distal urethral polypropylene sling procedure between November of 1999 and April of 2000 for treatment of SUI. Surgical outcome was determined by patient self-assessment, and included symptom, bother and quality of life questionnaires. Physicians were blinded to patient responses. All patients had a minimum 5-year followup. Every patient treated was included in reporting outcomes in the intent to treat analysis. RESULTS: There were 69 patients treated a minimum of 5 years before the analysis. Cases lost to followup were defined as treatment failures. At a minimum followup of 5 years patient determined subjective success rate was 88%. More than 5 years after surgery 72% of patients reported no symptoms of SUI and 74% reported never being bothered by SUI. Patients reported an overall mean improvement of symptoms of 81%, and quality of life due to urinary symptoms between pleased and mostly satisfied. CONCLUSIONS: The distal urethral polypropylene sling procedure has low morbidity and excellent durability in treating patients with SUI.

Comparison of the long-term outcomes between incontinent men and women treated with artificial urinary sphincter.
Petero VG Jr, Diokno AC
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):605-9.

PURPOSE: We compared the long-term outcome of AUS between men and women who received the device for the management of stress urinary incontinence. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between August 1983 and January 2004, 126 consecutive patients received the AUS AMS 800 at our center placed by the senior author (ACD). Of these patients 108 (53 men, 55 women) and 168 devices (88 in men, 80 in women) were available for review. Outcome measures include complications, duration and etiology of AUS failure, and satisfactory continence. RESULTS: Mean followup was 8.1 +/- 5.6 years. Of the 108 patients 18 (40%) men and 31 (56%) women had no complications (p = 0.09). Of the 168 devices 76 (45%) eventually failed (44 or 50% in men, 32 or 40% in women, p = 0.19). The incidences of failed device classified as mechanical, nonmechanical or iatrogenic were not significantly different (p = 0.07). Median device durations were 6.9 and 11.2 years in men and women, respectively (p = 0.002). Satisfactory continence was achieved in 82% of patients, in 43 (81%) men and in 46 (84%) women (p = 0.73), including 5 (9%) men and 35 (64%) women who were dry (0 pads, p = 0.01), 28 (53%) men and 4 (7%) women who wear 1 pad (p = 0.01), and 10 (19%) men and 7 (13%) women who use 2 pads per day. CONCLUSIONS: There were no differences in overall satisfactory continence and device failure rates. However, women have a higher dry rate (0 pad use) and longer functioning device duration compared to their male counterparts.

The prevalence of urinary incontinence among community dwelling adult women: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Anger JT, Saigal CS, Litwin MS
J Urol. 2006 Feb;175(2):601-4.

PURPOSE: Population based studies estimate that a large proportion of adult women report urinary incontinence. However, there is a wide range of estimates of the burden posed by UI. To measure the prevalence of incontinence in women in the community we analyzed data from women responding to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. MATERIALS AND METHODS: NHANES is a series of health and nutrition surveys performed by the National Center for Health Statistics. From 1999 to 2000 NHANES asked a national sample of community dwelling women, "In the past 12 months, have you had difficulty controlling your bladder, including leaking small amounts of urine when you cough or sneeze (exclusive of pregnancy or recovery from childbirth)?" Questionnaire results were recorded and analyzed with respect to demographic data including age, race and level of education. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of urinary incontinence in women was 38%. The prevalence of daily incontinence increased with age, ranging from 12.2% in women 60 to 64 years old to 20.9% in women 85 years old or older. Of women reporting any incontinence, 13.7% reported daily incontinence, and an additional 10.3% reported weekly incontinence. Prevalence was higher in non-Hispanic white women (41%) than in non-Hispanic black (20%) or Mexican-American women (36%). Women with less than a high school education were less likely to report incontinence than were those with at least a high school education. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike many other studies the NHANES draws a nationally representative sample of subjects in the community and, thus, provides prevalence data for urinary incontinence for all women in the United States. Prevalence is high, and varies with age, race/ethnicity and socioeconomic variables.

Prospective evaluation of inpatient and outpatient bladder training in children with functional urinary incontinence.
Heilenkotter K, Bachmann C, Janhsen E, Stauber T, Lax H, Petermann F, Bachmann H
Urology. 2006 Jan;67(1):176-80.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, in a prospective study, the effectiveness of a bladder training program. Daytime and/or nighttime wetting as a consequence of functional urinary incontinence is a common problem in childhood. Various treatment options are available, including with cognitive-behavioral "bladder training." METHODS: Sixty patients (age 8 to 12 years) with urge incontinence or dysfunctional voiding were evaluated. After a no-treatment control period (average 6 months), patients underwent a 6-day bladder training course, which was offered either as inpatient or outpatient training, leaving the choice to the patients' parents. Clinical assessments were recorded at the beginning of the control period, at training entry and training completion, and after 1 (inpatient training group only), 3, and 6 months. RESULTS: Six months after training completion, 64.1% and 64.7% of the inpatient and outpatient groups with daytime wetting and 51.5% and 17.7% of the inpatient and outpatient groups with nighttime wetting were cured or had improved, respectively. The spontaneous cure rate during the 6-month control period was 0% to 20.5%. Of the inpatient group with urge incontinence, the functional bladder capacity increased by 15%. The children aged 9 to 12 years in the inpatient group had significantly greater cure rates than the 8-year-old children. CONCLUSIONS: Compared with the control period, the bladder training program evaluated in this study resulted in significantly greater success rates. The results lead to the assumption that children with nighttime wetting treated in the inpatient training will succeed better than those in outpatient training. The cure and improvement rates of daytime wetting were greater than those for nighttime wetting.

Do extracellular matrix protein expressions change with cyclic reproductive hormones in pelvic connective tissue from women with stress urinary incontinence?
Wen Y, Polan ML, Chen B
Hum Reprod. 2006 Feb 1;.

BACKGROUND: To evaluate differential expression of transforming growth factor (TGF-beta1), latent transforming factor-binding proteins (LTBP-1, LTBP-2) and elastin microfibril components (fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2) in vaginal tissue from women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). METHODS: In this case-control study, vaginal tissue from women in both phases of the menstrual cycle was obtained. Messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of LTBP-1, LTBP-2, fibrillin-1, fibrillin-2 and TGF-beta1 were determined by relative real-time quantification PCR. Tissue localization was analysed by immunohistochemistry, and semiquantitative protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. RESULTS: Vaginal wall fibroblasts synthesized all proteins tested. LTBP-1, LTBP-2 and TGF-beta1 co-localized with elastin microfibrils, fibrillin-1 and fibrillin-2 in the extracellular matrix. LTBP-1 mRNA and protein expressions were higher in control versus women affected with SUI in the proliferative phase (P = 0.04), while in the secretory phase, mRNA expression in cases was higher (P = 0.04). Fibrillin-1 mRNA was higher in women affected by SUI versus controls in both phases, but no statistical differences in fibrillin-1 protein expression were observed between the two groups in either phase. LTBP-2 and TGF-beta1 mRNA expressions showed the same trends as LTBP-1. CONCLUSION: LTBP-1, LTBP-2, TGF-beta1, fibrillin-1, and fibrillin-2 expressions are hormonally regulated in vaginal wall fibroblasts and differ in women affected by SUI when compared to controls. These data suggest a mechanism to regulate TGF-beta1 activity in pelvic connective tissue.

Transobturator SAFYRE sling is as effective as the transvaginal procedure.
Palma P, Riccetto C, Herrmann V, Dambros M, Thiel M, Bandiera S, Netto NR Jr
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005 Nov-Dec;16(6):487-91. Epub 2005 May 12.

INTRODUCTION: SAFYRE is a monofilament polypropylene mesh held between two self-anchoring silicone columns that associates universal approach with readjustability. This unique feature allows for comparing two different approaches, i.e., transvaginal and transobturator, using the same sling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 226 patients with clinical and urodynamic diagnosis of SUI underwent SAFYRE sling procedure, which was performed either by transvaginal (group 1; 126 patients) or transobturator approach (group 2; 100 patients). The mean age was 63 years, in group 1 and 61 years in group 2. Physical examination, stress and pad test and urodynamic assessment were performed before the surgery. RESULTS: The average follow-up period was 18 months in group 1 and 14 months in group 2. There was no difference in cure rate in both groups. The mean operative time was longer (25 min) in group 1 than in group 2 (15 min) (P<0.05). Bladder injury was significative greater in transvaginal group [respectively, 12/126 (0%) versus 0/100 (0%)]. Postoperatively, 20.6% of the patients presented transient irritative voiding symptoms in group transvaginal group as opposed to 10% in transobturator group. DISCUSSION: SAFYRE sling performed by transobturator approach is as effective as the transvaginal procedure. Fewer complications and less operative time were additional advantages of the transobturator approach.

Management of polypropylene mesh erosion after intravaginal midurethral sling operation for female stress urinary incontinence.
Huang KH, Kung FT, Liang HM, Chang SY
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005 Nov-Dec;16(6):437-40. Epub 2005 Jan 15.

The intravaginal midurethral sling operations have become a trend to treat female stress urinary incontinence. Cases of complications requiring surgical revision are rarely reported. We report on seven patients with complications necessitating surgery. Six patients with vaginal erosion were treated with transvaginal excision of migrated tape and fibrotic tissues around the vaginal wall, and one patient with bladder erosion was treated with suprapubic minimal laparotomy and transvaginal partial excision of the tension-free vaginal tape (TVT). The incidence of polypropylene mesh erosion was 1.1% in this study. All patients recovered well from our surgical intervention, except the bladder erosion patient who needed anticholinergic medication to treat postoperative urgency and urge incontinence.

Vaginal wall erosion after transobturator tape procedure.
But I
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005 Nov-Dec;16(6):506-8. Epub 2005 Jan 12.

Transobturator Prolene tape insertion represents a new method of operative treatment for stress urinary incontinence. The first results show that it is a simple and effective procedure accompanied by a minimum number of complications. Since February 2004, 30 Monarc procedures were done at our department and no intraoperative complications were observed. However, two cases (6.7%) of vaginal wall erosion due to the Prolene tape were noted 6 weeks after surgery. In a subsequent surgical procedure, the periurethral portion of the tape was removed and a new Prolene tape was placed through the retropubic space. Three months after secondary surgery both patients were continent, with no sign of erosion. The transobturator approach was introduced to minimize the risk of complications. However, the greater prevalence of vaginal wall erosion after this procedure found in our series demands a scrupulous search for this complication and for the mechanisms leading to its occurrence.

Midline intravaginal slingplasty for treatment of urinary stress incontinence: results of an independent audit up to 2 years after surgery.
Ijland MM, Fischer DC, Kieback DG, McGrath G, Farnsworth B
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005 Nov-Dec;16(6):447-54. Epub 2005 Mar 2.

Recently, the midline intravaginal slingplasty (anterior IVS) directed at reinforcing the pubourethral ligament was introduced for treatment of urinary stress incontinence. An independent telephone interview to evaluate urinary symptoms and surgery-related changes in quality of life was performed between 12 and 32 months after surgery. Of 52 women initially enrolled, 3 were lost during follow-up. None of the patients experienced infection, rejection or erosion of the tape. The procedure failed in 7 patients whereas in 42 patients cure of stress incontinence was achieved. This was not only verified by clinical examination at initial follow-up but also confirmed by the patients at the time of the interview. Although about two-thirds of the patients reported urge incontinence and/or voiding difficulties during their interview, the validation of the surgery was rather high and only in a minority did urinary complaints translate into reduced quality of life.

Suprapubically assisted operative cystoscopy in the management of intravesical TVT synthetic mesh segments.
Rosenblatt P, Pulliam S, Edwards R, Boyles SH
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005 Nov-Dec;16(6):509-11. Epub 2005 Feb 26.

The tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) sling has become one of the most common procedures performed for the treatment of female stress incontinence. Perforations of the bladder during the TVT placement are relatively common, but are usually noted on cystoscopy and corrected at the time of the procedure. Undetected perforation may result in several complications including recurrent urinary tract infections, bladder stone formation, and pelvic pain. A novel technique is described using operative cystoscopy with suprapubic assistance, which provides an effective means for resection of intravesical mesh. Unlike traditional approaches via laparotomy, this minimally invasive procedure may allow for successful mesh removal while avoiding the morbidity of an open procedure.

Duloxetine treatment for women awaiting continence surgery.
Duckett JR, Aggarwal I, Patil A
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan 17;:1-3.

The study assessed the effect of offering a 4-week course of duloxetine therapy to 73 women awaiting a tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) operation. Twenty-seven women (37%) declined taking the drug, leaving 46 women (63%) willing to take drug therapy. Thirteen women were scheduled for a TVT with concurrent prolapse surgery, and 1 of these women decided that she no longer needed the surgery. Eight of the 33(24%) women scheduled for a TVT without concurrent prolapse surgery came off the waiting list. Nine women of the 33 women scheduled for a TVT without concurrent surgery (27%) found that the medication did not work sufficiently well. Sixteen of the 33 women (48%) discontinued medication due to side-effects. Women on a waiting list for surgery may be unwilling to take duloxetine therapy and less tolerant of side-effects.

Morphology of the suburethral pubocervical fascia in women with stress urinary incontinence: a comparison of histologic and MRI findings.
Tunn R, Rieprich M, Kaufmann O, Gauruder-Burmester A, Beyersdorff D
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2005 Nov-Dec;16(6):480-6. Epub 2005 Jul 21.

To correlate MRI with histologic findings of the suburethral pubocervical fascia in women with urodynamic stress incontinence. Thirty-one women with urodynamically proven stress urinary incontinence without relevant prolapse underwent preoperative MRI. Tissue specimens obtained from the pubocervical fascia were examined immunohistochemically (types I and III collagen, smooth muscle actin) and the results compared with the MRI findings. MRI demonstrated an intact pubocervical fascia in 61.3% of the cases and a fascial defect in 38.7%. A fascial defect demonstrated by MRI was associated with a decrease in actin (P<0.09) and an increase in collagen III (P<0.01) compared to an intact fascia. In women with stress urinary incontinence, smooth muscle actin in the pubocervical fascia is decreased, changed in structure, and replaced by type III collagen. MRI allows evaluation of the pubocervical fascia and its morphologic changes.

Peripartum urinary incontinence in a racially diverse obstetrical population.
Raza-Khan F, Graziano S, Kenton K, Shott S, Brubaker L
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan 25;:1-6.

To determine the rates of urinary incontinence in a racially diverse, tertiary care obstetrical population during the third trimester and postpartum using a validated symptom-screening questionnaire. Third trimester prenatal patients receiving obstetric care at Loyola University Medical Center between March and November 2003 participated in this prospective study approved by the Institutional Review Board. Third-trimester participants completed the 15-item, validated Medical, Epidemiological, and Social Aspects of Aging (MESA) questionnaire and the Hunskaar Severity Index. The MESA was readministered to participants during a 6- to 8-week postpartum visit. One hundred and thirteen women completed antenatal and postpartum MESAs. Seventy-four percent (83 of 113) of the patients in the third trimester were categorized as incontinent. The postpartum incontinence rates decreased to 44% (50 of 113). Twenty-one percent (24 of 113) of the participants after delivery reported pure stress incontinence, 3% (3 of 113) urge incontinence, and 20% (23 of 113) mixed incontinence. Only 4% (5 of 113) of the women developed de novo incontinence postpartum: three reported symptoms of pure stress incontinence and two reported symptoms consistent with urge incontinence. The MESA questionnaire identifies more women with antenatal and postpartum urinary incontinence than currently described in the literature.

Transobturator tape, bladder perforation, and paravaginal defect: a case report.
Smith PP, Appell RA
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Jan 26;:1-3.

Transobturator midurethral slings (TOT) have been shown to have less risk of vascular and visceral injury than tension-free midurethral slings. Routine cystoscopy has therefore not been felt to be necessary. A case of bladder perforation unrecognized at the time of TOT placement is presented. Findings at sling removal suggested that a clinically nonapparent paravaginal defect may have been instrumental in the injury. Consideration should be given to routine cystoscopy at the time of transobturator sling placement.

[Mechanical evaluation of various suburethral tapes used for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence]
Pariente JL, Villars F, Bram R, Ibarboure E
Prog Urol. 2005 Dec;15(6):1106-9.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to compare the mechanical characteristics of a series of suburethral tapes marketed for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence, often considered to be identical in the clinical practice. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Six suburethral tapes were studied: TVT (Gynecare-Ethicon, USA), IVS (Tyco Healthcare, USA), Sparc (AMS, USA), Uretex (Sofradim, France distributed by BARD), I-stop (CL medical, France), and Uratape (Porges, France). The surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties were evaluated on an Instron traction apparatus equipped with a 500 Newton transducer and elongation was performed at a rate of 10 mm/min. Deformation curves, Young's elastic modulus, and maximum load were calculated. Possible release of particles was investigated by weighing each sample before and after gentle 0.01 kN traction. RESULTS: From a purely mechanical point of view, completely opposite properties were observed. The maximum load ranged from 0.012 +/- 0.002 to 0.047 +/- 0.013 kN. Young's elastic modulus ranged from 4.31 +/- 1.1 to 41.99 +/- 14.3 Mpa. Maximum deformity ranged from 31% to 108%. Release of particles was estimated, according to the tape, to represent a variation of the initial weight of between 0.01% and 8.5%. CONCLUSION: It is difficult to compare tapes that are theoretically marketed for the same application, suggesting that the same tape should probably not be used for the same application. Clinicians must more extensively evaluate the required properties. The authors believe that tapes with a high elastic modulus should be proposed for transobturator procedures to provide real perineal support, while tapes with a lower elastic modulus should be used for retropubic techniques.

Managing stress urinary incontinence - a primary care issue.
Kirby M
Int J Clin Pract. 2006 Feb;60(2):184-9.

Summary Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a common condition in women, caused by anatomical problems related to factors such as age, parity, menopause and obesity. Depending on the clinical findings and on the severity of symptoms, SUI can be managed with conservative methods including pelvic floor exercises, vaginal cones and general lifestyle modification advice; or, it can be treated surgically with procedures such as Burch colposuspension, vaginal slings or tension-free tapes and injection of bulking agents alongside the urethra. SUI is greatly underdiagnosed, because many women are reluctant to consult their doctors about their condition. Department of Health guidelines are placing greater emphasis on primary care management of the condition and Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) to provide consistent, integrated continence care services. The availability of new, non-invasive treatment options, such as duloxetine, are likely to have a positive impact on the future of SUI management.

[Outpatient surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence]
Navalon Verdejo P, Zaragoza Fernandez C, Ordono Dominguez F, Sanchez Ballester F, Juan Escudero J, Fabuel Deltoro M, De la Torre Abril L, Lopez Alcina E
Arch Esp Urol. 2005 Nov;58(9):915-22; discussion 923-4.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the results of the outpatient surgical treatment of genuine female stress urinary incontinence (SUI) over a five year period since the integration of the Department of Urology in the Ambulatory Surgery Unit at our hospital "Consorcio Hospital General Universitario de Valencia" (CHGUV). METHODS: Between January 2000 and December 2004 26 patients (ages 49-78; mean age 69.8 yr) with the diagnosis of SUI underwent tension-free suburethral mesh sling (TVT) outpatient operations under local anesthesia-sedation at the ambulatory surgery unit of the CHGUV. All patients had clinical and urodynamic evaluation, excluding those presenting genital prolapse or non compliance with the social requirements for ambulatory surgery. Previous anti-incontinence surgery was not an exclusion criterion. We evaluate inclusion and discharge criteria, results and satisfaction degree measured by a questionnaire. RESULTS: 22 patients (85%) had genuine SUI and 4 (15%) had mixed UI with predominance of the stress component. 54% (14) of the patients were ASA I, 31% (8) ASA II, and 15% (4) well compensated ASA III. Operation tolerance under local anesthesia (20-30 ml 1% lidocaine) was good in all patients, having used additional sedation-analgesia (propofol-remifentanil IV perfusion) in 10 of them (38%). Mean operative time was 30 minutes (25-45) and stay at the unit discharge was 100 min. (80-140). All patients were discharged the same day. None of them required readmission or presented urinary retention after catheter removal. SUI disappeared in all of them. Three patients presented postoperative urge incontinence responsive to oral anticolinergic drugs. Our results are similar to those obtained with epidural anesthesia and hospital admission, being the degree of satisfaction with treatment higher than 95%. CONCLUSIONS: The development of new, revolutionary systems for the treatment of SUI has simplified the surgical treatment of this entity, so that we can say a high percentage of patients may be included in an ambulatory surgery program, significantly improving cost-efficacy without diminishment of health-care quality or patient satisfaction.

Risk factors for urinary incontinence among middle-aged women.
Danforth KN, Townsend MK, Lifford K, Curhan GC, Resnick NM, Grodstein F
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb;194(2):339-45.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for urinary incontinence in middle-aged women. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 83,355 Nurses' Health Study II participants. Since 1989, women have provided health information on mailed questionnaires; in 2001, at the ages 37 to 54 years, information on urinary incontinence was requested. We examined adjusted odds ratios of incontinence using logistic regression. RESULTS: Forty-three percent of the women reported incontinence. After adjustment, black (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.40-0.60) and Asian-American women (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.46-0.72) were at reduced odds of severe incontinence compared with white women. Increased age, body mass index, parity, current smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hysterectomy all were associated positively with incontinence. Women who were aged 50 to 54 years had 1.81 times the odds of severe incontinence compared with women who were <40 years old (95% CI, 1.66-1.97); women with a body mass index of >/=30 kg/m(2) had 3.10 times the odds of severe incontinence compared with a body mass index of 22 to 24 kg/m(2) (95% CI, 2.91-3.30). CONCLUSION: Urinary incontinence is highly prevalent among these middle-aged women. Potential risk factors include age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, parity, smoking, diabetes mellitus, and hysterectomy.

Proposed Mechanism for the Efficacy of Injected Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Human Detrusor Overactivity.
Apostolidis A, Dasgupta P, Fowler CJ
Eur Urol. 2006 Jan 4;.

BACKGROUND: Treatment of human bladder overactivity with intradetrusor Botulinum-A neurotoxin (BoNT/A) injections temporarily blocks the presynaptic release of acetylcholine from the parasympathetic innervation and produces a paralysis of the detrusor smooth muscle. The efficacy of the treatment exceeds that expected from simple detrusor muscle paralysis, however, and its effect of reducing urgency is greatly welcomed by patients. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether BoNT/A has a complex effect on sensory mechanisms by inhibiting vesicular release of multiple excitatory neurotransmitters by urothelial and suburothelial nerves and reducing axonal expression of SNARE-complex dependant proteins. METHODS: A literature review. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that a primary peripheral effect of BoNT/A is the inhibition of release of acetylcholine, ATP, substance P, and reduction in the axonal expression of the capsaicin and purinergic receptors. This may be followed by central desensitization through a decrease in central uptake of substance P and neurotrophic factors. The summation of these effects is a profound and long-lasting inhibition of those afferent and efferent mechanisms that are thought to be the pathophysiological basis for DO.