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Pelvic Floor Behaviour, Psychology, Sexology (part II)

Effect of lower urinary tract symptoms on the incidence of erectile dysfunction.
Shiri R, Hakkinen JT, Hakama M, Huhtala H, Auvinen A, Tammela TL, Koskimaki J
J Urol 2005 Jul;174(1):205-9; discussion 209.

PURPOSE: We determined the effect of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) on the incidence of erectile dysfunction (ED). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The target population consisted of all men 50, 60 or 70 years old residing in Tampere area, Finland in 1994. Questionnaires were mailed to 3,143 men in 1994 and to 2,864 men 5 years later. The followup sample consisted of the 1,683 men who responded to baseline and followup questionnaires. We estimated the effect of LUTS and bother on the incidence of ED during the 5-year followup among the 1,126 men free from ED at baseline. ED was assessed by 2 questions on subject ability to achieve and maintain erection sufficient for intercourse and LUTS assessed by the Danish Prostatic Symptom Score. Logistic regression model was used in the multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of ED increased with the presence and with the intensity of urinary symptoms and bother at baseline. Compared with men with LUTS score 0, the incidence of ED was 2.7 (95% CI 1.3-5.5) times higher among men with score 7 to 11, and 3.1 times with score 12 or more. The incidence of ED increased by 5% for each 1-point increment in LUTS score, while it increased by 12% and 11% for 1-point increment in cumulative symptom or bother score, respectively. Men with cumulative symptoms or bother score 4 or more were significantly 2.0 to 2.7 times at higher incidence of ED relative to those who were free from symptoms or bother at baseline. Only overflow incontinence (OR = 2.2) and incomplete emptying (OR = 1.8) independently increased the incidence of ED. CONCLUSIONS: Lower urinary tract symptoms and bother independently increase the incidence of erectile dysfunction.

Impact of introduction of sildenafil on other treatment modalities for erectile dysfunction: a study of nationwide and local hospital sales.
Seftel AD
J Urol 2005 Jul;174(1):264.

Low sexual desire in midlife and older women: personality factors, psychosocial development, present sexuality.
Seftel AD
J Urol 2005 Jul;174(1):263-4.

A survey of patients with inflatable penile prostheses for satisfaction.
Brinkman MJ, Henry GD, Wilson SK, Delk JR 2nd, Denny GA, Young M, Cleves MA
J Urol 2005 Jul;174(1):253-7.

PURPOSE: We assessed patient satisfaction with 3 types of penile prostheses, namely the AMS 700 Series(R), Mentor Alpha 1(R) and Mentor Alpha NB(R). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The subjects consisted of 330 patients selected by stratified, systematic random sampling from among 1,298 subjects undergoing virgin 3-piece inflatable penile implant surgeries performed by the same surgical team at 1 hospital between January 1992 and December 1998. Data were collected by computer assisted telephone interviewing with a survey developed by the authors. The survey consisted of 37 questions in 7 sections, including 1 demographic section and 6 patient satisfaction sections. RESULTS: Of the 330 patients selected 248 (75%) could be contacted. Of these, 199 (80%) responded to the full survey and the remaining 49 (20%) agreed to respond only to the question, "How satisfied are you with the prosthesis?" Of the 199 full responders 12 (6%) had AMS implants and 187 (94%) had Mentor implants. Of the 49 single question responders 5 (10%) had AMS implants and 44 (90%) had Mentor implants. Of the 248 patients the overall satisfaction rate was 69%. Although there was no significant difference at the 5% level in patient satisfaction by implant type, responses tended to favor the Alpha IPPs in terms of overall sexual satisfaction (p =0.058), natural feeling of the prosthesis (p =0.061), flaccid appearance of the penis when deflated (p =0.054), and education with demonstration of inflation and deflation (p =0.075). CONCLUSIONS: There was a high degree of overall patient satisfaction across implant types.

The impact of age, body mass index and testosterone on erectile dysfunction.
Kratzik CW, Schatzl G, Lunglmayr G, Rucklinger E, Huber J
J Urol 2005 Jul;174(1):240-3.

PURPOSE: Erectile dysfunction (ED) may be associated with low serum total testosterone (T), low serum bioavailable testosterone (BAT) and high body mass index (BMI) in aging men. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 675 workers (age range 45 to 60 years old) were entered into this study. Investigations were performed directly at their place of work. Exclusion criteria were abnormal urogenital status, antihypertensive drugs, medication possibly affecting the endocrine function and a history of previous pelvic trauma. T and sex hormone-binding globulin were measured with commercially available assays, and BAT was calculated from T and sex hormone-binding globulin. BMI was assessed and every individual completed a self-administrated questionnaire for erectile function (International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF-5]). RESULTS: T and BAT showed a significantly negative correlation with age and BMI. Each additional year of increase in age caused a decrease in the IIEF-5 score of 0.195 (p <0.001). Increase in BMI by 1 kg/m reduced IIEF-5 by 0.141, independent of age (p =0.005). Multiple logistic regression analyses confirmed the influence of increased age and higher BMI on the risk of ED. The corresponding odds ratio for ED was 1.082 (p <0.001) and 1.076 (p <0.001), respectively. These data indicate an increase in ED risk by 8.2% per year and by 7.6% per kg/m BMI. Severe cases of ED (IIEF-5 score 7 or less) were significantly associated with a decrease in T and BAT. Individuals with low BAT (1 ng/ml or less) had a 3 times higher risk of severe ED compared with men with BAT greater than 1 ng/ml (odds ratio 3.045, 95% CI 1.088 to 8.522, p =0.034). The result of the multiple logistic regression analysis was adjusted to age and BMI, and did not show a significant influence on the incidence of severe ED. CONCLUSIONS: BMI contributes strongly to ED. Low T or BAT are only relevant if IIEF-5 questionnaire results in severe ED.

Chapter 1: The management of erectile dysfunction: an AUA update.
Montague DK, Jarow JP, Broderick GA, Dmochowski RR, Heaton JP, Lue TF, Milbank AJ, Nehra A, Sharlip ID
J Urol 2005 Jul;174(1):230-9.

Sexual activity and function in postmenopausal women with heart disease.
Addis IB, Ireland CC, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Stuenkel CA, Hulley S
Obstet Gynecol 2005 Jul;106(1):121-7.

Objective: To examine the prevalence and correlates of sexual activity and function in postmenopausal women with heart disease. Methods: We included baseline self-reported measures of sexual activity and the sexual problem scale from the Medical Outcomes Study in the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS), a study of 2,763 postmenopausal women, average age 67 years, with coronary disease and intact uteri. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to identify independent correlates of sexual activity and dysfunction. Results: Approximately 39% of the women in HERS were sexually active, and 65% of these reported at least 1 of 5 sexual problems (lack of interest, inability to relax, difficulty in arousal or in orgasm, and discomfort with sex). In multivariable analysis, factors independently associated with being sexually active included younger age, fewer years since menopause, being married, better self-reported health, higher parity, moderate alcohol use, not smoking, lack of chest discomfort, and not being depressed. Among the 1,091 women who were sexually active, lower sexual problem scores were associated with being unmarried, being better educated, having better self-reported health, and having higher body mass index. Conclusion: Many women with heart disease continue to engage in sexual activity into their 70s, and two thirds of these report discomfort and other sexual function problems. Physicians should be aware that postmenopausal patients are sexually active and address the problems these women experience. Level of Evidence: II-2.

Sexuality after laparoscopic Davydov in patients affected by congenital complete vaginal agenesis associated with uterine agenesis or hypoplasia.
Giannesi A, Marchiole P, Benchaib M, Chevret-Measson M, Mathevet P, Dargent D
Hum Reprod 2005 Jun 24;.

BACKGROUND: Several surgical techniques have been described for the treatment of patients with vaginal agenesis. The simplest intervention that gives good sexual results should be the surgical technique of choice. METHODS: We report anatomic and functional outcome in 28 women after vaginoplasty using laparoscopic Davydov operation. This surgery includes three steps: two laparoscopic and one perineal. The patient then has to use a mould or a vaginal dilatator for 1 month. The functional outcome was assessed by a brief and valid self-report questionnaire evaluating female sexual life (Female Sexual Function Index, FSFI). A control group was recruited to compare the results. RESULTS: Two intra-operative bladder and ureteric injuries were repaired without sequels. Two post-operative complications were observed: one abdominal migration of the mould, which was treated successfully with the laparoscope, and one vesico-vaginal fistula. No patient was lost to follow-up. The anatomical result was judged to be satisfactory (>6 cm) in 26 of the 28 patients: the mean vaginal length was 7.2 +/- 1.5 cm. Among the 28 operated women, 19 had a good or very good result. No statistical difference was found between our operated patients and French controls in all six domains of the FSFI. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic Davydov may be considered a good option for the surgical treatment of women presenting vaginal agenesis. This technique offers advantages such as: short operating time and hospital stay, no particular instrumentation required and no external scars. Sexuality approaches so-called 'normal sexuality'.

Psychologic functioning and physical health: a paradigm of flexibility.
Rozanski A, Kubzansky LD
Psychosom Med 2005 May-Jun;67 Suppl 1:S47-53.

Recent evidence suggests that positive psychologic factors may be protective against coronary artery disease (CAD). We consider this possibility through a paradigm that explores three interrelated factors that may promote healthy psychologic functioning: vitality, emotional flexibility, and coping flexibility. Vitality is a positive and restorative emotional state that is associated with a sense of enthusiasm and energy. Flexibility is related both to the ability to regulate emotions effectively and cope effectively with challenging daily experiences. A variety of factors may diminish vitality, including chronic stress and negative emotions. Pathophysiologically, chronic stress and negative emotional states can both invoke a "chronic stress response" characterized by increased stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with resultant peripheral effects, including augmented heart rate and blood pressure responsiveness and delayed recovery to stressful stimuli. Research indicates a wide array of stressful conditions--associated with either elements of relative inflexibility in psychologic functioning and/or relatively unabated stressful stimulation--that are associated with this type of exhausting hyperarousal. Conversely, new data suggest that positive psychologic factors, including positive emotions, optimism, and social support, may diminish physiological hyperresponsiveness and/or reduce adverse clinical event rates. Still other positive factors such as gratitude and altruistic behavior have been linked to a heightened sense of well-being but have not yet been tested for beneficial physiological effects. Pending further study, these observations could serve as the basis for expanding the potential behavioral interventions that may be used to assist patients with psychosocial risk factors for CAD.

Impact of tension-free vaginal tape on sexual function: results of a prospective study.
Ghezzi F, Serati M, Cromi A, Uccella S, Triacca P, Bolis P
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jun 23;.

The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the impact of a TVT insertion for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) on coital incontinence and overall sexual life. Sexually active women with pure SUI and without concomitant pelvic organ prolapse scheduled for TVT procedure completed a sexual function questionnaire at baseline and 6 months after surgery. Fifty-three patients were enrolled. Preoperatively 23 (43.4%) women experienced urine leakage during intercourse, 21 (91%) during penetration and 2 (9%) on orgasm. The objective cure rate for SUI was 98%. Coital incontinence was cured in 20 of 23 patients (87%). Thirty-three (62.2%) women reported no change in sexual function after surgery and 18 (34%) reported an improvement. Of the latter, 17 (94%) were of those cured from coital incontinence. No significant difference in the incidence of dyspareunia was found postoperatively. Two patients (3.8%) reported intercourse to be worse following surgery, one because of a vaginal erosion and one cited de novo anorgasmia as the main reason.

The impact of pelvic organ prolapse on sexual function in women with urinary incontinence.
Ozel B, White T, Urwitz-Lane R, Minaglia S
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jun 22;.

The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) on sexual function in women with urinary incontinence (UI). In this retrospective, case-cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of all women evaluated for UI between March and November 2003. All patients completed the short forms of the Urogenital Distress Inventory, Incontinence Impact Questionnaire, and Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Questionnaire. Women with stage two or greater POP, as determined by the pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POPQ) system, were compared to women with stage 0 or 1 POP. Sixty-nine women with POP and 47 women without POP were included. Patient demographics did not differ between the two groups. Women with POP were significantly more likely to report absence of libido (53% versus 30%, P=0.02), lack of sexual excitement during intercourse (46% versus 27%, P=0.05), and that they rarely experienced orgasm during intercourse (49% versus 30%, P=0.05). In conclusion, women with POP in addition to UI are more likely to report decreased libido, decreased sexual excitement, and difficulty achieving orgasm during intercourse when compared to women with UI alone.

Long-term risk for depressive symptoms after a medical diagnosis.
Polsky D, Doshi JA, Marcus S, Oslin D, Rothbard A, Thomas N, Thompson CL
Arch Intern Med 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1260-6.

BACKGROUND: This study examines the risk of development of significant depressive symptoms after a new diagnosis of cancer, diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, arthritis, chronic lung disease, or stroke. METHODS: The study used 5 biennial waves (1992-2000) of the Health and Retirement Study to follow a sample of 8387 adults (aged 51 to 61 years and without significant depressive symptoms in 1992) from 1994 to 2000. Time-dependent Cox regression models estimated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for an episode of significant depressive symptoms after a new diagnosis for each of the 7 medical conditions. RESULTS: Within 2 years of initial diagnosis, subjects with cancer had the highest hazard of depressive symptoms (HR, 3.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.79-4.52), followed by subjects with chronic lung disease (HR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.64-2.79) and heart disease (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.09-1.93). The hazard for depressive symptoms for most of these diseases decreased over time; however, subjects with heart disease continued to have a higher risk for depressive symptoms even 2 to 4 years and 4 to 8 years after diagnosis, and a significantly higher hazard for depressive symptoms developed for persons with arthritis 2 to 4 years after diagnosis (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.92). CONCLUSION: The findings identify several high-risk patient groups who might benefit from depression screening and monitoring to improve health outcomes in this vulnerable population facing new medical illnesses.

Depressive symptoms and heart rate variability in postmenopausal women.
Kim CK, McGorray SP, Bartholomew BA, Marsh M, Dicken T, Wassertheil-Smoller S, Curb JD, Oberman A, Hsia J, Gardin J, Wong ND, Barton B, McMahon RP, Sheps DS

Arch Intern Med 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1239-44.
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms have been associated with increased cardiac morbidity and mortality rates, but the pathophysiologic mechanism linking depressive symptoms to cardiovascular outcome has yet to be fully understood. Lower heart rate variability has also been associated with increased risk of cardiac events in healthy individuals and in patients with coronary artery disease. Findings regarding a relationship between depressive symptoms and heart rate variability that could explain increased cardiovascular risk have been inconsistent across studies. METHODS: As an ancillary study to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study, 3372 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 83 years were enrolled for further evaluation using 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring. A shortened version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule were administered. Women with adequate electrocardiographic data and depressive symptom information and without coronary artery disease were analyzed (n = 2627). RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-nine women (10.2%) had depressive symptoms as measured using the 2 instruments. Women with depressive symptoms had a higher mean +/- SD heart rate (77.4 +/- 9.6 vs 75.5 +/- 8.5 beats/min) and lower heart rate variability than women without depressive symptoms. All differences remained significant after adjusting for age (P<.01). CONCLUSIONS: Women with depressive symptoms had significant reductions in heart rate variability and higher heart rates, suggestive of increased sympathetic tone. These findings may contribute to the increased cardiac morbidity and mortality rates associated with depression in other studies.

Evidence that stress contributes to inflammatory bowel disease: evaluation, synthesis, and future directions.
Maunder RG.
Inflamm Bowel Dis 2005 Jun;11(6):600-8.

BACKGROUND: There is a long but inconsistent history of observations suggesting that psychologic stress contributes to the course of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). This study evaluated the strength of evidence for a causal link between stress, depression, and inflammatory bowel disease course. METHODS: Literature review and unstructured qualitative analysis of all reported prospective studies of stress or depression and disease outcomes and randomized controlled studies (RCTs) of stress reduction interventions. RESULTS: Although results remain inconsistent, prospective studies support a role for psychologic stress in the course of UC and for depressive symptoms in the course of CD. RCTs do not support the benefit of stress reduction for unselected patients with CD. UC has not been studied with adequately designed RCTs. Animal models suggest mechanisms whereby stress can exacerbate preexisting inflammatory disease, especially through increased epithelial permeability. CONCLUSIONS: A synthesis of the literature is presented suggesting approaches to reconcile apparently contradictory findings. Recommendations for further research emphasize refinements to avoid type II error and to identify subgroups of patients who are most likely to experience stress-related effects on illness or to benefit from stress reduction intervention.

The inferno [excerpt].
Alighieri D.
Acad Med 2005 Jun;80(6):558.

Depression in the elderly.
Alexopoulos GS.
Lancet 2005 Jun 21;365(9475):1961-70.

In elderly people, depression mainly affects those with chronic medical illnesses and cognitive impairment, causes suffering, family disruption, and disability, worsens the outcomes of many medical illnesses, and increases mortality. Ageing-related and disease-related processes, including arteriosclerosis and inflammatory, endocrine, and immune changes compromise the integrity of frontostriatal pathways, the amygdala, and the hippocampus, and increase vulnerability to depression. Heredity factors might also play a part. Psychosocial adversity-economic impoverishment, disability, isolation, relocation, caregiving, and bereavement-contributes to physiological changes, further increasing susceptibility to depression or triggering depression in already vulnerable elderly individuals. Treatment with antidepressants is well tolerated by elderly people and is, overall, as effective as in young adults. Evidence-based guidelines for prevention of new episodes of depression are available as are care-delivery systems that increase the likelihood of diagnosis, and improve the treatment of, late-life depression. However, in North America at least, public insurance covers these services inadequately.

Vardenafil improved patient satisfaction with erectile hardness, orgasmic function and sexual experience in men with erectile dysfunction following nerve sparing radical prostatectomy.
Nehra A, Grantmyre J, Nadel A, Thibonnier M, Brock G.
J Urol 2005 Jun;173(6):2067-71.

PURPOSE: Nerve sparing radical retropubic prostatectomy (NS-RRP) results in erectile dysfunction in a significant number of patients. Vardenafil, a potent and selective phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor, is generally safe. It improves International Index of Erectile Function erectile function domain scores, and penetration and erection maintenance success rates in patients who have undergone NS-RRP. We report additional parameters important to patient perceptions regarding erection quality and satisfaction with sexual experience following NS-RRP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 440 men at 58 centers throughout the United States and Canada participated in this randomized, placebo controlled, double-blind trial with 3 phases, namely baseline (4-week untreated period), treatment (12 weeks) and followup (7 days). Participants received placebo (145), 10 mg vardenafil (146) or 20 mg vardenafil (149) at home on demand but no more than once per calendar day. Efficacy and satisfaction with erection quality and sexual experience were determined during the trial. RESULTS: The 10 and 20 mg vardenafil doses were significantly superior to placebo for the International Index of Erectile Function domains for intercourse satisfaction, orgasmic function and overall satisfaction with sexual experience (vs placebo p <0.0009). Significant improvement in the satisfaction rate with erection hardness were demonstrated for each vardenafil dose compared with placebo (p <0.0001). Vardenafil was generally well tolerated. Common adverse events were headache, vasodilatation and rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: In this difficult to treat population of men with erectile dysfunction subsequent to NS-RRP on demand treatment with vardenafil during a 3-month period significantly improved key aspects of the sexual experience important to patient quality of life.

Crural ligation for primary erectile dysfunction: a case series.
Rahman NU, Dean RC, Carrion R, Bochinski D, Lue TF.
J Urol 2005 Jun;173(6):2064-6.

PURPOSE: Some men with primary erectile dysfunction (ED) have maldevelopment of the crura of the penis. We report our experience with crural ligation for primary venous leakage ED in the last 5 years. Penile venous surgery may not have a lasting result in men in whom venous leakage is due to systemic diseases or penile smooth muscle atrophy. However, in patients with a congenital venous leak abnormality of the crura ligation of the proximal crura with umbilical tapes seems to have a satisfactory, durable result.

Effects of the antidepressant St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) on rat and human vas deferens contractility.
Capasso R, Borrelli F, Montanaro V, Altieri V, Capasso F, Izzo AA.
J Urol 2005 Jun;173(6):2194-7.

PURPOSE: Since sexual dysfunction related to vas deferens smooth muscle contractility is a possible side effect of St. John's wort (SJW) (Hypericum perforatum) we evaluated the effect of this herbal antidepressant on rat and human vas deferens contractility. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of SJW was evaluated on contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or exogenous agonists (alpha,beta-methylene adenosine triphosphate and phenylephrine) in isolated rat and human vas deferens. RESULTS: SJW (1 to 300 microM) decreased in a concentration dependent manner the amplitude of electrical field stimulation and agonist induced contractions with the same potency, suggesting direct inhibition of rat vas deferens smooth muscle. Of the chemical constituents of SJW tested hyperforin but not hypericin or the flavonoids quercitrin, rutin and kaempferol inhibited phenylephrine induced contractions. SJW and hyperforin also inhibited phenylephrine induced contractions in human vas deferens CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study demonstrate that SJW directly inhibits rat and human vas deferens contractility. If confirmed in vivo, these results suggest that SJW might affect sexual function in humans. These results might explain delayed ejaculation described in patients receiving SJW.

Anal fissures and anal scars in anal abuse-are they significant?
Schmittenbecher P.
J Pediatr Surg 2005 May;40(5):894.

Prolactinergic and dopaminergic mechanisms underlying sexual arousal and orgasm in humans.
Kruger TH, Hartmann U, Schedlowski M. World
J Urol 2005 May 12;.

Dopaminergic mechanisms play a major role in modulating sexual behavior in humans and animals. Animal data demonstrate important interactions between the dopaminergic and prolactinergic system. As recently demonstrated, dopamine agonists have facilitatory properties for penile erection but may also enhance sexual drive and orgasmic quality. In contrast, chronic elevations of prolactin inhibit appetitive as well as consummatory parameters of sexual behavior. Recent human studies show a marked increase in prolactin after orgasm in males and females. Concerning the biological relevance of acute prolactin alterations after orgasm, prolactin might serve as a neuroendocrine reproductive reflex for peripheral reproductive organs. Alternatively, prolactin may feedback to dopaminergic neurons in the central nervous system and thereby modulate sexual drive and satiation. Here, we provide a brief overview of the physiology of dopamine and prolactin in regulating sexual behavior. In addition, recent experimental and clinical evidence for a postulated feedback mechanism for prolactin and its implications for orgasmic disorders are discussed.

Women's sexual dysfunction: revised and expanded definitions.
Basson R.
CMAJ 2005 May 10;172(10):1327-33.

Acceptance of an evidence-based conceptualization of women's sexual response combining interpersonal, contextual, personal psychological and biological factors has led to recently published recommendations for revision of definitions of women's sexual disorders found in the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV-TR). DSM-IV definitions have focused on absence of sexual fantasies and sexual desire prior to sexual activity and arousal, even though the frequency of this type of desire is known to vary greatly among women without sexual complaints. DSM-IV definitions also focus on genital swelling and lubrication, entities known to correlate poorly with subjective sexual arousal and pleasure. The revised definitions consider the many reasons women agree to or instigate sexual activity, and reflect the importance of subjective sexual arousal. The underlying conceptualization of a circular sex-response cycle of overlapping phases in a variable order may facilitate not only the assessment but also the management of dysfunction, the principles of which are briefly recounted.

Reported sexual abuse predicts impaired functioning but a good response to psychological treatments in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome.
Creed F, Guthrie E, Ratcliffe J, Fernandes L, Rigby C, Tomenson B, Read N, Thompson DG.
Psychosom Med 2005 May-Jun;67(3):490-9.

OBJECTIVE: We assessed the effect of reported sexual abuse on symptom severity and health-related quality of life in patients with severe irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) undergoing psychological treatments. METHODS: IBS patients entering a treatment trial who reported prior sexual abuse were compared with the remainder in terms of symptom severity and health-related quality of life (SF-36) at trial entry and 15 months later. Analyses used ANCOVA with age, sex, marital status, and treatment group as covariates. We assessed possible mediators using multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 257 patients with severe IBS, 31 (12.1%) reported a history of rape and 28 (10.9%) reported forced, unwanted touching. People who reported abuse were more impaired than the remainder on the SF-36 scales for pain (adjusted p = .023) and physical function (p = .029); these relationships followed a "dose-response" relationship and were mediated by SCL-90 somatization score. At 15 months follow-up, the associations between reported abuse and SF-36 scores were lost because people with reported abuse, especially rape, improved more than the remainder when treated with psychotherapy or paroxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressant); this improvement was mediated by change in SCL-90 somatization score. CONCLUSIONS: In severe IBS, the association between self-reported sexual abuse and impaired functioning is mediated by a general tendency to report numerous bodily symptoms. A reported history of abuse is associated with a marked improvement following psychological treatment.

The impact of the transmission dynamics of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on sexual behaviour: A new hypothesis to explain recent increases in risk taking-behaviour among men who have sex with men.
Boily MC, Godin G, Hogben M, Sherr L, Bastos FI.
Med Hypotheses 2005;65(2):215-226.

Male reproductive physiology as a sexually selected handicap? Erectile dysfunction is correlated with general health and health prognosis and may have evolved as a marker of poor phenotypic quality.
Cellerino A, Jannini EA.
Med Hypotheses 2005;65(1):179-84.

Many extravagant physical traits are selected because they are used as cues for mate choice (sexual selection). Why is mate choice driven by costly ornaments? A theory of sexual selection posits that extravagant traits are preferred because are reliable indicators of superior (heritable) phenotypic quality. In particular, the preferred traits can be expressed only in individuals with superior conditions because are handicaps which impose a high cost to the carrier. The human penis achieves its reproductive function by the complex neuro-vascular mechanisms that controls erection. Surprisingly, erectile dysfunction and infertility, two condition which nearly annihilate fitness, are widespread medical conditions which affect millions of people of any age worldwide. The very high incidence of erectile dysfunction appears as an evolutionary paradox. Impotence is associated with all major systemic diseases as well depression and stress. Stress is also one of the causes of infertility. Therefore, male reproduction appears to be extremely sensitive to internal and external stressors. Moreover, erectile dysfunction is a predictor of myocardial infarction and stroke, whereas men with regular sexual activity have lower risk of death due to coronary disease. This large body of medical literature makes erection the best case for a fitness indicator in the human male. We suggest that the fragility of male sexual physiology observed in modern society is the specific consequence of an evolutionary process driven by the handicap principle.

Sexual Functioning After Total Compared With Supracervical Hysterectomy: A Randomized Trial.
Kuppermann M, Summitt RL Jr, Varner RE, McNeeley SG, Goodman-Gruen D, Learman LA, Ireland CC, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Richter HE, Showstack J, Hulley SB, Washington AE.
Obstet Gynecol 2005 Jun;105(6):1309-1318.

OBJECTIVE: To compare sexual functioning and health-related quality-of-life outcomes of total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and supracervical hysterectomy (SCH) among women with symptomatic uterine leiomyomata or abnormal uterine bleeding refractory to hormonal management. METHODS: We randomly assigned 135 women scheduled to undergo abdominal hysterectomy in 4 U.S. clinical centers to either a total or supracervical procedure. The primary outcome was sexual functioning at 2 years, as assessed by the Medical Outcomes Study Sexual Problems Scale. Secondary outcomes included specific aspects of sexual functioning and health-related quality-of-life at 6 months and 2 years. RESULTS: Sexual problems improved dramatically in both randomized groups during the first 6 months and plateaued by 1 year. Health-related quality-of-life scores also improved in both groups. At 2 years, both groups reported few problems with sexual functioning (mean score on the Sexual Problems Scale for SCH group 82, TAH group 80, on a 0-to-100 scale with 100 indicating an absence of problems; difference = +2, 95% confidence interval -8 to + 11), and there were no significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Supracervical and total abdominal hysterectomy result in similar sexual functioning and health-related quality of life during 2 years of follow-up. This information can help guide physicians as they discuss surgical options with their patients. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.

Reclaiming the lost art of listening.
Levinson B.
S Afr Med J 2005 May;95(5):318-20.

Doctors and sexuality.
Larsen J.
S Afr Med J 2005 May;95(5):284-6.

Do alterations in vaginal dimensions after reconstructive pelvic surgeries affect the risk for dyspareunia?
Abramov Y, Gandhi S, Botros SM, Goldberg RP, Sherman W, Rurak M, Sand PK.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;192(5):1573-7.

The purpose of this study was to determine whether changes in vaginal dimensions after transvaginal reconstructive pelvic surgeries affect the risk for postoperative dyspareunia. STUDY DESIGN: Charts of all sexually active patients who underwent transvaginal reconstructive pelvic surgeries in our institution between July 1998 and June 2002 with 1 year of follow-up evaluations were reviewed. Data were analyzed with the Student t, chi2, Pearson's correlation tests and a logistic regression model. RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-eight women aged 44 to 83 years were included. Dyspareunia increased after operation (16% vs 7%; P = .001); total vaginal length (7.6 vs 8.8 cm; P = .001) and genital hiatus (2.7 vs 3.5 cm; P = .001) dimensions significantly decreased after operation, with no predilection for any specific procedure. No correlation was found between these changes in vaginal dimensions and the risk for dyspareunia. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of dyspareunia increases after transvaginal reconstructive pelvic surgeries. Despite a postoperative decrease in vaginal dimensions, a causal relationship between dyspareunia and changes in vaginal dimensions may not exist.

Early intervention for perinatal depression.
Thoppil J, Riutcel TL, Nalesnik SW.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;192(5):1446-8.

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to design a process that effectively identifies and facilitates early intervention for women in an obstetrics clinic who are at risk for postpartum depression. STUDY DESIGN: Under this new program, labeled ISIS (Identify, Screen, Intervene, Support), we educated our new obstetric patients and clinic staff about postpartum depression through patient education classes, departmental lectures, and handouts. Then, we implemented simple procedures to identify risk factors for depression at intake and screened for depressive symptoms at the 32-week visit using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). In addition, we facilitated treatment of at-risk or symptomatic patients with the introduction of a social work consultant in the clinic setting. RESULTS: In an obstetric chart review, 75% of our patients were screened for depression in pregnancy. Ten percent of these women demonstrated symptoms of depression warranting further evaluation. CONCLUSION: Preliminary data from our multidisciplinary approach suggest that educating, screening, and appropriately treating or referring these women can take place in a busy obstetric clinic.

Behavior problems and mental health referrals of international adoptees: a meta-analysis.
Juffer F, van Ijzendoorn MH.
JAMA 2005 May 25;293(20):2501-15.

International adoption involves more than 40,000 children a year moving among more than 100 countries. Before adoption, international adoptees often experience insufficient medical care, malnutrition, maternal separation, and neglect and abuse in orphanages. . . . Most international adoptees are well-adjusted although they are referred to mental health services more often than nonadopted controls. However, international adoptees present fewer behavior problems and are less often referred to mental health services than domestic adoptees.

Sigmoid perforation by compressed carbon dioxide.
Ikapischke M, Tepel J, Pai M, Schulz T. Scand
J Gastroenterol 2005 Mar;40(3):356-9.

Self-induced injuries of the bowel have various accidental mechanisms. This is a report of a 35-year-old patient with disruption of the recto-sigmoid junction caused by carbon dioxide (CO2) originating from a bottle of sparkling wine, which was introduced transanally for sexual stimulation. The patient underwent resection of the recto-sigmoid junction and primary anastomosis. The postoperative course was uneventful except for wound infection. The patient was discharged 12 days later. The physical backgrounds, the pathological pathways for perforation and diagnostic modalities including diagnostic pitfalls are critically discussed.

Peyronie's disease with erectile dysfunction: penile modeling over inflatable penile prostheses.
Chaudhary M, Sheikh N, Asterling S, Ahmad I, Greene D
Urology 2005 Apr;65(4):760-4.

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate, retrospectively, the impact of penile correction by modeling of the penis over an inflatable penile prosthesis and the subsequent improvement in erectile function. Advanced Peyronie's disease with severe penile curvature and poor quality erections presents a challenge to the urologist. METHODS: In our series, 46 patients with advanced Peyronie's disease and associated erectile dysfunction underwent insertion of an inflatable penile prosthesis between 1998 and 2003. Of the 46 patients, 28 (61%) underwent a standard modeling procedure; the other 18 patients (39%) did not need additional modeling, because their curvature was corrected by inflation of the prosthesis alone. Patients were evaluated postoperatively in the clinic, as well as by a postal questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the 46 patients, 44 were satisfied with the penile correction and 2 (4.4%) underwent removal of their prosthesis because of infection. These 2 patients underwent revision surgery; subsequently both prostheses had to be removed, one for severe pain and the other for urethral erosion. None of the patients underwent reoperation for additional straightening. Of the 44 patients with intact prostheses, erectile function significantly improved in 41 (93%). CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study have indicated that patients with severe Peyronie's disease and erectile dysfunction should be offered the choice of penile modeling over an inflatable penile implant to correct the curvature, as well as improve erectile function.

Testosterone patch for low sexual desire in surgically menopausal women: a randomized trial.
Buster JE, Kingsberg SA, Aguirre O, Brown C, Breaux JG, Buch A, Rodenberg CA, Wekselman K, Casson P
Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;105(5):944-52.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of a 300 mug/d testosterone patch for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in surgically menopausal women on concomitant estrogen therapy. METHODS: Five hundred thirty-three women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder who had undergone previous hysterectomy and bilateral oophorectomy were enrolled in a 24-week, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo or the testosterone patch twice weekly. The primary efficacy endpoint was change from baseline at week 24 in the frequency of total satisfying sexual activity, measured by the Sexual Activity Log. Secondary measures included sexual desire using the Profile of Female Sexual Function and personal distress as measured by the Personal Distress Scale. Hormone levels, adverse events, and clinical laboratory measures were reviewed. RESULTS: Total satisfying sexual activity significantly improved in the testosterone patch group compared with placebo after 24 weeks (mean change from baseline, 1.56 compared with 0.73 episodes per 4 weeks, P = .001). Treatment with the testosterone patch also significantly improved sexual desire (mean change, 10.57 compared with 4.29, P < .001) and decreased personal distress (P = .009). Serum free, total, and bioavailable testosterone concentrations increased from baseline. Overall, adverse events were similar in both groups (P > .05). The incidence of androgenic adverse events was higher in the testosterone group; most androgenic adverse events were mild. CONCLUSION: In surgically menopausal women with hypoactive sexual desire disorder, a 300 mug/d testosterone patch significantly increased satisfying sexual activity and sexual desire, while decreasing personal distress, and was well tolerated through up to 24 weeks of use. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: I.

Medical liability and patient safety: setting the proper course.
Pearlman MD, Gluck PA
Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;105(5):941-3.

Can postmenopausal women patch up their sex lives with testosterone?

Guzick DS
Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;105(5):938-40.

Guidelines for the pharmacotherapy of premature ejaculation.
Assalian P
World J Urol 2005 Apr 12;.

In the 1960s, premature ejaculation was considered a learned behaviour that had to be treated by behavioural therapy, such as the so-called stop-start technique. The efficacy of this method was questioned. Physicians have always looked for medication that could delay ejaculation. Many studies, controlled and open label, have now clearly shown that rapid ejaculation can be treated quickly and effectively with clomipramine and SSRIs. This article describes the guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of premature ejaculation. These guidelines were developed to ensure that medication are used when clear indications are present.

Diet and eating habits in high and low socioeconomic groups.
Shahar D, Shai I, Vardi H, Shahar A, Fraser D
Nutrition 2005 May;21(5):559-66.

OBJECTIVE: We measured the difference of dietary intake and eating habits across socioeconomic statuses (SESs) in Israel. METHODS: Participants were randomly recruited from three high SES municipalities and three low SES municipalities in the Negev. Participants were interviewed at home with 24-h food questionnaires that included additional questions regarding health and eating habits. Nutrient and energy intakes were compared between groups, as were major contributors to the energy and food groups. RESULTS: One hundred sixteen participants from the high SES group and 206 from the low SES entered the study. Those in the low SES group were older, heavier, less educated, and less physically active. Dietary intake among the participants in the low SES group was significantly lower in protein, monounsaturated fat, and most vitamins and minerals (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, and iron). Conversely, vitamin E intake was higher in the low SES group. In the low SES group, the main contributors to energy intake were breads, oils, and sugars. Oils, fats, and citrus fruits were consumed more among subjects in the low SES group, whereas dairy products, grains, and legumes were consumed less by subjects in the high SES group. CONCLUSION: In a detailed survey conducted in two distinct populations, we found poorer diet quality in the low SES group. The root causes for such divergence need further study. As smoking declines in the modern world, nutrition will become the key risk factor in many diseases. Further research and educational and legislative initiatives are needed to curtail this risk.

Seasonality and immediate antecedents of sexual intercourse in adolescents.
Pittman S, Tita AT, Barratt MS, Rubin SR, Hollier LM
J Reprod Med 2005 Mar;50(3):193-7.

OBJECTIVE: To assess immediate antecedents of and seasonal variations in sexual intercourse among a focused population of medically indigent adolescent females in Houston, Texas. STUDY DESIGN: From June 2001 to March 2002 we solicited a convenience sample of adolescent females during their visit to a school-based clinic. The survey consisted of 34 multiple choice questions targeting immediate antecedents of sexual behavior. Demographic characteristics and survey responses were compared with t tests and ANOVA. The chi2 goodness of fit test and test of homogeneity were used to assess seasonality. RESULTS: One hundred thirty-three teenagers completed our survey. Both African American and Hispanic teens were significantly more likely to report that their sexual debut occurred in June (p < 0.01 and = 0.02, respectively). More than 50% of those surveyed reported having sex either in their homes or in the homes of their partners. Doing "nothing" was the most common antecedent activity for sexual intercourse. There were no statistically significant differences in location or antecedent activity for first or most recent sexual intercourse between teens with and without prior pregnancy. CONCLUSION: Both the timing and location of sexual intercourse among the teens in this study suggest that unsupervised time may be a factor contributing to sexual activity in teens.

Is it possible to predict one-year survival in centenarians? A neural network study.
Tafaro L, Cicconetti P, Piccirillo G, Ettorre E, Marigliano V, Cacciafesta M
Gerontology 2005 May-Jun;51(3):199-205.

BACKGROUND: Human life expectancy is constantly increasing: the challenge for modern geriatric medicine is to identify the means to reach successfully extreme longevity. OBJECTIVE: To determine which are the survival determinants in centenarians using a neural network. METHODS: Sample of 110 centenarians living in Rome, mean age 101.6 years (SD=1.8) with a sex ratio males:females of 1:3. We administered an extensive health interview (lasting 1-2 h) to each subject. The questionnaire, carried out according to the Geriatric Multidimensional Assessment, is made up of 100 items including a comprehensive health and psychosocial assessment aimed at various topics of general health and well-being and some scales used in geriatric practice. We applied several three-layered feed-forward neural networks by mixing in different ways the most important of the 100 items. RESULTS: The most predicting powered net is the one constructed with 23 variables regarding comorbidity, cardiovascular risk factors, cognitive status, mood, functional status and social interactions, which therefore are strictly related to survival in centenarians. CONCLUSION: Survival in longevity is a complex biological phenomenon, which is an ideal field for using the neural network as a statistic method. The net shows us that the maintenance of social relationships even in presence of disability is of major importance for survival in the oldest old.

Practice patterns of physician members of the American Urogynecologic Society regarding female sexual dysfunction: results of a national survey.
Pauls RN, Kleeman SD, Segal JL, Silva WA, Goldenhar LM, Karram MM
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Apr 19;.

The purpose of the study was to evaluate practice patterns of members of the American Urogynecologic Society (AUGS) with respect to female sexual dysfunction (FSD). A brief self-administered survey of 20 questions was mailed to 966 physician members of the AUGS in the United States of America and Canada; 471 surveys were returned (49% response rate). The majority of responders see urogynecology (19%) or urogynecology and general gynecology patients (43%). Sixty-eight percent of physicians were familiar with questionnaires to assess FSD; however, only 13% said they use these for screening purposes. Most said they believed screening for FSD was somewhat (47%) or very important (42%). Despite having these beliefs, only 22% of the responding physicians stated they always screen for FSD, while 55% do so most of the time and 23% admitted they never or rarely screen. Similar results were obtained regarding screening following urogynecologic surgery. Several barriers to screening for FSD existed, the most common being lack of time. The majority of respondents (69%) underestimated the prevalence of FSD in their patient population. Finally, although more than half of responders had received post-residency training in urogynecology (59%), 50% of them stated the training with respect to FSD was unsatisfactory, while only 10% were satisfied. Overall, many urogynecologists do not consistently screen for FSD, underestimate its prevalence, and feel they received unsatisfactory training.

Effects of pregnancy and childbirth on postpartum sexual function: a longitudinal prospective study.
Connolly A, Thorp J, Pahel L
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Apr 19;.

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of pregnancy and childbirth on postpartum sexual function. Nulliparous, English-literate women were enrolled who had presented to the UNC Hospital's obstetrical practice; these women were 18 years of age and older and at 30-40 weeks' gestation. Questionnaires were completed regarding sexual function prior to pregnancy, at enrollment, and at 2, 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Demographic and delivery data were abstracted from the departmental perinatal database. One hundred and fifty women were enrolled. At 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum, 57, 82, and 90% of the women had resumed intercourse. At similar postpartum timepoints, approximately 30 and 17% of women reported dyspareunia; less than 5% described the pain as major. At these times, 39, 60, and 61% of women reported orgasm. Orgasmic function was described as similar to that prior to pregnancy or improved by 71, 77, and 83%. Delivery mode and episiotomy were not associated with intercourse resumption or anorgasmia; dyspareunia was only associated with breast-feeding at 12 weeks (RR=3.36, 95% CI=1.77-6.37). Most women resumed painless intercourse by 6 weeks and experienced orgasm by 12 weeks postpartum. Function was described as similar to or improved over that prior to pregnancy.

Social-cognitive determinants of vaccination behavior against hepatitis B: an assessment among men who have sex with men.
de Wit JB, Vet R, Schutten M, van Steenbergen J
Prev Med 2005 Jun;40(6):795-802.

BACKGROUND: Many individuals who are at risk for infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), including men who have sex with men (MSM), are not vaccinated. This study assessed social-cognitive determinants of obtaining vaccination against HBV. METHODS: A targeted survey was conducted among 432 MSM by means of a written questionnaire that contained assessments of social-cognitive determinants of vaccination behavior derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior. Vaccination behavior was anonymously linked to questionnaire data for which informed consent was obtained. RESULTS: Of the 290 men eligible for vaccination, 248 (86%) had obtained vaccination. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that these men were younger, more often were in a steady relationship, and had fewer sex partners. In addition, significant effects were also found for central factors proposed by the Health Belief Model. Notably, men who obtained vaccination against HBV perceived more personal threat from HBV. None of the Theory of Planned Behavior variables were related to obtaining vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that health education interventions that address perceived susceptibility and severity are likely to contribute to increased uptake of HBV vaccination among MSM. Influencing perceived susceptibility in particular is important, more so than increasing perceived severity by scare tactics.

Understanding premenstrual syndrome from a chinese medicine perspective.
Chou PB, Morse CA
J Altern Complement Med 2005 Apr;11(2):355-61.

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common disorder of some women during their reproductive years, characterized by a range of cyclical physical and/or mood symptoms experienced during the last few days of each menstrual cycle. Several treatment approaches have been applied, but have shown limited success, as the exact cause and pathophysiology of PMS is still not fully identified. In this paper, the etiology and pathogenesis of PMS is compared from both a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) perspective and the Western biomedicine paradigm. TCM has used herbal medicines to treat the symptoms of the premenstrual and menstrual phases for centuries. To date, very few studies on the application of TCM to PMS have applied rigorous research methods. We examine the case of PMS from each paradigm: The biomedical view and that of TCM. Similarities and differences are identified and explored, and possible treatment approaches are considered and discussed in the light of these two models.

The long-term voiding function and sexual function after pelvic nerve-sparing radical surgery for rectal cancer.
Ameda K, Kakizaki H, Koyanagi T, Hirakawa K, Kusumi T, Hosokawa M
Int J Urol 2005 Mar;12(3):256-63.

Background: The aim of the present study is to symptomatically analyze the extent to which pelvic nerve-sparing radical surgery for rectal cancer impacts on long-term voiding and male sexual function. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire was mailed to 68 patients who underwent pelvic nerve-sparing radical surgery for invasive rectal cancer with 52 responses (28 men and 24 women; 27 complete and 25 incomplete preservation; response rate 76.5%). Each patient was asked to record if there had been any changes in lower urinary tract symptoms after surgery. Sexual function was also investigated in men. Results: Of the 52 patients, 48 (92%) maintained voluntary voiding without catheterization in the long term. Clean intermittent self-catheterization was performed in only four patients with incomplete preservation because of persistent voiding dysfunction. Subjectively, approximately 60% of the patients remained unchanged in lower urinary tract symptoms after surgery. The satisfaction rate regarding the current voiding status was significantly higher in women than in men (83% versus 61%, P = 0.0294), but was not significantly different between those with complete (76%) and incomplete preservation (64%). Despite the acceptable urinary status, 88% of men had some deterioration in the erectile function, regardless of the types of surgical procedures. Overall, 64% of men were unsatisfied with the current sexual function. Conclusions: Pelvic nerve-sparing radical surgery for rectal cancer preserved the long-term voiding function in the majority of patients. In completely preserved patients and in women, symptomatic outcomes were more satisfactory. Postoperative erectile dysfunction was found to be a serious problem, even in complete nerve-sparing procedure.

Munchausen syndrome revisited.
Cheng TO
Int J Clin Pract 2005 Apr;59(4):504-5; author reply 505.

Vardenafil for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a critical review of the literature based on personal clinical experience.
Montorsi F, Salonia A, Briganti A, Barbieri L, Zanni G, Suardi N, Cestari A, Montorsi P, Rigatti P
Eur Urol 2005 May;47(5):612-21. Epub 2005 Jan 26.

OBJECTIVE: To critically review the literature on vardenafil in the treatment of erectile dysfunction while integrating the clinical findings with the personal experience of the authors. METHODS: Analysis of published full-length papers that were identified through Medline search from January 2000 through May 2004. Abstracts published in peer-reviewed journals from the same period were also considered. RESULTS: Efficacy, tolerability and safety, as reported in the peer-reviewed literature compares well with the authors' personal experience. Authors' personal observations include discussions on potency, selectivity, selection of initial dose, counselling for patients characteristically considered difficult-to-treat (diabetes, prostatectomy, depression), including the determination of the maximal efficacious dose and the possible role of daily dosing, optimisation of the use of vardenafil according to its pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles (onset and reliability), and management of ED patients with or at risk for cardiovascular disease. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive experience with vardenafil as reported in peer reviewed literature confirms the important role of vardenafil in the management of patients with ED. The development of each physician's own experience with vardenafil is key to optimise overall satisfaction of this therapy by the patient and his partner.

Voiding and sexual dysfunction after deep rectal resection and total mesorectal excision Prospective study on 52 patients.
Sterk P, Shekarriz B, Gunter S, Nolde J, Keller R, Bruch HP, Shekarriz H
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Apr 22;.

OBJECTIVE: Voiding and sexual dysfunction after deep rectal resection have been described with various frequencies in the literature. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the baseline preoperative voiding and sexual function in a cohort of patients undergoing deep rectal resection with mesorectal excision to determine any pre-existing abnormalities. Postoperatively, we sought first to determine the frequency of a urinary or sexual dysfunction, secondly whether there is a time-dependent change of a dysfunction and thirdly whether there is a relationship between postoperative urological dysfunction and the patient's age. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-two patients (36 men and 16 women) with a primary rectal carcinoma were prospectively examined directly before and after the operation, as well after the third and sixth postoperative month. The preoperative urological evaluation consisted of a careful voiding and sexual history, uroflowmetry and a sonographic residual urine determination. A detailed sexual history was obtained via the use of a questionnaire. RESULTS: Urological dysfunction: Preoperatively, 49 of the 52 patients had a completely normal bladder function and three patients had post void residual >100 ml. Postoperatively, 12 of the 49 patients with normal preoperatively urinary function had voiding dysfunction, but only four male patients had residual urine in the third postoperative month. Therefore, in about 90% of the patients, postoperative bladder function became normal and only 10% suffered from vesical denervation after 6 months. We could not determine a relationship between the degree of bladder dysfunction and the patient's age due to a relatively small patient cohort in this study. Sexual dysfunction: Preoperatively, 36 (seven women, 29 men) of the 52 patients were potent and had regular sexual intercourse. Eleven men specified a limited erection, but all had occasional sexual intercourse. One of the potent men experienced no ejaculation. Postoperatively, eight of the 29 men were impotent and two of the 29 men experienced retrograde ejaculation. Therefore, 30% of the preoperatively potent men had sexual dysfunction postoperatively. There was no correlation between the postoperative impotence and the age of the patients at the time of surgery. Although it is likely that the potency may diminish with advanced age, the incidence of impotence was not higher in the older patients of our study. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study underline the importance of risk estimation for possible postoperative urological dysfunction by means of preoperative urologic evaluation in this patient collective. Of patients with postoperative bladder dysfunction, 90% improved within 6 months after surgery and only 10% continued to have bladder dysfunction beyond 6 months, indicating irreversible nerve damage.

Psychiatric and psychological dysfunction in irritable bowel syndrome and the role of psychological treatments.
Palsson OS, Drossman DA
Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2005 Jun;34(2):281-303.

Sexual function in women with pelvic organ prolapse compared to women without pelvic organ prolapse.
Novi JM, Jeronis S, Morgan MA, Arya LA
J Urol 2005 May;173(5):1669-72.

PURPOSE: We compared sexual function in women with pelvic organ prolapse to that in women without prolapse. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected sexual function data using a standardized, validated, condition specific questionnaire. The study group consisted of 30 women with pelvic organ prolapse and it was compared with 30 unmatched controls without evidence of prolapse. RESULTS: The 2 groups were similar in age, race, parity and postmenopausal hormone use. Subjects in the study group were more likely to have undergone previous pelvic surgery. Mean total Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire scores +/- SD were lower in the study group compared with controls (81.4 +/- 7.3 vs 106.4 +/- 15.5, p <0.001). In the study group total questionnaire scores in women with prior pelvic surgery were similar to those in women without prior pelvic surgery (79.3 +/- 14.9 vs 82.9 +/- 10.2, p = 0.61). CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic organ prolapse appears to have a significant negative impact on sexual function.

Contributions of physical and sexual abuse to women's experiences with chronic pelvic pain.
Poleshuck EL, Dworkin RH, Howard FM, Foster DC, Shields CG, Giles DE, Tu X
J Reprod Med 2005 Feb;50(2):91-100.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the roles of physical and sexual abuse in women with chronic pelvic pain using multi-dimensional pain assessment and to compare the chronic pelvic pain experiences of women with physical abuse to those of women with sexual abuse. STUDY DESIGN: Structured questionnaires were used to measure self-reported abuse, pain severity, psychological distress, physical functioning, interpersonalfunctioning, and coping in 63 women attending a tertiary care gynecologic clinic for diagnosis and treatment of chronic pelvic pain. RESULTS: Women with chronic pelvic pain who reported abuse demonstrated significantly more psychological distress than did women who reported no abuse, but there were no differences in pain severity, physical functioning, interpersonal functioning or coping. Women with physical abuse reported more overall psychological distress, depression, anxiety and somatization than women who reported no physical abuse. Women who reported sexual abuse showed more overall psychological distress and anxiety than women who reported no sexual abuse. While physical abuse was more consistently associated with psychological distress than was sexual abuse, both types of abuse were risk factors for distress. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that both physical and sexual abuse are associated with psychological distress in women with chronic pelvic pain but not with other domains of pain experience. Additional research to improve identification and treatment of women with both chronic pelvic pain and abuse is indicated.

Sexual Function of LUTS Patients Before and After Neodymium Laser Prostatectomy and Transurethral Resection of Prostate. A Prospective, Randomized Trial.
Seftel A
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1279.

Selective facilitation of sexual solicitation in the female rat by a melanocortin receptor agonist.
Seftel A
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1279-80.

Testosterone Treatment Improves Body Composition and Sexual Function in Men With COPD, in a 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.
Seftel A
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1278.

A new clinical method for the assessment of penile endothelial function using the flow mediated dilation with plethysmography technique.
Dayan L, Greunwald I, Vardi Y, Jacob G
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1268-72.

PURPOSE: Penile endothelial function (EnF) is 1 of the major factors involved in the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction. EnF assessment could offer crucial information on the etiology and degree of severity of cavernosal vascular pathology. In the present study we propose a new technique for the evaluation of penile EnF and test its applicability using strain gauge plethysmography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 23 healthy subjects (13 younger and 10 older than 40 years) with no history of erectile dysfunction were studied. The flow mediated dilation technique was applied to the arm and penis in both age groups for the assessment of EnF. Baseline blood flow and the sequential flow recordings after rapid cessation of 5 minutes of ischemia were obtained in both organs. RESULTS: Baseline flow in the penis was significantly higher (approximately 3-fold) than that in the forearm and was not affected by age in either organ. Both measures of penile EnF, ie area under the flow-time curve (AUC) and maximal flow obtained after ischemia were significantly lower in the older group compared to the younger group (p <0.01 and p <0.02, respectively). Individual penile AUC and maximal flow were significantly correlated with age (r = 0.55, p <0.01 and r = 0.50, p <0.02, respectively). Finally a positive, significant correlation existed between penile and forearm AUC (p <0.05, r = 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the flow mediated dilation technique using mercury strain gauge plethysmography is simple and applicable for the assessment of penile EnF. Endothelial function parameters in the penis were found to correlate with those in the forearm, thus support for the validity of the technique is given. Further strength for the validity of this procedure in the penis comes from the comparison between the forearm and penis, and the relation to subject age.

Development and Validation of the Self-Esteem and Relationship (SEAR) Questionnaire in Erectile Dysfunction.
Albertsen PC
J Urol 2005 Apr;173(4):1328.

Ecstasy (MDMA) mimics the post-orgasmic state: Impairment of sexual drive and function during acute MDMA-effects may be due to increased prolactin secretion.
Passie T, Hartmann U, Schneider U, Emrich HM, Kruger TH
Med Hypotheses 2005;64(5):899-903.

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA or "Ecstasy") is a major stimulant drug of abuse worldwide. MDMA produces euphoria, enhances interpersonal communication and feelings of closeness with others. In contrast to the induced emotions of affection and sensual enhancement, clinical studies show that it impairs sexual drive and functioning. In drug-free humans, sexual stimulation with orgasm induces a pronounced secretion of prolactin, which may mediate the post-orgasmic state. The phenomenological features of the psychological state induced by MDMA show some similarities with features of the post-orgasmic state. In addition, MDMA also induces a prominent increase of prolactin plasma levels with a similar time kinetic compared to the post-orgasmic prolactin increase. Here, we present the hypothesis that the impairment of sexual parameters after MDMA may be mediated by increased prolactin.

Surgical outcome of radical retropubic prostatectomy is not adversely affected by preexisting three-piece inflatable penile implant.
Mireku-Boateng AO, Oben F
Urol Int 2005;74(3):221-3.

Objectives: We report on our surgical findings and outcome of radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP) in patients who have had three-piece inflatable penile implants. Methods: We looked at the retrospective data of 6 patients who have undergone RRP for cancer of the prostate after a prior insertion of a three-piece inflatable penile implant. We looked at the data involving operating time, blood loss, infection of the penile implant, damage to the penile implant, surgical margins of the prostate, damage to other pelvic structures, length of hospital stay, time interval between penile implant and RRP, technique of placing of the reservoir during the penile implant surgery. Results: The RRP procedures all went well, with no injury to the preexisting penile implants. There was also no compromise in the surgery for the cancer treatment, or injury to other pelvic organs. Conclusions: With increasing treatment of men with erectile dysfunction and also with increasing early diagnosis of cancer of the prostate, we are going to be seeing increasing numbers of patients who have had inflatable penile implants who subsequently need RRP for treatment of cancer of the prostate. We feel the surgery can be accomplished without any complication to the implant or compromise to the cancer surgery or injury to other pelvic organs. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Effect of Urinary Leakage on Sexual Function during Sexual Intercourse.
Kizilkaya Beji N, Yalcin O, Ayyildiz Erkan H, Kayir A
Urol Int 2005;74(3):250-255.

Aim: This study was planned to determine the effect of urinary leakage on sexual function during sexual intercourse. Methods: The study group included 32 incontinent women who had urinary leakage during sexual intercourse and the control group consisted of 60 women with no such problem. The Sexual History Form of Schover and Jensen was completed in face-to-face interviews in a private room. Results: When compared with the women without any problem, the women with urinary incontinence were 4.7 times less satisfied with their sexual life and their partners had ejaculation without full erection 3.1 times more. In order to cope with the problem of urinary incontinence during coitus the women themselves adopted several methods. Trying to keep their partners unaware of the problem and deferring the intercourse were among the most frequently adopted methods. 43.7% of the study group indicated that this problem affected their sex life. Conclusions: The results of this study support the view that urinary leakage during coitus affects women's sex life adversely. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

The placebo response in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Cho HJ, Hotopf M, Wessely S
Psychosom Med 2005 Mar-Apr;67(2):301-13.

OBJECTIVE: The placebo response is conventionally asserted to be high in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) because of the latter's subjective nature and obscure pathogenesis, but no systematic review of placebo responses has been undertaken. We report such a study. Patient expectation is known to be important in the placebo response. It is also known that CFS patients attending specialist clinics often have strong physical attributions regarding causation and hence skepticism about psychological or psychiatric interventions. If so, the placebo response in CFS may be influenced by the type of intervention according to its perceived rationale. We aimed to estimate the summary placebo response in clinical trials of CFS and to determine whether intervention type influences the placebo response in CFS. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, and the references of the identified articles, and contacted experts for controlled trials (randomized or nonrandomized) of any intervention on CFS patients reporting the placebo response as a clinical improvement in physical or general outcomes. Data were extracted from the articles and validity assessment conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Meta-analysis and metaregression were performed. RESULTS: The pooled placebo response was 19.6% (95% confidence interval, 15.4-23.7), lower than predicted and lower than in some other medical conditions. The meta-regression revealed that intervention type significantly contributed to the heterogeneity of placebo response (p = .03). CONCLUSION: In contrast with the conventional wisdom, the placebo response in CFS is low. Psychological-psychiatric interventions were shown to have a lower placebo response, perhaps linked to patient expectations.

Enhanced early morning salivary cortisol in neuroticism.
Portella MJ, Harmer CJ, Flint J, Cowen P, Goodwin GM
Am J Psychiatry 2005 Apr;162(4):807-9.

OBJECTIVE: Neuroticism is a predisposing factor for major depression. The increase in salivary cortisol that follows waking provides a reliable measure of adrenocortical activity, and this response is increased in recovered depressed patients. This study compared waking cortisol levels in healthy subjects with high and low levels of neuroticism without a previous history of depression. METHOD: Salivary cortisol levels were measured upon waking and at 15-minute intervals for the next hour in volunteers selected to have high (>19/23) or low (<4/23) neuroticism based on the Eysenck Personality Inventory. RESULTS: Subjects with high neuroticism showed significantly greater levels of salivary cortisol 30 minutes after waking, which were maintained for the next half hour. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormalities in waking cortisol are associated with neuroticism in a way similar to those seen in major depression. Elevated waking cortisol may represent a vulnerability marker for mood disorder.

Use of psychotherapy for depression in older adults.
Wei W, Sambamoorthi U, Olfson M, Walkup JT, Crystal S
Am J Psychiatry 2005 Apr;162(4):711-7.

OBJECTIVE: The authors examine national patterns in psychotherapy for older adults with a diagnosis of depression and analyze correlates of psychotherapy use that is consistent with Agency for Health Care Policy and Research guidelines for duration of treatment. METHOD: Linked Medicare claims and survey data from the 1992-1999 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey were used. The data were merged with the Area Resource File to assess the effect of provider-supply influences on psychotherapy treatment. An episode-of-care framework approach was used to analyze psychotherapy use and treatment duration. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to predict psychotherapy use and its consistency. RESULTS: The authors identified 2,025 episodes of depression treatment between 1992 and 1999. Overall, psychotherapy was used in 25% (N=474) of the episodes, with 68% of episodes with psychotherapy involving services received only from psychiatrists. (Percentages were weighted for the complex design of the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey.) Use of psychotherapy was correlated with younger patient age, higher patient educational attainment, and availability of local psychotherapy providers. Among episodes in which psychotherapy was used, only a minority (33%, N=141) involved patients who remained in consistent treatment, defined as extending for at least two-thirds of the episode of depression. Availability of local providers was positively correlated with consistent psychotherapy use. In analyses with adjustment for provider-related factors, patients' socioeconomic and demographic characteristics did not affect the odds of receiving consistent psychotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: Use of psychotherapy remains uncommon among depressed older adults despite its widely acknowledged efficacy. Some of the disparities in psychotherapy utilization suggest supply-side barriers. Increasing the geographic availability of mental health care providers may be one way of increasing access to psychotherapy for depressed older adults.