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Incontinence: General

Total continence reconstruction: a comparison to staged reconstruction of neuropathic bowel and bladder.
Casale AJ, Metcalfe PD, Kaefer MA, Dussinger AM, Meldrum KK, Cain MP, Rink RC
J Urol. 2006 Oct;176(4 Suppl):1712-5.

PURPOSE: Surgical treatment for neuropathic bowel and bladder has become an essential tool in maximizing the quality of life in patients with myelomeningocele. We present our results comparing results in patients who underwent total continence reconstruction of the urinary and gastrointestinal tracts to patients who underwent a separate or single operation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of all patients with myelomeningocele at our institution who underwent reconstruction with a cutaneous catheterizable urinary channel or Malone antegrade continence enema. We compared outcomes with regard to surgical revisions of the channel between patients who underwent the construction of each simultaneously, that is total continence reconstruction, to outcomes in those with a single channel or who underwent reconstruction at 2 or more operations. RESULTS: Most of our patients underwent genitourinary and gastrointestinal reconstruction, and few desired surgical intervention for only a single system. We were unable to find any differences in the continence rate or stomal complications. However, patients who underwent staged reconstruction usually had significant secondary reasons for repeat surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical success for urinary and fecal continence can be safely and effectively achieved through single or multiple procedures. However, because of shared pathophysiology, we believe that most patients benefit from intervention in the gastrointestinal and the genitourinary tract. Therefore, a major advantage of total continence reconstruction is avoidance of the morbidity of a second major surgical procedure.

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"The Sponge Perineum:" An Innovative Method of Teaching Fourth-degree Obstetric Perineal Laceration Repair to Family Medicine Residents.
Sparks RA, Beesley AD, Jones AD
Fam Med. 2006 Sep;38(8):542-4.

International Continence Society 2002 terminology report: have urogynecological conditions (diagnoses) been overlooked?
Haylen BT, Chetty N
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct. 2006 Sep 5;.


Prevalence and correlates of perineal dermatitis in nursing home residents.
Bliss DZ, Savik K, Harms S, Fan Q, Wyman JF
Nurs Res. 2006 Jul-Aug;55(4):243-51.

BACKGROUND: Perineal dermatitis is an adverse outcome of incontinence, which is common in older nursing home residents; yet knowledge about perineal dermatitis in this population is sorely lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and significant correlates of perineal dermatitis in older nursing home residents. METHODS: Assessment data from 59,558 records in the Minimum Data Set (MDS) were linked with 2,883,049 orders in the medical record which enabled definition of variables related to perineal dermatitis, identification of cases, and determination of the prevalence of perineal dermatitis. Data from two subsamples, each with the records of 10,215 older nursing home residents, were analyzed using logistic regression to identify the significant correlates of perineal dermatitis. RESULTS: Perineal dermatitis was found in 5.7% (n = 3,405) of residents and 73% of these were incontinent. Having perineal dermatitis was significantly associated with (a) impairments in tissue tolerance (i.e., more health problems, presence of a fever, requiring nutrition support, and having more problems of diminished perfusion or oxygenation); (b)problems of the perineal environment (i.e., having fecal incontinence only, double incontinence, and more items associated with mechanical chafing); and (c) altered toileting ability from daily use of restraints. DISCUSSION: Several correlates of perineal dermatitis (mechanical chafing, fecal and double incontinence, and use of restraints) appear modifiable through nursing intervention. Clinical interventions should consider the complex health status of this population.


The role of mediolateral episiotomy during labour. Analysis of risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter tears.
Aukee P, Sundstrom H, Kairaluoma MV
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2006;85(7):856-60.

Background. To determine risk factors for third-degree and complete third- or fourth-degree anal sphincter tears in vaginal delivery. Methods. This is a retrospective comparative study. Fifty-three women who had sustained an anal sphincter tear were compared with 9,178 women without such a complication between August 1997 and October 2001. Obstetric data was collected from an electronic database. The main outcome measures were odds ratios. Results. In the whole study population, odds ratios (ORs) for third-degree tears were: primiparity, 8.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.98-17.48); vacuum extraction, 5.22 (95% CI 2.69-10.13); parietal presentation, 3.97 (95% CI 1.16-13.64); and birth weight >4,000 g, 3.77 (95% CI 2.11-6.68); and for complete third- or fourth-degree tears odds ratios were 5.42, 2.98, 5.64, and 3.01, respectively. In multivariate analysis, mediolateral episiotomy appeared to be protective as regards third-degree tears (OR 0.37 [95% CI 0.2020-0.70]). Conclusions. Vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery bears an increased risk of third-degree anal sphincter tears in a maternity unit where forceps are not used. Restricted use of mediolateral episiotomy may have a protective effect on the perineum.


Urinary incontinence and pelvic floor dysfunction in Asian-American women.
Huang AJ, Thom DH, Kanaya AM, Wassel-Fyr CL, Van Den Eeden SK, Ragins AI, Subak LL, Brown JS
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr 25;.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the prevalence, risk factors, and impact of urinary incontinence and other pelvic floor disorders among Asian-American women. STUDY DESIGN: This was a population-based cohort study of older women randomly selected from age and race strata. RESULTS: Weekly urinary incontinence was reported by 65 of 345 Asian women (18%), with stress and urge incontinence being approximately equally common. In multivariate analysis, higher body mass index (greater than 25 kg/m(2)) was associated with both stress incontinence (odds ratio 4.90, 95% confidence interval 1.76 to 13.68) and urge incontinence (odds ratio 2.49, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 6.16) in Asians. Hysterectomy was a significant risk factor for stress incontinence (odds ratio 2.79, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 7.54). Only 34% of Asian women with weekly urinary incontinence reported ever having sought treatment. Pelvic floor exercises were the most common form of treatment, being used by 29% of Asian women with weekly incontinence. Asians were less likely then white women to report anal incontinence (21% versus 29%, P = .007), although this difference became nonsignificant after adjusting for differences in risk factors. CONCLUSION: Asian women share some risk factors for stress and urge urinary incontinence with white women. Urinary incontinence is associated with anal incontinence among Asian women.


Comparison of autologous rectus fascia and cadaveric fascia in pubovaginal sling continence outcomes.
Howden NS, Zyczynski HM, Moalli PA, Sagan ER, Meyn LA, Weber AM
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar 28;.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare autologous versus cadaveric grafts in pubovaginal slings. STUDY DESIGN: Women who had pubovaginal slings from 1994 to 2003 completed history, questionnaires, prolapse staging, and cough stress testing. Failure was defined by recurrent urinary incontinence symptoms and reoperation for stress incontinence. Group differences were evaluated using Student t test or chi-square test. The log-rank test was used to evaluate time to failure between the groups. RESULTS: Of 303 women enrolled, 153 had autologous and 150 had cadaveric grafts. Regular urine leakage (39.6% vs 28.3%, P = .04) and reoperation for stress incontinence (12.7% vs 3.3%, P = .003) occurred more in the cadaveric versus autologous group, respectively. Adjusting for differing follow-up times, the cadaveric versus autologous group experienced higher rates of urinary incontinence (16 vs 5 per 100 women-years, P < .0001) and higher rates of reoperation (4 vs 1 per 100 women-years, P < .0003). CONCLUSION: Autologous grafts used in pubovaginal slings have superior continence outcomes compared with cadaveric fascia.

Anal sphincter defects and bowel symptoms in women with and without recognized anal sphincter trauma.
Nichols CM, Nam M, Ramakrishnan V, Lamb EH, Currie N
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Mar 28;.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of new bowel symptoms and anal sphincter defects in primiparous women with and without recognized anal sphincter (AS) injury. STUDY DESIGN: One hundred seventeen primiparous women classified with increasing degrees of perineal trauma and 21 controls delivered by cesarean section were enrolled immediately postpartum and demographic and delivery data were collected. At 6 weeks' postpartum, subjects completed a bowel function questionnaire and endoanal ultrasonography was performed. Logistic regression, chi-square, and 2-sample t tests were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A significant difference in new bowel symptoms was reported in women with (39%) and without (11%) recognized AS injury (P = .002). AS defects were present in 0%, 15%, 23%, 37%, and 67% of women with C/S, first-, second-, third-, and fourth-degree lacerations, respectively. Combined defects of the internal and external AS were associated with the greatest risk of new bowel symptoms (OR 32.1 [95% CI 9.6-107], P < .001). CONCLUSION: In women with and without recognized AS trauma, new bowel symptoms were strongly correlated with the presence of anatomic AS defects postpartum.


Electrophysiologic Studies and Clinical Findings in Females With Combined Fecal and Urinary Incontinence: A Prospective Study.

Lacima G, Pera M, Valls-Sole J, Gonzalez-Argente X, Puig-Clota M, Espuna M
Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Feb 13;.

PURPOSE: Several clinical, urodynamic, and manometric findings suggest neurologic damage as a contributing factor in the development of combined fecal and urinary incontinence. In this study, we wanted to test the hypothesis of pudendal nerve neuropathy being a more frequent lesion in patients with double incontinence compared with patients with isolated fecal incontinence. PATIENTS: Ninety-three females with combined fecal and urinary incontinence and 36 females with isolated fecal incontinence were investigated. All patients underwent anal manometry, endoanal ultrasound, electromyography, and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found in the age, history of vaginal delivery, and chronic straining between both groups. However, the rate of postmenopausal females was higher in the combined fecal and urinary incontinence group (85 vs. 67 percent; P = 0.02). Menopause was an independent risk factor of having double incontinence (odds ratio, 1.4; P = 0.02). Concentric needle electromyography of the external anal sphincter revealed increased duration of the motor unit potentials in 43 and 53 percent of patients with combined fecal and urinary incontinence and isolated fecal incontinence, respectively (P = 0.28). An increased number of polyphasic motor unit potentials was detected in 52 and 58 percent (P = 0.6). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bilateral (20 vs. 27 percent) or unilateral (23 vs. 14 percent) prolonged mean pudendal nerve terminal motor latency between both groups (P = 0.3). CONCLUSIONS: Pudendal neuropathy is not a distinct characteristic of patients with double incontinence. The prevalence of pudendal neuropathy in these patients is similar to that observed in patients with isolated fecal incontinence. Others factors should be investigated to explain the common association of both types of incontinence.