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Basic Sciences, Miscellaneus : Coloproctology II

Hyperpigmented rugosity of skin associated with adenocarcinoma of the caecum.
Inamadar AC, Palit A, Yelikar BR
Postgrad Med J 2005 Apr;81(954):271.

Acute liver failure is a rare syndrome with rapid progression and high mortality. It is characterised by the onset of coma and coagulopathy usually within six weeks but can occur up to six months after the onset of illness. Viral hepatitis, idiosyncratic drug induced liver injury, and acetaminophen ingestion are common causes. This report describes the case of a 35 year old man who presented with acute liver failure shortly after binge drinking. Repeated history taking disclosed a gluteal disulfiram implant that the patient had received to treat his alcohol dependence. The patient recovered with maximum supportive care after surgical removal but without liver transplantation. This case illustrates that only meticulous history taking will disclose the sometimes bewildering causes of acute liver failure.

Reappraisal of Surgical Treatment for Radiation Enteritis.
Onodera H, Nagayama S, Mori A, Fujimoto A, Tachibana T, Yonenaga Y
World J Surg 2005 Mar 22;.

Although radiation enteritis is a well-recognized sequel of therapeutic irradiation, the standard surgical method is not universally agreed upon. Not only the short-term effect but also the long-term effect after a surgical intervention has been fairly well reported. To reassess the surgical therapy for radiation enteritis, we retrospectively analyzed 48 patients (5 males and 43 females, mean age 58.6 years) who had been operated on in our department. These patients were divided into two types according to the time of surgery or the clinical manifestation, and operative methods were analyzed. Patient's status such as bowel movement, body weight, and serum albumin value after surgery were analyzed, together with the patients survival. Our surgical methods were small intestinal resection for the intestinal obstruction, and pull-through reconstruction for proctitis. Two patients died of multiple organ failure caused by perforated peritonitis irrespective of emergent operation. Although the overall morbidity was 21.7%, there was no leakage when bowels were anastomosed. Overall survival after radiation-related complication in patients without previous neoplastic disease recurrence was 89%, 79%, and 69%, at 1, 3, and 5 years after surgery, respectively. Bowel motility, serum albumin level, and body weight recovered gradually soon after the operation and reached satisfactory levels within 6 months. Our analysis showed that small bowel injury should be treated by generous resection of the affected bowel followed by careful anastomosis of the disease-free ends, while rectal resection is best dealt with by restorative proctectomy. This may provide a good quality of life and minimize major postoperative complications such as leakage.

Neoadjuvant Imatinib in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor of the Rectum: Report of a Case.
Lo SS, Papachristou GI, Finkelstein SD, Conroy WP, Schraut WH, Ramanathan RK
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 24;.

Gastrointestinal stromal tumors are rare tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors involving the rectum are uncommon. We describe a case of a 43-year-old female with a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the rectum who declined abdominoperineal resection. Neoadjuvant treatment with imatinib decreased her tumor size, permitting sphincter-sparing transanal excision. She had no evidence of disease for 24 months postoperatively until she recurred with lung metastases. Microdissection genotyping of the recurrent lesion revealed a deletion in exon 11. Further mutational analysis showed that her metastatic lesion was concordant with her primary rectal lesion, suggesting that systemic micrometastasis was previously present at initial diagnosis. Deletion in exon 11 predicts for response with imatinib treatment and is associated with a longer event-free and overall survival. Current studies are underway that may help us optimize the treatment for patients with gastrointestinl stromal tumors.

Surgical Salvage of Recurrent Rectal Cancer After Transanal Excision.
Weiser MR, Landmann RG, Wong WD, Shia J, Guillem JG, Temple LK, Minsky BD, Cohen AM, Paty PB
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 24;.

PURPOSE: This study examines surgical salvage of locally recurrent rectal cancer following transanal excision of early tumors. METHODS: Through retrospective review of a colorectal database we identified 50 patients who underwent attempted surgical salvage for local recurrence following initial transanal excision of T1 or T2 rectal cancer. Eight patients had resectable synchronous distant disease. Clinicopathologic variables were associated with extent of surgery required for salvage and outcome. RESULTS: Salvage procedures included abdominoperineal resection (31), low anterior resection (11), total pelvic exenteration (4), and transanal excision (3). One patient had unresectable disease at exploration, requiring diverting ostomy. Of the 49 patients who underwent successful salvage, 27 (55 percent) required an extended pelvic dissection with en bloc resection of one or more of the following structures: pelvic sidewall and autonomic nerves (18); coccyx or portion of sacrum (6); prostate (5); seminal vesicle (5); bladder (4); portion of the vagina (3); ureter (2); ovary (1); and uterus (1). Complete pathologic resection (R0) was accomplished in 47 of 49 patients. Of the eight patients with distant and local recurrence, two underwent synchronous resection and six had delayed metastasectomy. With a median follow-up of 33 months, 29 patients had recurred or died of disease at the time of this analysis. Five-year disease-specific survival was 53 percent. Factors predictive of survival included evidence of any mucosal recurrence on endoscopy, low presalvage carcinoembryonic antigen, and absence of poor pathologic features (lymphovascular and perineural invasion). Patients who required an extended pelvic resection had a worse survival rate. CONCLUSION: Pelvic recurrence following transanal excision of early rectal cancer is often locally advanced, requiring an extended pelvic dissection with en bloc resection of adjacent pelvic organs to achieve salvage. The long-term outcome in patients undergoing resection is less than expected, considering the early stage of their initial disease. When contemplating local excision for early rectal cancer, the risk of local recurrence, the extent and morbidity of surgery required for salvage, and the modest cure rate following salvage should be considered.

Probiotics: an ideal anti-inflammatory treatment for IBS?
Spiller R
Gastroenterology 2005 Mar;128(3):783-5.

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with refractory Crohn's disease.
Oyama Y, Craig RM, Traynor AE, Quigley K, Statkute L, Halverson A, Brush M, Verda L, Kowalska B, Krosnjar N, Kletzel M, Whitington PF, Burt RK

Gastroenterology 2005 Mar;128(3):552-63.
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Crohn's disease (CD) is an immunologically mediated inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Due to a high morbidity and/or an increase in mortality in refractory cases, a new treatment approach is needed. In theory, maximum immune ablation by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can induce a remission. METHODS: We conducted a phase 1 HSCT study in 12 patients with refractory CD. Candidates were younger than 60 years of age with a Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) of 250-400 despite conventional therapies including infliximab. Peripheral blood stem cells were mobilized with cyclophosphamide and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and CD34 + enriched. The immune ablative (conditioning) regimen consisted of 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide and 90 mg/kg equine antithymocyte globulin. RESULTS: The procedure was well tolerated with anticipated cytopenias, neutropenic fever, and disease-related fever, diarrhea, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. The median days for neutrophil and platelet engraftment were 9.5 (range, 8-11) and 9 (range, 9-18), respectively. The initial median CDAI was 291 (range, 250-358). Symptoms and CDAI improved before hospital discharge, whereas radiographic and colonoscopy findings improved gradually over months to years following HSCT. Eleven of 12 patients entered a sustained remission defined by a CDAI < or =150. After a median follow-up of 18.5 months (range, 7-37 months), only one patient has developed a recurrence of active CD, which occurred 15 months after HSCT. CONCLUSIONS: Autologous HSCT may be performed safely and has a marked salutary effect on CD activity. A randomized study will be needed to confirm the efficacy of this therapy.

Outcome of transvaginal excision of large rectal adenomas: invited comment.
Holscher AH
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Apr 5;.

Gonyautoxin: new treatment for healing acute and chronic anal fissures.
Garrido R, Lagos N, Lattes K, Abedrapo M, Bocic G, Cuneo A, Chiong H, Jensen C, Azolas R, Henriquez A, Garcia C
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb;48(2):335-43.
PURPOSE: The mayor symptoms of chronic anal fissure are permanent pain, intense pain during defecation that lasts for hours, blood in the stools, and sphincter cramps. It is subsequent to formation of fibrosis infiltrate that leads to an increased anal tone with poor healing tendency. This vicious circle leads to fissure recurrence and chronicity. This study was designed to show the efficacy of gonyautoxin infiltration in healing patients with anal fissures. METHODS: Gonyautoxin is a paralyzing phytotoxin produced by dinoflagellates. Fifty recruited patients received clinical examination, including proctoscopy and questionnaire to evaluate the symptoms. Anorectal manometries were performed before and after toxin injection. Doses of 100 units of gonyautoxin in a volume of 1 ml were infiltrated into both sides of the anal fissure in the internal anal sphincter. RESULTS: Total remission of acute and chronic anal fissures were achieved within 15 and 28 days respectively. Ninety-eight percent of the patients healed before 28 days with a mean time healing of 17.6 +/- 9 days. Only one relapsed during 14 months of follow-up. Neither fecal incontinence nor other side effects were observed. All patients showed immediate sphincter relaxation. The maximum anal resting pressures recorded after two minutes decreased to 56.2 +/- 12.5 percent of baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Gonyautoxin breaks the vicious circle of pain and spasm that leads to anal fissure. This study proposes gonyautoxin anal sphincter infiltration as safe and effective alternative therapeutic approach to conservative, surgical, and botulinum toxin therapies for anal fissures.

Relationship between surgeon caseload and sphincter preservation in patients with rectal cancer.
Purves H, Pietrobon R, Hervey S, Guller U, Miller W, Ludwig K
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb;48(2):195-204.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine by means of a national database whether higher surgeon caseload correlates with greater utilization of sphincter-sparing procedures than of abdominoperineal resections in treatment of patients with rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with a primary International Classification of Diseases-9 diagnosis code of rectal cancer who underwent a sphincter-sparing procedure or abdominoperineal resection were selected from the 1997 Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a database that represents 20 percent of all U.S. community hospital discharges. Multivariable logistic regression models were used on a 20 percent sample of this database to estimate the risk-adjusted relationship between surgeon caseload volume and the odds of receiving a sphincter-sparing procedure. All models were adjusted for age, gender, race, hospital region, and patient comorbidity. RESULTS: The study population (n = 477) was 70.4 percent white and 57.9 percent male with an average age of 67.6 years. The mean Deyo comorbidity score was 7.0. Patients treated by surgeons in the highest-volume category (>/=10 rectal cancer surgeries per year) compared with those treated by surgeons in the lowest-volume category (1-3 rectal cancer surgeries per year) were significantly more likely to undergo a sphincter-sparing procedure, after adjustment for other covariates (odds ratio = 5.05; 95 percent confidence interval, 2.5-10.22). CONCLUSION: This analysis suggests that rectal cancer patients treated by high-volume surgeons are five times more likely to undergo sphincter-sparing procedures than those treated by low-volume surgeon. This has significant implications for those seeking a sphincter-preserving option for the treatment of their rectal cancer.

Manometric Effect of Topical Glyceryl Trinitrate and Its Impact on Chronic Anal Fissure Healing.
Thornton MJ, Kennedy ML, King DW
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 24;.

INTRODUCTION: The duration of physiologic action of topical glyceryl trinitrate in the management of anal fissure has been the source of some controversy. This study was designed to assess the manometric effect of glyceryl trinitrate on internal sphincter resting tone with continuous monitoring. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with a chronic anal fissure were assessed with fissure, pain, bleeding, and continence scores. Twenty-two were randomized to 1 cm of topical 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate paste, applied to the lower anal canal. Five patients were randomized to 1 cm of water-soluble lubricating jelly to the lower anal canal. Continuous stationary six radial channel water perfusion anorectal manometry was performed for 5 minutes before treatment and then for a further 30 minutes. The 22 glyceryl trinitrate patients were then advised to apply topical 0.2 percent glyceryl trinitrate, three times daily, for eight weeks. Twenty-four hours after completing treatment, all baseline assessments were repeated. The lubricant jelly cohort was discharged from the study after the initial assessment. RESULTS: During the initial manometric assessment, 21 glyceryl trinitrate patients (95 percent) had 20 percent or more reduction in mean and maximum anal resting pressure after treatment. However, there was no statistical difference at 20 minutes compared with 0 minutes (P > 0.1). After eight-week treatment, 16 patients (73 percent) reported symptom resolution and 15 (67 percent) were found to be healed on examination. Clinical healing and resolution of symptoms positively correlated with a higher pretreatment maximum anal resting pressure in the mid anal canal (P < 0.0001), lower fissure score (P < 0.0001), and greater percentage reduction of the maximum resting pressure after application of glyceryl trinitrate (P < 0.001). The mean and maximum anal resting pressure at Week 8 was not significantly different from the baseline values (P > 0.05). During continuous manometry, the anal resting pressure did not significantly change in the patients treated with lubricating jelly. CONCLUSIONS: In those patients with a lower fissure score, a higher mid anal canal anal resting pressure, and a greater resting pressure reduction after glyceryl trinitrate application, a favorable clinical outcome can be expected with glyceryl trinitrate treatment. However, because the physiologic response has resolved in fewer than 20 minutes, the dosing regime should be reassessed.

Management of Anal Canal Cancer.
Sato H, Koh PK, Bartolo DC
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 24;.

PURPOSE: Chemoradiotherapy has replaced radical surgery as the initial treatment of choice for anal canal cancer. The roles of these therapeutic modalities are discussed and recommendations on management of anal canal cancer are made based on currently available evidence. Areas for further studies also are identified.METHODS: Literature on management of anal canal cancer from January 1970 to July 2003 obtained via MEDLINE was reviewed. Reports on anal margin cancers were excluded.RESULTS: Randomized, prospective, Phase 3 trials in Europe and the United States showed that chemoradiotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and mitomycin C was superior in local control, colostomy-free rate, progression-free survival, and cancer-specific survival compared with radiation alone. In larger tumors, the addition of mitomycin C to radiotherapy and 5-fluorouracil improves local control, colostomy-free, and disease-free survival but is associated with more acute hematologic toxicity. Chemoradiotherapy, including Cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, appeared to be equal or superior to surgery as salvage therapy in patients with residual disease six weeks after initial nonsurgical treatment.CONCLUSIONS: To improve treatment outcomes and reduce treatment-related toxicities, further studies are required to elucidate the optimal drug combination and doses, optimal radiation field, total dose, and fraction sizes. Randomized, multicenter trials are needed to define the treatment protocol that provides the highest rate of sphincter preservation with acceptable toxicity. Few studies addressed the treatment of metastatic disease, which remains a major cause of mortality.

Probiotic Therapy to Prevent Pouchitis Onset.
Gionchetti P, Rizzello F, Poggioli G, Morselli C, Lammers KM, Campieri M
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 24;.

Perioperative Topical Nitrate Preserves Sphincter Function in Patients Undergoing Transanal Stapled Anastomosis.
Lee J, Phillips RK
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 24;.

Prognosis After Anastomotic Leakage in Colorectal Surgery.
Branagan G, Finnis D
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 23;.

INTRODUCTION: Anastomotic leakage is a major complication of colorectal surgery causing a significant increase in 30-day mortality. The long-term prognosis of anastomotic leakage is poorly documented. This study was designed to assess whether anastomotic leakage affects five-year survival and local recurrence. METHODS: A total of 5,173 patients were recruited to the Wessex Colorectal Cancer Audit during the period September 1991 to August 1995 (prospective data, 5-year follow-up). The effect of anastomotic leakage on five-year survival and local recurrence was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier curves and the log-rank test. RESULTS: A total of 1,834 patients underwent a curative resection with an anastomosis (anastomotic leak = 71; 3.9 percent): 30-day mortality: 18.3 percent in the leak group, and 3.5 percent in the nonleak group (P < 0.001); local recurrence: 19 percent in the leak group, and 9.8 percent in the nonleak group (P = 0.018). A total of 1,201 patients underwent colonic anastomosis (anastomotic leak = 31; 2.6 percent). There was no significant difference in local recurrence or five-year survival between the leak and nonleak groups. A total of 633 patients underwent rectal anastomosis (anastomotic leakage = 40; 6.3 percent): 30-day mortality: 10 percent in the leak group, and 2 percent in the nonleak group (P = 0.014); cumulative five-year estimate of local recurrence: 25.1 (95 percent confidence interval, 9.6-40.5) percent in the leak group, and 10.4 (95 percent confidence interval, 7.7-13) percent in the nonleak group (P = 0.007). Cumulative five-year estimate of overall survival: 52.8 (95 percent confidence interval, 36.1-69.4) percent in the leak group, and 63.9 (95 percent confidence interval, 59.9-67.9) percent in the nonleak group (P = 0.19). CONCLUSIONS: After rectal anastomosis, an anastomotic leak is associated with a significant increase in local recurrence.

Quality of Life, Functional Outcome, and Complications of Coloplasty Pouch After Low Anterior Resection.
Remzi FH, Fazio VW, Gorgun E, Zutshi M, Church JM, Lavery IC, Hull TL
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 22;.

PURPOSE: The colonic J-pouch has been used to improve bowel function in patients undergoing low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. However, a narrow pelvis, difficulties in reach, a long anal canal with prominent sphincters, or a fatty mesentery may turn this technique into a technically challenging procedure in certain patients. In these circumstances, "coloplasty" offers an alternative to a straight anastomosis. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality of life, functional outcome, and complications between patients undergoing coloplasty, colonic J-pouch, or straight anastomosis. METHODS: Altogether, 162 patients who underwent coloanal or low colorectal anastomosis between 1998 and 2001 were studied. Data collected included demographics, length of follow-up, technique and type of anastomosis, complications, quality of life, and functional outcome. Results were analyzed according to use of a coloplasty (n = 69), colonic J-pouch (n = 43), or straight anastomosis (n = 50). The choice of the technique was based on the surgeon's preference. Usually coloplasty or straight anastomosis was favored in male patients with a narrow pelvis or when a handsewn anastomosis was used. RESULTS: Quality of life assessment with the short form-36 questionnaire revealed better scores in coloplasty and colonic J-pouch groups. The coloplasty (1.0 +/- 1.7) and colonic J-pouch (1.0 +/- 1.2) groups had fewer night bowel movements than the straight anastomosis group (1.5 +/- 2.0) (P < 0.05). The coloplasty group also had fewer bowel movements per day than the straight anastomosis group (3.8 +/- 2.9 vs. 4.8 +/- 3.6; P < 0.05); also, less clustering and less antidiarrheal medication use were observed than in the straight anastomosis group. Colonic J-pouch patients with handsewn anastomosis had a higher anastomotic leak rate (44 percent) than the patients in the coloplasty with hand-sewn anastomosis group (3.6 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Coloplasty seems to be a safe, effective technique for improving the outcome of low colorectal or coloanal anastomosis. It is especially applicable when a colonic J-pouch anastomosis is technically difficult.

Controlled Lateral Sphincterotomy for Chronic Anal Fissure.
Cho DY
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 22;.

PURPOSE: This study assessed the usefulness of "controlled" lateral sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissures. METHODS: Of 225 patients with chronic anal fissure, 110 underwent traditional sphincterotomy to the level of the dentate line, and 115 underwent controlled sphincterotomy in three steps according to the degree of anal stenosis. In Step 1, the internal sphincter was divided to the proximal level of the fissure. If the anal canal was still stenosed, the division was extended to the level of the dentate line in Step 2. Step 3 was a bilateral internal sphincterotomy. The anal stenosis was evaluated under anesthesia using a new conical calibrator scaled in 1-mm diameter increments. Forty adults without anorectal disease were examined as controls. In a telephone follow-up, 102 patients in the traditional sphincterotomy group and 106 patients in the controlled sphincterotomy group responded. RESULTS: The normal group measured 34.6 +/- 1.4 mm (mean +/- standard deviation). Confounding effects of age, gender, body weight, and height were not significant. Based on the anal caliber measured in the normal group, anal stenosis is present with values of 31 mm and below (mean - 2SD of the control value). Of 115 patients in the controlled sphincterotomy group, 90 (78 percent) underwent sphincterotomy below the level of the dentate line, 18 (16 percent) underwent sphincterotomy to the level of the dentate line, and 7 (6 percent) underwent bilateral sphincterotomy. None had incontinence of feces or leakage of stool. Ten of 102 patients (10 percent) in the traditional sphincterotomy group and 2 of 106 patients (2 percent) in the controlled sphincterotomy group complained of minor incontinence, such as gas incontinence, minor staining, or urgency (P = 0.017). There was one recurrence in the traditional sphincterotomy group. CONCLUSION: Controlled lateral sphincterotomy could be a way of overcoming the risk of incontinence with lateral internal sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure.

Hartmann's Colectomy and Reversal in Diverticulitis: A Population-Level Assessment.
Salem L, Anaya DA, Roberts KE, Flum DR
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 22;.

PURPOSE: This study was designed to assess the costs and outcomes of colostomy and colostomy reversal in patients with diverticulitis and examine the impact of such procedures on the health care system. METHODS: We employed a retrospective design and used a Washington State administrative database to identify patients undergoing operations with colostomy (1987-2002) who were followed over time. Descriptive and comparative analysis was performed, focusing on patients with diverticulitis. RESULTS: There were 16,556 patients who underwent colostomy and 5,420 (32.7 percent) were for diverticulitis and its related complications (mean age, 64.8 +/- 15.1 years; 53.2 percent female). In patients with diverticulitis, the rate of colostomy reversal was 56.3 percent (80 percent in patients less than 50 years, and 30 percent in patients over 77 years). The in-hospital mortality rate after colostomy reversal was 0.36 percent, and was 2.6 percent in those over 77 years of age. After colostomy reversal a second stoma was used in 3.4 percent, reoperation was required for bleeding complications in 0.6 percent, and infectious complications were noted in 2 percent. The length of time from colostomy to its reversal was approximately five months (138.1 +/- 164 days; interquartile range, 72-156). The relationship between the length of time from colostomy to reversal was evaluated and the adjusted odds of a second stoma being used at the time of colostomy reversal were 45 percent higher (odds ratio, 1.45; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.22, 1.73) for each increase in time interval (<3, 6-9, 9-12, >12 months). CONCLUSIONS: One-third of all colostomies were related to diverticulitis and only 56 percent were reversed. We identified a higher than expected mortality rate among older patients undergoing colostomy reversal. The impact of colostomy and reversal operations on both patients and the health care system is significant.

Efficacy of Topical Metronidazole (10 Percent) in the Treatment of Anorectal Crohn's Disease.
Stringer EE, Nicholson TJ, Armstrong D
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 22;.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 10 percent topical metronidazole in the treatment of symptomatic anorectal Crohn's disease. METHODS: Patients with symptomatic anorectal Crohn's disease were studied in a prospective, nonblinded, nonrandomized study to evaluate the efficacy of topical 10 percent metronidazole. Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity Index and each component (pain, discharge, induration, sexual dysfunction, and type of pathology) were recorded before treatment and at four weeks. Visual analog pain score (0-10) was recorded before treatment and at weekly intervals for up to four weeks. RESULTS: Fourteen patients were studied prospectively for four weeks. Mean Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity Index decreased from 8.8 +/- 0.9 before treatment to 4.1 +/- 0.7 after four weeks' treatment (P < 0.0001). Visual analog pain scores decreased from 5.4 +/- 0.7 before treatment to 2.4 +/- 0.5 at one week (P < 0.001) and to 1.0 +/- 0.4 after four weeks' treatment (P < 0.0001). Of the Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity Index components, significant decreases were noted in pain and discharge (P < 0.0001) and induration (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: For patients with perianal Crohn's disease, topical 10 percent metronidazole decreases the Perianal Crohn's Disease Activity Index and anorectal pain.

A Scoring System for the Strength of a Family History of Colorectal Cancer.
Church JM
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 22;.

BACKGROUND: Family history of colorectal cancer is associated with an increased risk for the disease, although there are many combinations of family history that are hard to correlate with risk status. A scoring system for family history of colorectal cancer was designed to make risk more readily quantifiable. METHODS: A colonoscopy database was used to test the following points system: each first-degree relative with colorectal cancer = 3 points; each second-degree relative with colorectal cancer = 1 point. Families with one or more first-degree relative affected under 50 years of age = an extra 3 points. Families with one or more second-degree relative affected under 50 years of age = an extra 1 point. Families with multiple relatives on the same side of the family = an extra 3 points (first-degree relatives), 1 point (second-degree relatives), or 2 points (first-degree and second-degree relatives). Points were added and categories defined as follows: low risk, 1 to 4 points; medium risk, 5 to 7 points; high risk, 8 to 10 points; very high risk, >10 points. A control group of average-risk patients having screening colonoscopy was used. Categories were compared in number of adenomas, hyperplastic polyps, and cancers. RESULTS: The records of 992 patients were used to test the system. Mean adenomas per patient per group were 0.4 for controls, 1.0 for low risk, 1.0 for medium risk, 1.7 for high risk, and 1.7 for very high risk. Cancers per group were 2 of 196 for controls, 8 of 513 for low risk, 3 of 171 for medium risk, 3 of 84 for high risk, and 1 of 28 for very high risk. The score categories were combined to produce revised risk levels of low (score 1 to 7) and high (>7). Average adenomas per patient in the revised categories were 0.4 (control), 1.0 (low risk), and 1.7 (high risk). The odds ratio of having one to two adenomas was 1.73 (1.19-2.50, 95% confidence limits) in the low-risk group and 2.39 (1.41-4.01) in the high-risk group. Odds ratios for having three or more adenomas were 5.70 (2.44-13.32) in the low-risk group and 10.35 (3.97-26.97) in the high-risk group. CONCLUSION: In the two-category system proposed here of quantifying familial risk of colorectal cancer, patients having less than 8 points were at low risk and those with 8 or more were at high risk. Surveillance and chemoprevention protocols can be designed through use of these risk categories. A scoring system for family history of colorectal cancer can make risk assessment easier and facilitate both collaborative studies and patient triage into appropriate screening programs.

Local Injection of Infliximab for the Treatment of Perianal Crohn's Disease.
Poggioli G, Laureti S, Pierangeli F, Rizzello F, Ugolini F, Gionchetti P, Campieri M
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 10;.

PURPOSE: Perianal disease is a serious complication of Crohn's disease and its surgical management is still controversial. It has been suggested that the local injection of infliximab has resulted in some potential benefit. This pilot study analyzed the feasibility and safety of such therapy in selected patients with severe perianal Crohn's disease. METHODS: The study included 15 patients with complex perianal Crohn's disease in which sepsis was not controllable using surgical and medical therapy. Among them, four had previously undergone intravenous infusion of infliximab with no significant response, nine had contraindications for intravenous infusion, and two had associated stenosing ileitis and severe coloproctitis. The injection of 15 to 21 mg of infliximab, associated with surgical treatment, was performed at the internal and external orifices and along the fistula tract. Efficacy was measured by a complete morphologic evaluation using a personal score. RESULTS: No major adverse effects were reported. Ten of 15 patients healed after 3 to 12 infusions. CONCLUSIONS: Local injection of infliximab adjacent to the fistula tract of perianal Crohn's disease is safe and may help in fistula healing. A controlled, randomized trial is required to prove the value.

Gynecologic cancer as a "sentinel cancer" for women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome.
Lu KH, Dinh M, Kohlmann W, Watson P, Green J, Syngal S, Bandipalliam P, Chen LM, Allen B, Conrad P, Terdiman J, Sun C, Daniels M, Burke T, Gershenson DM, Lynch H, Lynch P, Broaddus RR
Obstet Gynecol 2005 Mar;105(3):569-74.

OBJECTIVE: Women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome have a 40-60% lifetime risk for colon cancer, a 40-60% lifetime risk for endometrial cancer, and a 12% lifetime risk for ovarian cancer. A number of women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome will have more than one cancer in their lifetime. The purpose of this study was to estimate whether women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome who develop 2 primary cancers present with gynecologic or colon cancer as their "sentinel cancer."METHODS: Women whose families fulfilled Amsterdam criteria for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome and who developed 2 primary colorectal/gynecologic cancers in their lifetime were identified from 5 large hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome registries. Information on age at cancer diagnoses and which cancer (colon cancer or endometrial cancer/ovarian cancer) developed first was obtained. RESULTS: A total of 117 women with dual primary cancers from 223 Amsterdam families were identified. In 16 women, colon cancer and endometrial cancer/ovarian cancer were diagnosed simultaneously. Of the remaining 101 women, 52 (51%) women had an endometrial or ovarian cancer diagnosed first. Forty-nine (49%) women had a colon cancer diagnosed first. For women who developed endometrial cancer/ovarian cancer first, mean age at diagnosis of endometrial cancer/ovarian cancer was 44. For women who developed colon cancer first, the mean age at diagnosis of colon cancer was 40. CONCLUSION: In this large series of women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome who developed 2 primary colorectal/gynecologic cancers, endometrial cancer/ovarian cancer was the "sentinel cancer," preceding the development of colon cancer, in half of the cases. Therefore, gynecologists and gynecologic oncologists play a pivotal role in the identification of women with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer syndrome. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II-3.

Rhabdomyolysis associated with Crohn's disease, probably mediated by myositis.
Matsuda T, Inoue S, Furuya H
Anesth Analg 2005 Mar;100(3):898.

Prognostic scoring in colorectal cancer liver metastases: development and validation.
Schindl M, Wigmore SJ, Currie EJ, Laengle F, Garden OJ
Arch Surg 2005 Feb;140(2):183-9.

HYPOTHESIS: A prognostic scoring system for colorectal cancer liver metastases that is derived from unselected patients referred for hepatic resection would improve the applicability and increase the accuracy of prognostication. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively documented data; validation against an unrelated cohort from another institution. The median follow-up was 16.4 months (95% confidence interval, 15.0-17.8 months) (original cohort). SETTING: Two tertiary referral centers at unrelated university hospitals. PATIENTS: Independent prognosticators of survival were derived from 337 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases referred for consideration of liver resection, and prognostic scores were calculated in 269 patients (79.8%) (original cohort). Calculation of prognostic scores was also applied to 193 patients referred and treated in an unrelated institution (validation cohort). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis (log-rank test) between different prognostic groups in the original and the validation cohorts. RESULTS: Independent prognosticators of survival were Dukes stage, number of metastases, and serum concentrations of carcinoembryonic antigen, alkaline phosphatase, and albumin. Significant differences were found in cumulative overall survival between patients assigned to good, moderate, and poor prognoses in the original and validation cohorts (P<.05). Liver resection improved survival in all prognostic groups. However, no patient with poor prognosis and only 19.7% (13 of 66) of patients with moderate prognosis survived 5 years, compared with 62.5% (10 of 16) of patients with good prognosis (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS: This prognostic scoring system is derived from and can be applied to patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases at the time of referral for consideration of surgery. Patients with poor prognosis have no long-term benefit from curative liver resection and should therefore be considered for combined multimodal treatment.

Extracolonic manifestations of familial adenomatous polyposis after proctocolectomy.
Tulchinsky H, Keidar A, Strul H, Goldman G, Klausner JM, Rabau M
Arch Surg 2005 Feb;140(2):159-63; discussion 164.

HYPOTHESIS: Extracolonic manifestations have a major effect on the morbidity and mortality of patients with familial adenomatous polyposis following proctocolectomy. DESIGN: Case review study. SETTING: Colorectal unit, university-affiliated hospital. PATIENTS: Fifty patients (25 males and 25 females) with familial adenomatous polyposis WHO underwent proctocolectomy between January 1988 and October 2003. INTERVENTIONS: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (n = 41), Kock pouch (n = 1), end ileostomy (n = 6). Two patients underwent total colectomy with an ileorectal anastomosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical follow-up and telephone interview; contact with clinicians following up patients elsewhere. RESULTS: The patients' median age at surgery was 33 years. The mean length of follow-up was 74 months. Four patients were lost to follow-up. Extracolonic manifestations were diagnosed in 38 patients (76%). Twelve patients had 14 desmoid tumors: 7 were treated surgically and 7 medically (these patients received celecoxib and tamoxifen citrate therapy). Of the 41 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy, 11 developed duodenal and/or ampullary adenomas. Three patients had endoscopic polypectomy and 1 underwent a Whipple operation. Among the 29 patients who underwent pouchoscopy, 5 had pouch adenomas and 3 had adenomas that were found in the rectal stump. Two patients died--one of a huge mesenteric desmoid tumor and the other of an aggressive mesenteric malignant fibrous histiocytoma. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term morbidity and mortality were strongly related to the development of mesenteric tumors and ampullary-duodenal polyps. Early detection of desmoid tumors, duodenal, pouch, and rectal cuff adenomas by periodic computed tomography, gastroduodenoscopy, and pouchoscopy, respectively, may allow control by medical therapy, endoscopy, or limited surgical procedures. In most patients control of desmoid tumors was achieved using a combination of celecoxib and tamoxifen citrate therapy.

Epigenetics, mismatch repair genes and colorectal cancer.
Wheeler JM
Ann R Coll Surg Engl 2005 Jan;87(1):15-20.

The recent discovery of hypermethylation of the promoter of genes is a powerful epigenetic mechanism for the inactivation of tumour suppressor genes in colorectal and other cancers. Approximately 95% of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancers (HNPCCs) and 15% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) are replication error positive (RER(+)). Although DNA mutations are found in mismatch repair genes in the majority of HNPCC CRC, mutations are rare in sporadic RER(+) CRCs. We have shown that the principal cause of an RER(+) phenotype is hypermethylation of the promoter of hMLH1, resulting in the absence of hMLH1 protein. In contrast to sporadic RER(+) CRCs, we found that hypermethylation of hMLH1 does not occur in HNPCC CRC, suggesting the possibility of further differences between the two types of RER(+) tumours in the adenoma to carcinoma pathway. Other known tumour suppressor genes with few or no mutations may be candidates for epigenetic changes. One such gene is E-cadherin, and we described the first mutations of this gene in CRCs. Half of all CRCs were found to be hypermethylated in the Ecadherin promoter and this correlated with reduced E-cadherin expression. Epigenetic changes occur in CRCs and arise in different frequencies in separate genes. Hypermethylation of the promoter may be reversed and gene function restored to a cell, thus partially undoing the cancer phenotype.

Sphincter-saving resection for all rectal carcinomas: the end of the 2-cm distal rule.
Rullier E, Laurent C, Bretagnol F, Rullier A, Vendrely V, Zerbib F
Ann Surg 2005 Mar;241(3):465-9.

OBJECTIVE: To assess oncologic outcome of patients treated by conservative radical surgery for tumors below 5 cm from the anal verge. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Standard surgical treatment of low rectal cancer below 5 cm from the anal verge is abdominoperineal resection. METHODS: From 1990 to 2003, patients with a nonfixed rectal carcinoma at 4.5 cm or less from the anal verge and without external sphincter infiltration underwent conservative surgery. Surgery included total mesorectal excision with intersphincteric resection, that is, removal of the internal sphincter, to achieve adequate distal margin. Patients with T3 disease or internal sphincter infiltration received preoperative radiotherapy. RESULTS: Ninety-two patients with a tumor at 3 (range 1.5-4.5) cm from the anal verge underwent conservative surgery. There was no mortality and morbidity was 27%. The rate of complete microscopic resection (R0) was 89%, with 98% negative distal margin and 89% negative circumferential margin. In 58 patients with a follow-up of more than 24 months, the rate of local recurrence was 2% and the 5-year overall and disease-free survival were 81% and 70%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The technique of intersphincteric resection permits us to achieve conservative surgery in patients with a tumor close to or in the anal canal without compromising local control and survival. Tumor distance from the anal verge is no longer a limit for sphincter-saving resection.

Patient perceptions of stool-based DNA testing for colorectal cancer screening.
Schroy PC 3rd, Heeren TC
Am J Prev Med 2005 Feb;28(2):208-14.

PURPOSE: Stool-based DNA (SB-DNA) testing is an emerging colorectal cancer screening strategy that offers a convenient, noninvasive, and potentially more acceptable alternative to existing screening tests. The objectives of this study were to compare patient perceptions of SB-DNA testing, fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), and colonoscopy, and elicit screening preferences. METHODS: A prospective survey was conducted between August 2001 and March 2003 of asymptomatic, mostly average-risk subjects aged >/=50 years who were participating in a multicenter comparison of SB-DNA testing and FOBT for detecting colorectal neoplasia. Subjects completed a 25-item questionnaire within 48 hours after undergoing a colonoscopy, which served as the standard. Respondents were asked to rate each of the three screening tests on various prep- and test-related features, using a five-point ordinal scale or yes/no format, and to select a preferred strategy. RESULTS: A total of 4042 subjects completed the survey (84% response rate). SB-DNA testing received the same or higher mean ratings than FOBT for most prep- and test-related features. When compared with colonoscopy, SB-DNA testing received higher ratings for all prep- and test-related features except perceived accuracy, where colonoscopy was rated higher. Overall, a higher percentage of patients preferred SB-DNA testing (45%) to both FOBT (32%) and colonoscopy (15%) for routine screening (p <0.001); 8% had no preference. CONCLUSIONS: Patients willing to undergo colonoscopy, SB-DNA testing, and FOBT perceive SB-DNA testing to have a number of advantages over the other two tests. Moreover, many such patients prefer SB-DNA testing to FOBT and colonoscopy for routine screening.

Antibacterial and antimycobacterial treatment for inflammatory bowel disease.
Ohkusa T, Sato N
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Mar;20(3):340-51.

Abstract A variety of medicines have been used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Antibacterial therapy has demonstrated promise by both improving symptoms and causing disease remission. The mechanism is unknown, but may be related to either eliminating a key pathogen, decreasing the number of bacterial secretory products or defective particles, a direct immunomodulating effect, or reducing secondary bacterial invasion. Historically, a large number of bacterial species have been suspected as being major contributors to the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Many trials of antibacterial agents have been carried out in inflammatory bowel disease. Recently, treatments have focused on Gram-negative anaerobes and mycobacteria. The present paper briefly reviews antimicrobial and antimycobacterial treatments in inflammatory bowel disease.

Predicting relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: what is the role of biomarkers?
Pardi DS, Sandborn WJ
Gut 2005 Mar;54(3):321-2.

Calprotectin is a stronger predictive marker of relapse in ulcerative colitis than in Crohn's disease.
Costa F, Mumolo MG, Ceccarelli L, Bellini M, Romano MR, Sterpi C, Ricchiuti A, Marchi S, Bottai M
Gut 2005 Mar;54(3):364-8.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The clinical course of inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by a succession of relapses and remissions. The aim of our study was to assess whether the predictive value of faecal calprotectin-a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation-for clinical relapse is different in ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: Seventy nine consecutive patients with a diagnosis of clinically quiescent inflammatory bowel disease (38 CD and 41 UC) were followed for 12 months, undergoing regular clinical evaluations and blood tests. A single stool sample was collected at the beginning of the study from each patient and the calprotectin concentration was assessed by a commercially available enzyme linked immunoassay. RESULTS: In CD, median calprotectin values were 220.1 mug/g (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.7-418.5) in those patients who relapsed during follow up, and 220.5 mug/g (95% CI 53-388) in non-relapsing patients (p=0.395). In UC, median calprotectin values were 220.6 mug/g (95% CI 86-355.2) and 67 microg/g (95% CI 15-119) in relapsing and non-relapsing patients, respectively (p<0.0001). The multivariate Cox (proportional hazard) regression model, after adjustment for possible confounding variables, showed a twofold and 14-fold increase in the relapse risk, respectively, in those patients with CD and UC in clinical remission who had a faecal calprotectin concentration higher than 150 microg/g. CONCLUSIONS: Faecal calprotectin proved to be an even stronger predictor of clinical relapse in UC than in CD, which makes the test a promising non-invasive tool for monitoring and optimising therapy.

Environmental risk factors in paediatric inflammatory bowel diseases: a population based case control study.
Baron S, Turck D, Leplat C, Merle V, Gower-Rousseau C, Marti R, Yzet T, Lerebours E, Dupas JL, Debeugny S, Salomez JL, Cortot A, Colombel JF

Gut 2005 Mar;54(3):357-63.
BACKGROUND: Environmental exposures in early life have been implicated in the aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease. OBJECTIVE: To examine environmental risk factors prior to the development of inflammatory bowel disease in a paediatric population based case control study. METHODS: A total of 222 incident cases of Crohn's disease and 60 incident cases of ulcerative colitis occurring before 17 years of age between January 1988 and December 1997 were matched with one control subject by sex, age, and geographical location. We recorded 140 study variables in a questionnaire that covered familial history of inflammatory bowel disease, events during the perinatal period, infant and child diet, vaccinations and childhood diseases, household amenities, and the family's socioeconomic status. RESULTS: In a multivariate model, familial history of inflammatory bowel disease (odds ratio (OR) 4.3 (95% confidence interval 2.3-8)), breast feeding (OR 2.1 (1.3-3.4)), bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccination (OR 3.6 (1.1-11.9)), and history of eczema (OR 2.1 (1-4.5)) were significant risk factors for Crohn's disease whereas regular drinking of tap water was a protective factor (OR 0.56 (0.3-1)). Familial history of inflammatory bowel disease (OR 12.5 (2.2-71.4)), disease during pregnancy (OR 8.9 (1.5-52)), and bedroom sharing (OR 7.1 (1.9-27.4)) were risk factors for ulcerative colitis whereas appendicectomy was a protective factor (OR 0.06 (0.01-0.36)). CONCLUSIONS: While family history and appendicectomy are known risk factors, changes in risk based on domestic promiscuity, certain vaccinations, and dietary factors may provide new aetiological clues.

A steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis revealing Epstein-Barr virus/cytomegalovirus-positive colonic lymphoma.
Daniel F, Damotte D, Moindrot H, Molina T, Berger A, Cellier C
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Mar 4;.

Colon Polyps and Cancer.
Bond JH
Endoscopy 2005 Mar;37(3):208-212.

The role of endoscopy, in particular colonoscopy, clearly is paramount in the screening, diagnosis, and prevention of colorectal cancer. In preparation for writing this "state-of-the-art" review on colon polyps and cancer, a PubMed literature search linking the topic with endoscopy yielded an enormous number of papers published in peer-reviewed journals just in the past 12 months. I have selected a few of these to highlight that I believe are most germane to current issues of risk stratification, screening and surveillance, prevention, and the premalignant potential of different types of adenomas detected by endoscopy. Several of these papers address the advantages and limitations of direct colonoscopy screening for colorectal neoplasia, and discuss the emerging role of virtual colonoscopy screening.

Cervical emphysema, pneumomediastinum, and retropneumoperitoneum following sigmoidoscopy and rectal biopsy.
El Shallaly G, Raimes S
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Mar 2;.

Mesalazine-induced myopericarditis in a patient with ulcerative colitis.
Doganay L, Akinci B, Pekel N, Simsek I, Akpinar H
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Feb 22;.

Villous adenoma in a perforated colonic diverticulum.
Barr YR, Brazowski E, Leider-Trejo L
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Feb 10;.

Systemic lidocaine and mexiletine for the treatment of a patient with total ulcerative colitis.
Yokoyama Y, Onishi S
Gut 2005 Mar;54(3):441.

The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) Asp299Gly polymorphism is associated with colonic localisation of Crohn's disease without a major role for the Saccharomyces cerevisiae mannan-LBP-CD14-TLR4 pathway.
Ouburg S, Mallant-Hent R, Crusius JB, van Bodegraven AA, Mulder CJ, Linskens R, Pena AS, Morre SA
Gut 2005 Mar;54(3):439-40.

Differential gene expression in colon cancer of the caecum versus the sigmoid and rectosigmoid.
Birkenkamp-Demtroder K, Olesen SH, Sorensen FB, Laurberg S, Laiho P, Aaltonen LA, Orntoft TF
Gut 2005 Mar;54(3):374-84.

Critical issues in the identification and management of patients with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer.
Lackner C, Hoefler G
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Mar;17(3):317-22.

Lack of efficacy of a reduced microparticle diet in a multi-centred trial of patients with active Crohn's disease.
Lomer MC, Grainger SL, Ede R, Catterall AP, Greenfield SM, Cowan RE, Vicary FR, Jenkins AP, Fidler H, Harvey RS, Ellis R, McNair A, Ainley CC, Thompson RP, Powell JJ
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Mar;17(3):377-384.

Systematic approach to the analysis of cross-sectional imaging for surveillance of recurrent colorectal cancer.
Faria SC, Tamm EP, Varavithya V, Phongkitkarun S, Kaur H, Szklaruk J, Dubrow R, Charnsangavej C
Eur J Radiol 2005 Mar;53(3):387-96.

Recurrent disease in colorectal cancer occurs in approximately 50% of patients who undergo a "curative" operation. Tumor recurrence may occur locally (at the anastomotic site), in the mesentery or mesocolon adjacent to the post-operative site, in the nodal echelon downstream to the post-operative site, and as distant metastases to the peritoneal cavity, liver or lung. Local recurrence at the anastomosis is frequently diagnosed at follow-up endoscopic examinations as part of screening for metachronous lesions. Other types of recurrences require imaging studies, most frequently CT or MR imaging to diagnose. We developed an approach to analyze imaging obtained after curative resection of colorectal cancer. Our approach is based on the knowledge of patterns of disease spread, of types of surgical procedures and of pathologic staging. Using this approach has the potential to detect recurrent disease at an early stage because the locoregional and nodal spread of this disease is predictable. Early diagnosis of recurrent disease, even in asymptomatic cases, allows for more effective treatment that can improve the long-term survival of these patients.

Validity of Pelvic Autonomic Nerve Stimulation With Intraoperative Monitoring of Bladder Function Following Total Mesorectal Excision for Rectal Cancer.
Kneist W, Junginger T
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 15;.

PURPOSE: This prospective study was designed to clarify whether the results of the intraoperative stimulation of parasympathetic pelvic nerves performed in 31 patients after mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma allowed predictions in terms of the postoperative bladder function of the patients. METHODS: After monopolar stimulation of the splanchnic pelvic nerves using a constant voltage stimulator (Screener 3625(R)), intravesical pressure increase was measured manometrically. The results were related to the postoperative residual urine volume, requirement of recatheterization and long-term catheterization, just as to the results of the validated International Prostatic Symptom Scores and the Quality of Life Index caused by urinary symptoms. The median follow-up period was nine (range, 2-14) months. RESULTS: Parasympathetic nerve stimulation was performed at 61 sites and results in intravesical pressure increase up to 6 cm water column in median. In 11 patients (33.3 percent), a negative test result was achieved: 5 with unilateral and 6 with bilateral pressure increases of </= 2 cm water column. Recatheterization was necessary in four patients, and all of them showed negative neuromonitoring results. Two of these patients were discharged with an in situ urinary bladder catheter. Postoperative increased residual urine volumes (>/=100 ml) resulted more frequently in the group with negative test results (63.6 vs. 21.1 percent; P = 0.047), and the International Prostatic Symptom Score and Quality of Life Index showed the worst results (9.9 +/- 6.7 vs. 3 +/- 4.9, P = 0.021; 2.4 +/- 1.7 vs. 0.7 +/- 1.3, P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative neurostimulation and manometric measurement of bladder pressure may contribute to the identification of parasympathetic pelvic nerves during total mesorectal excision. This method is suitable for intraoperative recording of nerve preservation and therefore associated with postoperative bladder function.

The Influence of Specific Luminal Factors on the Colonic Epithelium: High-Dose Butyrate and Physical Changes Suppress Early Carcinogenic Events in Rats.
Wong CS, Sengupta S, Tjandra JJ, Gibson PR
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 10;.

Extent of Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy: Up to the Dentate Line or Up to the Fissure Apex?
Mentes BB, Ege B, Leventoglu S, Oguz M, Karadag A
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 10;.

PURPOSE: The aim of this randomized, prospective study was to compare the results of lateral internal sphincterotomy up to the dentate line or up to the fissure apex in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. METHODS: Adult patients with chronic anal fissure were randomly assigned to undergo lateral internal sphincterotomy to the level of the dentate line or to the level of the fissure apex. The patients were reexamined on postoperative Days 1, 7, 14, 28, and then at 2 and 12 months. RESULTS: The time required for relief of pain postoperatively was 2.08 +/- 1.44 days in the dentate line group, which was significantly shorter than that for the fissure apex group (4.72 +/- 4.86 days; P = 0.002). Objective healing was achieved in 23.7 percent and 17.6 percent at 14 days, 97.4 percent and 88.2 percent at 28 days, and 100 percent and 97.7 percent at 2 months in the dentate line and fissure apex groups, respectively (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Only sphincterotomy up to the dentate line caused a significant change in anal incontinence (P = 0.016). Both groups had significantly lower anal resting pressures at 4 months postoperatively, compared with their corresponding preoperative levels (P = 0.005 and P = 0.007). The postoperative resting pressures did not differ significantly between the two groups (P = 0.273). By 12 months postoperatively, no treatment failures or recurrences were noted in the dentate line group (100 percent healing rate). In the fissure apex group, there was one nonhealing case and four recurrences, resulting in a 13.2 percent rate of treatment failure (P = 0.058). CONCLUSIONS: Sphincterotomy up to the dentate line provided a faster and definitive healing within the time limits of this study, but it was associated with a significant alteration in anal continence. In turn, sphincterotomy up to the fissure apex was free of significant disturbance of continence, but its healing effect was slower and it was prone to an insignificantly higher rate of treatment failure.

Outcome of Anterior Resection for Stage II Rectal Cancer Without Radiation: The Role of Adjuvant Chemotherapy.
Law WL, Ho JW, Chan R, Au G, Chu KW
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 10;.

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the oncological outcome of patients who had Stage II rectal cancer and underwent curative nonsphincter-ablation surgery without adjuvant radiation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the study period from August 1993 to December 2002, 224 patients (141 men) with Stage II cancer underwent curative anterior resection or Hartmann's procedure without adjuvant radiation. Data were collected prospectively. The oncologic outcomes of these patients were studied and the risk factors for recurrence and survival were analyzed. RESULTS: The median age of the patients was 69 (range, 27-89) years and the median level of the tumor from the anal verge was 8 (range, 3-20) cm. Four patients (1.8 percent) died in the postoperative period and postoperative complications occurred in 74 patients (33 percent). The median follow-up time of the surviving patients was 43.6 months. The actuarial five-year recurrence rate was 25.4 percent, whereas the five-year actuarial local and systemic recurrence rates were 6.1 percent and 20 percent, respectively. On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with a higher recurrence rate included lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, and absence of chemotherapy. The overall and cancer-specific survival rates of the patients were 71.1 percent and 81.1 percent, respectively. On multivariate analysis, only adjuvant chemotherapy (<ITALIC>P</ITALIC> = 0.024; hazard ratio = 6.04; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.27-28.74) and the absence of lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.002; hazard ratio = 3.77; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.63-8.77) were independent factors associated with significantly better cancer-specific survival. CONCLUSION: A low local recurrence rate can be achieved in patients with Stage II rectal cancer treated with nonsphincter-ablation surgery without adjuvant radiation. Postoperative chemotherapy is associated with a lower recurrence rate and higher survival rates. Further study is warranted to define the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with rectal cancer.

Denervation of the Neorectum as a Potential Cause of Defecatory Disorder Following Low Anterior Resection for Rectal Cancer.
Koda K, Saito N, Seike K, Shimizu K, Kosugi C, Miyazaki M
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 10;.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine whether denervation of the sigmoid colon during low anterior resection contributes to the postoperative motility characteristics of the neorectum and to the defecatory function of patients. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients who underwent either low or ultralow anterior resection for rectal cancer were evaluated. In accordance with the length of denervated neorectum, each patient was assigned to either the short-denervation or long-denervation group, determined by whether the inferior mesenteric artery was divided. Colonic propagated contraction was then measured by means of intraluminal pressure monitoring. Transit time was calculated with orally administered radiopaque markers. RESULTS: Propagated contraction down to the neorectum was significantly less common in the long-denervation group (14/36) than in the short group (12/15, P < 0.05), whereas spastic minor contraction at the neorectum was significantly more common in the long-denervation group (21/36) than the in short group (3/15, P < 0.05). Colonic transit time below the sigmoid colon was significantly longer in long group (6.4 hours) than in the short group (3.4 hours, P < 0.01). Although motility disorder of the neorectum was correlated with clinical defecatory malfunctions, including multiple evacuations, urgency, and soiling, no significant correlation was noted between the length of the denervated neorectum and the defecatory disorders. CONCLUSIONS: Motility of the neorectum following low anterior resection appears degraded by intraoperative maneuvers that cause denervation of the remnant sigmoid colon. Motility disorder of the neorectum, but not the length of the denervated neorectum causing the disorder, correlates well with several defecatory malfunctions. This finding suggests that postoperative defecatory disorder as a result of low anterior resection is caused by many factors in addition to denervation of the neorectum.

Modified Two-Stage Ileal Pouch-Anal Anastomosis: Equivalent Outcomes With Less Resource Utilization.
Swenson BR, Hollenbeak CS, Poritz LS, Koltun WA
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 10;.

PURPOSE: A three-stage operative approach to ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is usually undertaken in patients presenting with severe colitis. Increasingly, however, we have performed a two-stage modified ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (colectomy followed by ileal pouch-anal anastomosis without ileostomy). The present study sought to evaluate the safety, results, cost, and length of hospital stay using this modified approach compared to that of the traditional three-stage ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. METHODS: Clinical and financial data were gathered by retrospective review of patients undergoing ileal pouch-anal anastomosis at our institution since 1995. Complications were defined as any event prolonging hospitalization or requiring readmission and were included in the analysis up to six months after final surgery. Functional performance was assessed as of the last clinic visit. Data were compared with Student's t-test and chi-squared analysis. Multivariate analysis was also used to assess risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 23 patients who underwent the two-stage modified procedure and 31 patients who had the three-stage procedure were identified. The two groups were found to be statistically comparable in terms of patient age, gender, duration of illness, and preoperative hematocrit. Follow-up was shorter in the modified group because of its more recent introduction (9.7 months vs. 30.5 months mean follow-up). Ninety-five percent of patients were on immunosuppressive medication before colectomy, but all were off it before the reconstruction. clinical outcomes after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis were equivalent in terms of the number of bowel movements, prevalence of fecal incontinence, and the use of hypomotility medications. No patients with the two-stage modified procedure had anastomotic complications requiring stoma creation. One patient in the three-stage group required re-creation of a stoma after stoma closure for perianal complications suggesting Crohn's disease. Total hospital cost was significantly less in the modified group: $27,270 vs. $38,184 (P = 0.0119). Length of stay was also shorter in the two-stage modified group although missing absolute statistical significance (21.0 days vs. 26.0 days, P = 0.0882). CONCLUSIONS: Interval ileal pouch-anal anastomosis reconstruction without a stoma (two-stage modified procedure) after colectomy is functionally equivalent to the traditional three-stage protocol in terms of clinical outcome. However, it has the advantage of overall lower hospital costs and probably a shorter length of hospital stay.

Prospective, Randomized Trial Comparing Intraoperative Colonic Irrigation With Manual Decompression Only for Obstructed Left-Sided Colorectal Cancer.
Lim JF, Tang CL, Seow-Choen F, Heah SM
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 15;.

BACKGROUND: This is a prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the outcome of intraoperative colonic irrigation with that of manual decompression for acutely obstructing colorectal cancers distal to the splenic flexure. METHODS: All patients admitted to our department from June 1999 to August 2002 with obstructing left-sided colorectal cancers were recruited. Patients were randomized intraoperatively and were excluded if deemed unsuitable for segmental resection and primary anastomosis. Twenty-five patients were randomized to receive colonic irrigation and twenty-eight to receive manual decompression. Perioperative parameters and outcome including mortality and anastomotic leak were recorded. RESULTS: Both groups of patients were comparable in terms of gender and age. The time taken for mobilization, decompression, and irrigation in the colonic irrigation group (median, 31 minutes) was significantly longer than that for the manual decompression group (median, 13 minutes) (P; = 0.0005). However, the total time of the operation was similar for both groups. Times for recovery of bowel function, of wound infection, and until discharge from the hospital were also similar. In the manual decompression group there were two cases of anastomotic leak (8 percent, 2/25) requiring reoperation but none (0/24) in the colonic irrigation group. However, this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Manual decompression of proximal colon without irrigation is as safe as colonic irrigation in one-stage surgical management of obstructing left-sided colorectal cancer.

Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery: A Systematic Review.
Middleton PF, Sutherland LM, Maddern GJ
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 10;.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence relating to the safety and efficacy of transanal endoscopic microsurgery, a relatively new technique used to locally excise rectal tumors, compared with existing techniques such as anterior resections and abdominoperineal resections or local excisions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of comparative studies and case series of transanal endoscopic microsurgery from 1980 to August 2002. RESULTS: Three comparative studies (including one randomized, controlled trial) and 55 case series were included. The first area of study was the safety and efficacy of adenomas. In the randomized, controlled trial, no difference could be detected in the rate of early complications between transanal endoscopic microsurgery (10.3 percent) and direct local excision (17 percent) (relative risk, 0.61; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.29-1.29). Transanal endoscopic microsurgery resulted in less local recurrence (6/98; 6 percent) than direct local excision (20/90; 22 percent) (relative risk, 0.28; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.12-0.66). The 6 percent rate of local recurrence for transanal endoscopic microsurgery in this trial is consistent with the rates found in case series of transanal endoscopic microsurgery (median, 5 percent). The second area of study was the safety and efficacy of carcinomas. In the randomized, controlled trial, no difference could be detected in the rate of complications between transanal endoscopic microsurgery and direct local excision (relative risk for overall early complication rates, 0.56; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.22-1.42). No differences in survival or local recurrence rate between transanal endoscopic microsurgery and anterior resection could be detected in either the randomized, controlled trial (hazard ratio,1.02 for survival) or the nonrandomized, comparative study. There were 2 of 25 (8 percent) transanal endoscopic microsurgery recurrences in the randomized, controlled trial, but no figures were given for recurrence after anterior resection. In the case series, the median local recurrence rate for transanal endoscopic microsurgery was 8.4 percent, ranging from 0 percent to 50 percent. The third comparison was cost of the procedures. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery had both a lower recurrence rate and a lower cost than local excision or anterior resection for adenomas. Although the effectiveness of transanal endoscopic microsurgery could not be established for carcinomas, costs were lower than those for either anterior resection or abdominoperineal resection. CONCLUSIONS: The evidence regarding transanal endoscopic microsurgery is very limited, being largely based on a single relatively small randomized, controlled trial. However, transanal endoscopic microsurgery does appear to result in fewer recurrences than those with direct local excision in adenomas and thus may be a useful procedure for several small niches of patient types-e.g., for large benign lesions of the middle to upper third of the rectum, for T1 low-risk rectal cancers, and for palliative, not curative, use in more advanced tumors.

Pelvic Sepsis After Extended Hartmann's Procedure.
Tottrup A, Frost L
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 15;.

PURPOSE: An extended Hartmann's procedure is occasionally useful in rectal resections, because anastomotic, perineal, and functional problems are eliminated. This study was designed to examine the occurrence of pelvic sepsis after this procedure and identify possible risk factors. METHODS: Medical records were available for 163 patients (89 females) undergoing rectal resection with colostomy and closure of the rectal remnant. Information about pelvic sepsis and possible risk factors was obtained by review of the medical records. RESULTS: Pelvis sepsis developed in 31 of 163 patients (18.6 percent). When the rectum had been transected <2 cm above the pelvic floor, 24 of 73 patients (32.9 percent) developed an abscess in contrast to 7 of 90 (7.8 percent) after higher transsection (P = 0.0001). Other risk factors were male gender and missing foot pulses. Only 61 percent of pelvic abscesses healed after a median of 59 days, leaving 39 percent unhealed after an observation period of 277 (range, 20-1,643) days. CONCLUSIONS: Surgical alternatives should be considered to an extended Hartmann's procedure when the level of transsection is <2 cm above the pelvic floor, particularly in males.

Long-Term Treatment of High Intestinal Output Syndrome With Budesonide in Patients With Crohn's Disease and Ileostomy.
Ecker KW, Stallmach A, Loffler J, Greinwald R, Achenbach U
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 15;.

PURPOSE: In a previous, controlled study, it was shown that orally administered budesonide increases the absorptive capacity of the intestinal mucosa in patients with ileostomies caused by Crohn's disease. This open, nonrandomized study was designed to analyze this functional, not inflammation-dependent steroid-effect in the long-term course comparing exposure, withdrawal, and reexposure. METHODS: Phase 1: 23 patients without inflammatory activity of the disease received oral budesonide (3 mg t.i.d.) for at least four weeks (36.7 weeks; standard deviation, 45.3 weeks) because of high intestinal output syndrome. Phase 2: Medication was stopped for four weeks. Phase 3: Medication as in Phase 1. In each phase the weight of the ileostomy bags was measured with a spring balance before emptying and documented in a diary. Mean values per day and per week were calculated and the differences statistically evaluated by the Wilcoxon-(Pratt)-test. RESULTS: Comparing the last week of Phase 1 to first week of Phase 2, a significant (P < 0.0001) increase of the intestinal output (295 g; standard deviation, 313 g) was observed after omitting budesonide. In contrast, comparing the last week of Phase 2 to Phase 3, a significant (P < 0.0001) decrease of the intestinal output by 323.7 g (standard deviation, 322.2 g) was noticed reaching the same level as in Phase 1. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the functional, inflammation-independent effect of budesonide on the intestinal mucosa is strongly correlated to the administration of the drug and may be maintained long-term. These results should be confirmed by a larger number of patients.

Loop Ileostomy Closure After Restorative Proctocolectomy: Outcome in 1,504 Patients.
Wong KS, Remzi FH, Gorgun E, Arrigain S, Church JM, Preen M, Fazio VW
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 15;.

PURPOSE: Routine use of a temporary loop ileostomy for diversion after restorative proctocolectomy is controversial because of reported morbidity associated with its creation and closure. This study intended to review our experience with loop ileostomy closure after restorative proctocolectomy and determine the complication rates. In addition, complication rates between handsewn and stapled closures were compared.METHODS: Our Department Pelvic Pouch Database was queried and charts reviewed for all patients who had ileostomy closure after restorative proctocolectomy from August 1983 to March 2002.RESULTS: A total of 1,504 patients underwent ileostomy closure after restorative proctocolectomy during a 19-year period. The median length of hospitalization was three (range, 1-40) days and the overall complication rate was 11.4 percent. Complications included small-bowel obstruction (6.4 percent), wound infection (1.5 percent), abdominal septic complications (1 percent), and enterocutaneous fistulas (0.6 percent). Handsewn closure was performed in 1,278 patients (85 percent) and stapled closure in 226 (15 percent). No significant differences in complication rates and length of hospitalization were found between handsewn and stapled closure techniques.CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrated that ileostomy closure after restorative proctocolectomy can be achieved with a low morbidity and a short hospitalization stay. In addition, we found that complication rates and length of hospitalization were similar between handsewn and stapled closures.

Sutured Perineal Omentoplasty After Abdominoperineal Resection for Adenocarcinoma of the Lower Rectum.
De Broux E, Parc Y, Rondelli F, Dehni N, Tiret E, Parc R
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 15;.

PURPOSE: This study was designed to describe and evaluate the efficacy of sutured perineal omentoplasty on perineal wound healing after abdominoperineal resection for adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum.METHODS: Charts of patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for adenocarcinoma of the rectum from June 1995 to December 2001 were reviewed for mortality, morbidity, and perineal healing. Abdominoperineal resection was accomplished according to Miles combined with total mesorectal excision. The omentum was pediculized on the left gastroepiploic artery and tightly sewn to the subcutaneous fatty tissue. The perineal skin was then closed primarily.RESULTS: A total of 104 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery was 65 (range, 13-91) years. The distance of the tumor from the anal sphincters was 0.45 +/- 0.9 mm (range, 0-50). During the study period, 92 patients (88 percent) had sutured perineal omentoplasty. The rate of primary perineal wound healing was 80 percent. Postoperative perineal wound complications consisted of perineal abscess in seven patients. Six of these patients had a sutured perineal omentoplasty (6 percent). Only four patients required a surgical drainage. Minor perineal suppuration occurred in four patients (4 percent), whereas partial perineal wound dehiscence occurred in eight patients (8 percent). All wounds healed completely at three months. Intestinal obstruction occurred in three patients (3 percent). No complication of the pedicled omentoplasty was observed.CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that sutured perineal omentoplasty is possible in the majority of patients after abdominoperineal resection for adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum with excellent primary perineal wound healing.

Side-to-Side Stapled Anastomosis Strongly Reduces Anastomotic Leak Rates in Crohn's Disease Surgery.
Resegotti A, Astegiano M, Farina EC, Ciccone G, Avagnina G, Giustetto A, Campra D, Fronda GR
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 17;.

PURPOSE: Anastomotic configuration may influence anastomotic leak rates. The aim of this study was to determine whether a side-to-side stapled ileocolonic anastomosis produces lower anastomotic leak rates than those with a handsewn end-to-end ileocolonic anastomosis after ileocecal or ileocolonic resection for Crohn's disease. METHODS: A series of 122 consecutive patients underwent elective ileocecal or ileocolonic resection with ileocolonic anastomosis for Crohn's disease from January 1998 to June 2003: 71 had handsewn end-to-end anastomosis and 51 had side-to-side stapled anastomosis. The choice between the two anastomoses was left to the surgeon's preference. A retrospective analysis was performed to assess if there was any difference in anastomotic leak rates. RESULTS: The two groups were comparable in terms of age, gender, preoperative presence of abscess or fistula, history of smoking, and albumin levels. More patients were taking steroids in the handsewn group than in the stapled group. In the handsewn group there were 10 anastomotic leaks (14.1 percent) and in the stapled group there was 1 anastomotic leak (2.0 percent) (risk difference, +12.1 percent; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.7-22.2; P = 0.02). Anastomotic configuration was the sole variable that influenced anastomotic leak rates at univariate analysis. Mortality was 1.4 percent in the handsewn group and 0 percent in the stapled group. Complications other than anastomotic leak developed in 11 patients in the handsewn group and in 6 patients in the stapled group. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 12.3 days in the handsewn group and 9.7 days in the stapled group (P = 0.03). Excluding those patients who had an anastomotic leak, the difference was still present (handsewn group, 10.1 days; stapled group, 9.1 days; P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Although confirmation from randomized, controlled trials is required, side-to-side stapled anastomosis seems to substantially decrease anastomotic leak rates in surgical patients with Crohn's disease, compared with handsewn end-to-end anastomosis. Postoperative hospital stay decreased in the stapled anastomosis group, and this was not entirely a result of decreased anastomotic leak rates.

Practice Parameters for the Management of Rectal Cancer (Revised).
Colon and Rectal Surgeons: Joe J. Tjandra, M.D., John W. Kilkenny, M.D., W. Donald Buie, M.D., Neil Hyman, M.D., Clifford Simmang, M.D., Thomas Anthony, M.D., Charles Orsay, M.D., James Ch
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 23;.

Postoperative Change of Mucosal Inflammation at Strictureplasty Segment in Crohn's Disease: Cytokine Production and Endoscopic and Histologic Findings.
Yamamoto T, Umegae S, Kitagawa T, Matsumoto K
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

Primary Perineal Wound Closure After Preoperative Radiotherapy and Abdominoperineal Resection has a High Incidence of Wound Failure.
Bullard KM, Trudel JL, Baxter NN, Rothenberger DA
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

PURPOSE: Neoadjuvant radiation therapy has been used increasingly to downstage rectal cancer and decrease local recurrence. Despite its efficacy, preoperative radiation therapy may inhibit healing and contribute to wound complications. This study was designed to evaluate perineal wound complications after abdominoperineal resection. METHODS: The clinical records of a consecutive series of patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for rectal carcinoma between 1988 and 2002 were reviewed. Demographic data, disease stage, and use of preoperative radiation therapy were recorded. Major wound complications included delayed wound healing (>1 month), wound infection requiring drainage/debridement, or reoperation. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients underwent abdominoperineal resection with primary closure of the perineal wound (mean age, 63 +/- 12 years); 117 (73 percent) patients received preoperative radiation therapy; 114 received radiation therapy for rectal cancer (radiation therapy + chemotherapy = 107, radiation therapy alone = 7); 3 received radiation therapy for other pelvic malignancies. Median radiation dose was 5,040 (range, 900-5,400) cGY. Overall wound complication rate was 41 percent. Major wound complication rate was 35 percent. Delayed healing was the most common complication (24 percent), followed by infection (10 percent). Radiation therapy increased the risk of any wound complication (47 vs. 23 percent; P = 0.005), risk of a major wound complication (41 vs. 19 percent; P = 0.021), and risk of infection (14 vs. 0 percent; P = 0.015). Risk of wound complications did not correlate with age, gender, disease stage, smoking, or diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: Wound complications are frequent after abdominoperineal resection and primary closure of the perineum. Preoperative radiation therapy doubles the rate of total and major perineal wound complications. Alternatives to primary perineal closure should be considered, particularly after radiation therapy.

Colonic J-Pouch-Anal Anastomosis for Rectal Cancer: A Prospective, Randomized Study Comparing Handsewn vs. Stapled Anastomosis.
Laurent A, Parc Y, McNamara D, Parc R, Tiret E
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

PURPOSE: Colonic J-pouch-anal anastomosis performed after complete proctectomy and total mesorectal excision for adenocarcinoma of the rectum can be handsewn or stapled. Stapling the coloanal anastomosis is believed to shorten operating time and reduce morbidity, but there are no randomized trials comparing the techniques. METHODS: Between January 1999 and May 2001, all patients with rectal adenocarcinoma requiring total mesorectal excision were randomized intraoperatively to handsewn or stapled anastomosis. Mortality, intraoperative, and postoperative findings and functional results at 3, 6, and 12 months were analyzed. RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients (12 females; mean age, 60 +/- 10 years) were randomized (stapled group: n = 20; handsewn group: n = 17). The two groups were comparable for age, gender, distance between the tumor and the levator ani, tumor volume, and use of preoperative radiotherapy (3 in each group). Morbidity did not differ between stapled group (3/20) and handsewn group (4/17; P > 0.05). Mean +/- standard deviation operative time was shorter in stapled group (261 +/- 40 minutes) than in handsewn group (314 +/- 46 minutes; P = 0.0008), and median distance between the anastomosis and the anal verge was shorter in handsewn group (19 +/- 9 mm) than in stapled group (27 +/- 8 mm; P = 0.01). Three patients of handsewn group and none of stapled group developed an anastomotic stricture requiring a single digital dilation (not significant). Number of stools per 24 hours, urgency, incidence of fragmented stools, degree of continence, requirement for protective pad, and/or need to take medication at 3, 6, and 12 months were similar in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Stapled coloanal anastomosis is significantly faster than handsewn CAA and has similar functional results. It should be the preferred technique when it is feasible.

Surveillance-Detected Hepatic Metastases From Colorectal Cancer Had a Survival Advantage in Seven-Year Follow-Up.
Child PW, Yan TD, Perera DS, Morris DL
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

Long-Term Outcome of Mesocolic and Pelvic Diverticular Abscesses of the Left Colon: A Prospective Study of 73 Cases.
Ambrosetti P, Chautems R, Soravia C, Peiris-Waser N, Terrier F
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

PURPOSE: The aim of of this study was to evaluate prospectively the long-term outcome of mesocolic and pelvic diverticular abscesses of the left colon. METHODS: Between October 1986 and October 1997, a total of 465 patients urgently admitted to our hospital with a suspected diagnosis of acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis had a CT scan. Of 76 patients (17 percent) who had an associated mesocolic or pelvic abscess, 3 were lost to follow-up. The remaining 73 patients (45 with a mesocolic abscess and 28 with a pelvic abscess) were followed for a median of 43 months. RESULTS: of the 45 patients with a mesocolic abscess, 7 (15 percent) required surgery during their first hospitalization versus 11 (39 percent) of the 28 patients with a pelvic abscess (P = 0.04). At the end of follow-up, 22 (58 percent) of the 38 patients with a mesocolic abscess who had successful conservative treatment during their first hospitalization did not need surgical treatment vs. 8 (47 percent) of the 17 who had a pelvic abscess. Altogether, 51 percent of the patients with a mesocolic abscess had surgical treatment versus 71 percent of those with a pelvic abscess (P = 0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the poor outcome of pelvic abscess associated with acute left-sided colonic diverticulitis, percutaneous drainage followed by secondary colectomy seems justified. Mesocolic abscess by itself is not an absolute indication for colectomy.

Immediate Radical Resection After Local Excision of Rectal Cancer: An Oncologic Compromise?
Hahnloser D, Wolff BG, Larson DW, Ping J, Nivatvongs S
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

PURPOSE: Local excision for early-staged rectal cancers is controversial. Preoperative understaging is not uncommon and radical resection after local resection may be needed for a curative treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and outcome of radical resection (within 30 days) after local excision for rectal adenocarcinoma. METHODS: All locally excised rectal cancers (curative intent) that required radical surgery within 30 days were reviewed (1980-2000). T2-3N0-1 stage cancers were each matched to three primary radical surgery controls for stage, age (+/-5 years), gender, date (+/-1 years), and type (abdominoperineal resection or low anterior resection) of operation. T1N0-1 cancers were compared with stage-matched rectal cancers treated by either primary radical surgery (n = 78) or local excision alone (n = 77). RESULTS: Fifty-two locally excised rectal adenocarcinomas (29 transanal and 23 polypectomies) were followed by radical surgery (24 abdominoperineal resection and 28 low anterior resection) within 7 (range, 1-29) days. Radical surgery was performed because of a cancerous polyp (n = 42), positive margins (5), lymphovascular invasion (3), and T3-staged cancer (2). Twelve of 52 cancers (23 percent) were found to have nodal involvement and 15 of 52 (29 percent) showed residual cancer in the resected specimen. The T2-3N0-1 stage controls were well matched. No significant difference in tumor location, size, adjuvant therapy, or length of follow-up was noted. Local and distant recurrence occurred in 2 of 4 T2-3N1 tumors and in 2 of 11 T2-3N0 cancers and were comparable to the matched controls, as was survival, with the exception of shorter survival in T3N1 cases, but numbers were too small for a definitive conclusion. Length of follow-up was not different. For T1 cancers, the controls were also comparable regarding patient and tumor demographics and adjuvant therapy. Nodal involvement was 21 percent in T1 study cases and 15 percent in T1 primary radical-surgery controls, with a trend toward location in the lower third of the rectum in both groups (58 percent and 50 percent, respectively). Local recurrence rates were 3 percent in the study group, 5 percent for patients undergoing primary radical surgery, and 8 percent for local excision alone. Distant metastasis (11 percent, 12 percent, and 13 percent, respectively) and overall five-year survival were also not significantly different (78 percent, 89 percent, and 73 percent, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Nodal involvement in attempted locally excised rectal cancers is not uncommon. Local excision of rectal tumors followed by radical surgery within 30 days in cancer patients does not compromise outcome compared with primary radical surgery. Even after radical surgery for superficial T1 rectal cancers, recurrence rates are not insignificant. Future improvements in preoperative staging may be helpful in selecting tumors for local excision only.

Topical 5-Fluorouracil in the Management of Extensive Anal Bowen's Disease: A Preferred Approach.
Graham BD, Jetmore AB, Foote JE, Arnold LK
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

PURPOSE: An alternative approach to anal Bowen's disease was investigated. The use of topical 5 percent 5-fluorouracil for large lesions and surgical excision of small lesions were evaluated. METHODS: A prospective study was undertaken for anal Bowen's disease in 11 patients over a six-year period. Before therapy all patients underwent anal mapping biopsy and colonoscopy. For one-half circumferential disease or greater, patients underwent topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy for 16 weeks. For smaller involvement, wide surgical excision was performed. All patients underwent anal mapping biopsy one year after completion of therapy. RESULTS: Of 11 patients, 8 (5 male) received 16 weeks of topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy. Three patients (3 female) underwent surgical excision for localized disease. All but one patient, who was HIV positive, were free of Bowen's disease one year after completion of therapy. One patient underwent total excision of a residual microinvasive squamous carcinoma after circumferential Bowen's dis-ease had resolved. One patient received eight additional weeks of topical 5-fluorouacil therapy for incomplete resolution. All patients were followed yearly, with a mean follow-up of 39 months and a range of 12 to 74 months. There have been no recurrences. There were no long-term side effects or morbidity from topical 5-fluorouacil or local excision. All colonoscopies were normal. CONCLUSION: Topical 5 percent 5-fluorouacil therapy is a safe and effective method to treat anal Bowen's disease. Wide local excision is appropriate for smaller, isolated areas of disease. Anal Bowen's disease was not associated with colonic or other neoplasms.

Growth in Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Apoptosis Correlates Specifically to the Inflammation Activity of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Ulcerative Colitis Shows Specific p53- and EGFR Expression Alterations.
Sipos F, Molnar B, Zagoni T, Berczi L, Tulassay Z
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 23;.

Eight Years Experience of High-Powered Endoscopic Diode Laser Therapy for Palliation of Colorectal Carcinoma.
Courtney ED, Raja A, Leicester RJ
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

Prevalence and Morphology of Pouch and Ileal Adenomas in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.
Groves CJ, Beveridge IG, Swain DJ, Saunders BP, Talbot IC, Nicholls RJ, Phillips RK
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

Association Between Fecal Hydrogen Sulfide Production and Pouchitis.
Ohge H, Furne JK, Springfield J, Rothenberger DA, Madoff RD, Levitt MD
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 23;.

PURPOSE: The beneficial effect of antibiotics in pouchitis suggests that an unidentified fecal bacterial product causes this condition. A candidate compound is hydrogen sulfide, a highly toxic gas produced by certain fecal bacteria, which causes tissue injury in experimental models. We investigated hydrogen sulfide release and sulfate-reducing bac-terial counts in pouch contents to determine whether hy-drogen sulfide production correlates with pouchitis. METHODS: During incubation at 37 degrees C, the production of hydrogen sulfide, methylmercaptan, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen were studied using fresh fecal specimens obtained from 50 patients with ileoanal pouches constructed after total proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis (n = 45) or for familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 5). Patients with ulcerative colitis were divided into five groups: a) no history of pouchitis (pouch for at least 2 years; n = 8); b) past episode(s) of pouchitis but no active disease for the previous year (n = 9); c) pouchitis in the past year but presently inactive (n = 9); d) ongoing antibiotic treatment (metronidazole or ciprofloxacin) for pouchitis (n = 11); e) currently suffering from pouchitis (n = 8). RESULTS: Release of hydrogen sulfide when pouchitis was active (6.06 +/- 1.03 mumol g(-1) 4 h(-1)) or had occurred in the past year (4.71 +/- 0.41 mumol g(-1) 4 h(-1)) was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than when pouchitis had never occurred (1.71 +/- 0.43 mumol g(-1) 4 h(-1)) or had been inactive in the past year (2.62 +/- 0.49 mumol g(-1) 4 h(-1)). Antibiotic therapy was associated with very low hydrogen sulfide release (0.68 +/- 0.29 mumol g(-1) 4 h(-1)). Pouch contents from familial adenomatous polyposis patients produced significantly less hydrogen sulfide (0.75 +/- 0.09 mumol g(-1) 4 h(-1)) than did any group of nonantibiotic-treated ulcerative colitis patients. Sulfate-reducing bacterial counts in active pouchitis (9.5 +/- 0.5 log(10)/g) were significantly higher than in those who never experienced pouchitis (7.38 +/- 0.32 log(10)/g), and these counts fell dramatically with antibiotic treatment. No statistically significant differences in carbon dioxide and hydrogen were observed among the groups not receiving antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Pouch contents of patients with ongoing pouchitis or an episode within the previous year released significantly more hydrogen sulfide than did the contents of patients who never had an attack of pouchitis and those with longstanding inactive disease. The response to therapy with metronidazole or ciprofloxacin was associated with marked reductions in hydrogen sulfide release and sulfate-reducing bacteria. These results provide a rationale for additional studies to determine whether the high sulfide production is a cause or effect of pouchitis. The lower hydrogen sulfide production by pouch contents of familial adenomatous polyposis vs. patients with ulcerative colitis suggests a fundamental difference in gut sulfide metabolism that could have implications for the etiology of ulcerative colitis as well as the pouchitis of patients with ulcerative colitis.

Metastatic Testicular Carcinoma From the Colon With Clinical, Immunophenotypical, and Molecular Characterization: Report of a Case.
Tiong HY, Kew CY, Tan KB, Salto-Tellez M, Leong AF
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 2;.

Ischemic Colitis Following Colonoscopy in a Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patient: Report of a Case.
Versaci A, Macri A, Scuderi G, Bartolone S, Familiari L, Lupattelli T, Famulari C
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Mar 4;.

Evaluation of P-POSSUM in Surgery for Obstructing Colorectal Cancer and Correlation of the Predicted Mortality With Different Surgical Options.
Poon JT, Chan B, Law WL
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Feb 23;.

PURPOSE: This study examined the accuracy of Portsmouth Physiologic and Operative Severity Score for enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity system (P-POSSUM) in predicting the mortality of patients who underwent operations for obstructing colorectal cancer. It also is attempted to analyze the actual mortality and the predicted P-POSSUM mortality of different surgical options for obstructing left-sided cancer. METHODS: Data on patients who underwent surgery for obstructing colorectal cancer during 1998 to 2002 were collected. Mortality predicted by P-POSSUM was compared to the actual mortality with the method of linear analysis. The accuracy of using P-POSSUM to predict mortality in this group of patients was assessed by Hosmer and Lemeshow goodness of fit test and Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis. The predicted and actual mortality of patients who underwent different surgical options also were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 160 patients were included in the study and 18 patients died postoperatively. The operative mortality was 11.3 percent. P-POSSUM predicted overall mortality of 15 percent. The observed and predicted mortality was found to have no significant lack of fit (chi-squared = 5.98; degree of freedom = 3; P = 0.11). The area under Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis was 0.75. For patients with left-sided tumors, P-POSSUM predicted mortality and actual mortality of patients who had resection without anastomosis were both significantly higher than patients with single-stage resection and primary anastomosis ( P = 0.044 and 0.011, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: P-POSSUM system is valid for prediction of overall mortality in patients with operations for obstructing colorectal cancer. Estimation of P-POSSUM predicted mortality during operation and its ability to correlate with choice of procedure is an area that is worth further study in emergency colorectal surgery.

The transcriptional repressor SNAIL is overexpressed in human colon cancer.
Roy HK, Smyrk TC, Koetsier J, Victor TA, Wali RK
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Jan;50(1):42-6.

CARD15/NOD2 in a Tunisian population with Crohn's disease.
Zouiten-Mekki L, Zaouali H, Boubaker J, Karoui S, Fekih M, Matri S, Hamzaoui S, Filali A, Chaabouni H, Hugot JP
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Jan;50(1):130-5.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a heterogeneous disorder. A genetic linkage to chromosome 16 (IBD1) has been previously observed and replicated in unrelated populations. Recently, in this region, NOD2/CARD15 has been identified as a susceptibility gene. The aim of this report is to determine whether this gene is implicated in CD in a Tunisian population. One hundred thirty patients with CD and 90 healthy individuals were genotyped for the three common NOD2 variants (C2104T in exon 4, G2722C in exon 8, and 3020insC in exon 11). Furthermore, the 11 exons of the NOD2 gene were sequenced in 20 patients with CD. Results showed that the frequency of the CARD15 variants in the Tunisian population is significantly lower than that observed in the European and American population. Direct sequencing of CARD15 did not permit us to identify a characteristic mutation in our population. No association was confirmed between CD and the NOD2 gene in our Tunisian population. Furthermore, the NOD2/CARD15 gene has a variable association with CD in different populations. These results indicate the genetic variation of CD in different ethnic groups.

Spindle cell tumor of the distal rectum.
Bahadursingh AM, Vagefi PA, Howell A, Prather C, Longo WE
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Jan;50(1):37-41.

A case of chronic intestinal ischemia presenting as chronic diarrhea without abdominal pain.
Ginsburg PM, Brant SR
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Jan;50(1):18-23.

Interobserver agreement in the interpretation of anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Lytwyn A, Salit IE, Raboud J, Chapman W, Darragh T, Winkler B, Tinmouth J, Mahony JB, Sano M
Cancer 2005 Feb 22;.

BACKGROUND: Anal carcinoma incidence is increasing, and is highest among men with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have sex with men. Anal carcinoma and anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) are ascertained on tissue histology, but requires invasive procedures. Screening for AIN using anal cytology was suggested. The authors evaluated agreement on cytologic and biopsy specimens from HIV-positive men undergoing anal carcinoma screening. METHODS: One hundred twenty-nine HIV-positive men with a history of anal-receptive intercourse underwent anal cytology, anoscopy, and biopsy. Four pathologists independently assessed cytology and biopsy specimens and reached consensus for discordant cases. RESULTS: Each pathologist evaluated 120 cytology and 155 biopsy specimens. The weighted kappa value for overall agreement was 0.54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49-0.59) for cytology specimens and 0.59 (95%CI, 0.55-0.63) for biopsy specimens. The median kappa values for pairwise agreement among pathologists and for agreement with consensus were, respectively, 0.69 and 0.77 for cytology and 0.66 and 0.75 for biopsy. At least 3 pathologists were in agreement for 92 (76.7%) cytology and 134 (86.5%) biopsy specimens. Reliability for the Bethesda classification system was at least moderate, except for the cytologic category of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (kappa = 0.12). Fourteen of 29 (48.3%) cytology specimens and 36 of 47 (76.6%) biopsy specimens with consensus interpretation of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) were interpreted originally as HSIL by >/= 3 pathologists. The kappa value for agreement with consensus distinguishing HSIL from non-HSIL ranged from 0.55 to 0.88 for cytology specimens and from 0.76 to 0.94 for biopsy specimens. CONCLUSIONS: Agreement for cytologic and biopsy interpretations was generally at least moderate. Nevertheless, these results supported the need for disease indicators with greater reliabililty. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

The prognostic impact of the ubiquitin ligase subunits Skp2 and Cks1 in colorectal carcinoma.
Shapira M, Ben-Izhak O, Linn S, Futerman B, Minkov I, Hershko DD
Cancer 2005 Feb 16;.

BACKGROUND: Loss of the cell-cycle inhibitory protein p27(Kip1) is associated with poor prognosis in colorectal carcinoma. The decrease in p27(Kip1) levels is the result of increased proteasome-dependent degradation, mediated and rate-limited by its specific ubiquitin ligase subunits S-phase kinase protein (Skp) 2 and cyclin-dependent kinase subunit (Cks) 1. Recently, Skp2 and Cks1 expression were found to be increased in some colorectal carcinomas, but their potential role as prognostic markers for survival is unknown. The present study was undertaken to assess the prognostic value of both Skp2 and Cks1 in colorectal carcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The expression of Skp2, Cks1, and p27(Kip1) was examined by immunohistochemistry using highly specific antibodies on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 80 patients with colorectal carcinoma. RESULTS: Overexpression of Skp2 and Cks1 strongly correlated with loss of p27(Kip1) and loss of tumor differentiation. A significant decrease in overall survival was observed in patients expressing high Skp2 or Cks1 levels, and in particular, patients with Stage II and III disease. Each protein provided significant additional prognostic information to that given by disease stage, tumor grade, or p27(Kip1) expression. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that overexpression of Skp2 or Cks1 is strongly associated with poor prognosis and may thus be used as prognostic markers for overall survival in colorectal carcinoma. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

Folate transport gene inactivation in mice increases sensitivity to colon carcinogenesis.
Ma DW, Finnell RH, Davidson LA, Callaway ES, Spiegelstein O, Piedrahita JA, Salbaum JM, Kappen C, Weeks BR, James J, Bozinov D, Lupton JR, Chapkin RS
Cancer Res 2005 Feb 1;65(3):887-97.

[Present treatment strategies for rectal carcinoma.]
Liersch T, Langer C, Ghadimi BM, Becker H
Chirurg 2005 Mar 1;.

In the last ten years, considerable progress has been achieved in the treatment of rectal cancer. According to improved interdisciplinary staging, rectal carcinomas can be treated based on a stage-dependent concept: "low-risk" pT1 (G1/G2) carcinomas can be cured by local full wall excision, while "high-risk" pT1 (G3/G4) and pT2 carcinomas require transabdominal resection. In contrast, locally advanced rectal cancers in cUICC-II/-III stages (T3/T4 or N(+)) should receive long-term, 5-FU-based, neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy according to the excellent results of the CAO/AIO/ARO-94 trial of the German Rectal Cancer Study Group. High-quality resection must be based on radical oncologic principles such as "no-touch" technique, radicular dissection of vessels, and total mesorectal excision. Multimodal treatment is completed with adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy. This therapeutic approach led to a reduction in the 5-year local recurrence rate to 6% and disease-free survival of approximately 68% in advanced rectal cancer (overall survival: 76%).

Pregnancy and Crohn's Disease.
Mottet C, Juillerat P, Gonvers JJ, Froehlich F, Burnand B, Vader JP, Michetti P, Felley C
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):54-61.

Crohn's disease commonly affects women of childbearing age. Available data on Crohn's disease and pregnancy show that women with Crohn's disease can expect to conceive successfully, carry to term and deliver a healthy baby. Control of disease activity before conception and during pregnancy is critical, to optimize both maternal and fetal health. Generally speaking, pharmacological therapy for Crohn's disease during pregnancy is similar to pharmacological therapy for non-pregnant patients. Patients maintained in remission by way of pharmacological therapy should continue it throughout their pregnancy. Most drugs, including sulfasalazine, mesalazine, corticosteroids, and immunosuppressors such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, are safe, whereas methotrexate is contraindicated. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Treatment of Postoperative Crohn's Disease.
Froehlich F, Juillerat P, Felley C, Mottet C, Vader JP, Burnand B, Michetti P, Gonvers JJ
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):49-53.

At 1 year after a first resection, up to 80% of patients show an endoscopic recurrence, 10-20% have clinical relapse, and 5% have surgical recurrence. Smoking is one of the most important risk factors for postoperative recurrence. Preoperative disease activity and the severity of endoscopic lesions in the neoterminal ileum within the first postoperative year are predictors of symptomatic recurrence. Mesalamine is generally the first-line treatment used in the postoperative setting but still provokes considerable controversy as to its efficacy, in spite of the results of a meta-analysis. Immunosuppressive treatment (azathioprine, 6-MP) is based on scant evidence but is currently used as a second-line treatment in postsurgical patients at high risk for recurrence, with symptoms or with early endoscopic lesions in the neoterminal ileum. Nitroimidazole antibiotics (metronidazole, ornidazole) are also effective in the control of active Crohn's disease in the postoperative setting. Given their known toxicity, they may be used as a third-line treatment as initial short-term prevention therapy rather than for long-term use. Conventional corticosteroids, budesonide or probiotics have no proven role in postoperative prophylaxis. Infliximab has not as yet been studied for use in the prevention of relapse after surgery. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Maintenance of Remission in Crohn's Disease.
Gonvers JJ, Juillerat P, Mottet C, Felley C, Burnand B, Vader JP, Michetti P, Froehlich F
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):41-48.

When remission of Crohn's disease is achieved, the next goal is to maintain long-term remission. Aminosalicylates may be recommended for maintenance remission, even though the results are less consistent than those observed in ulcerative colitis. The benefit is mainly observed in the post-surgical setting and in patients with ileitis, and with a prolonged disease duration. Corticosteroids are not effective in maintaining remission and should not be used for this indication. Azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are effective in maintaining remission. Maintenance benefits remain significant for patients who continued with the therapy for up to 5 years. Methotrexate has also been found to be effective in maintaining remission in Crohn's disease in patients who have responded acutely to methotrexate. Cyclosporine has not been found to be an effective maintenance agent. Mycophenolate mofetil could be considered a therapy in patients who are either allergic to azathioprine or in whom azathioprine failed to induce remission. The use of infliximab may change the future approach to maintenance therapy for Crohn's disease. Patients who responded clinically to infliximab have maintained their clinical response when receiving repeat infusions at 8-week intervals. In patients refractory to other therapies, infliximab may be effective in maintaining remission. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Treatment of Gastroduodenal Crohn's Disease.
Mottet C, Juillerat P, Gonvers JJ, Michetti P, Burnand B, Vader JP, Felley C, Froehlich F
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):37-40.

Symptomatic gastroduodenal manifestations of Crohn's disease (CD) are rare, with less than 4% of patients being clinically symptomatic. Gastroduodenal involvement may, however, be found endoscopically in 20% and in up to 40% of cases histologically, most frequently as Helicobacter pylori-negative focal gastritis, usually in patients with concomitant distal ileal disease. In practice, the activity of concomitant distal CD usually determines the indication for therapy, except in the presence of obstructive gastroduodenal symptoms. With the few data available, it seems correct to say that localized gastroduodenal disease should be treated with standard medical therapy used for more distal disease, with the exception of sulfasalazine and mesalanine with pH-dependent release. Presence of symptoms of obstruction needs aggressive therapy. If medical therapy with steroids and immunomodulatory drugs does not alleviate the symptoms, balloon dilation and surgery are the options to consider. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Extraintestinal Manifestations of Crohn's Disease.
Juillerat P, Mottet C, Froehlich F, Felley C, Vader JP, Burnand B, Gonvers JJ, Michetti P
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):31-36.

In each case of extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn's disease, active disease, if present, should be treated to induce remission, which may positively influence the course of most concomitant extraintestinal manifestations. For some extraintestinal manifestations, however, a specific treatment should be introduced. This latter part of disease management will be discussed in this chapter, in particular for pyoderma gangrenosum, uveitis, spondylarthropathy - axial arthropathy - and primarysclerosing cholangitis, which have also been described in quiescent Crohn's disease. Few new drugs for the treatment of extraintestinal manifestations of Crohn's disease have been developed in the past and only the role of infliximab has increased in Crohn's disease-related extraintestinal manifestations. Drugs specifically aimed at this treatment, stemming from a few randomized controlled studies or case series, are sulfasalazine, 5-ASA, corticosteroids, azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine, methotrexate, infliximab, dapsone and cyclosporine or tacrolimus. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Obstructive Fibrostenotic Crohn's Disease.
Froehlich F, Juillerat P, Mottet C, Felley C, Vader JP, Burnand B, Gonvers JJ, Michetti P
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):29-30.

Crohn's disease is often complicated by gastrointestinal strictures. Postoperative recurrence at the anastomotic site is common and repeated surgical interventions may be necessary. Medical treatment may relieve active inflammation (see chapter on active luminal disease) but fibrous strictures will not respond to this. Mechanical treatment methods consist of endoscopic balloon dilation, stricturoplasty or surgical resection. Fibrostenotic Crohn's disease does not respond to medical therapy and requires endoscopic or surgical treatment. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Fistulizing Crohn's Disease.
Felley C, Mottet C, Juillerat P, Froehlich F, Burnand B, Vader JP, Michetti P, Gonvers JJ
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):26-28.

Fistulas are common in Crohn's disease. A population-based study has shown a cumulative risk of 33% after 10 years and 50% after 20 years. Perianal fistulas were the most common (54%). Medical therapy is the main option for perianal fistula once abscesses, if present, have been drained, and should include antibiotics (both ciprofloxacin and metronidazole) and immunomodulators. Infliximab should be reserved for refractory patients. Surgery is often necessary for internal fistulas. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Severe and Steroid-Resistant Crohn's Disease.
Michetti P, Mottet C, Juillerat P, Felley C, Vader JP, Burnand B, Gonvers JJ, Froehlich F
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):19-25.

Patients with moderate to severe disease and patients with steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent disease differ in their management, as the latter groups usually include patients with less acute situations. Systemic corticosteroids represent the mainstay of the management of moderate to severe disease and remain the first-line therapy in this setting. Infliximab is the choice alternative for patients who do not respond to steroids or in whom steroids are contraindicated. Purine analogues, methotrexate and infliximab have shown efficacy in achieving steroid-free remission in patients with steroid-refractory or -dependent disease. Other fast-acting immunosuppressors showed little benefit. Surgery may be indicated in this setting. Nataluzimab may prove useful in patients refractory to infliximab. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Therapy of Mild to Moderate Luminal Crohn's Disease.
Michetti P, Juillerat P, Mottet C, Gonvers JJ, Burnand B, Vader JP, Froehlich F, Felley C
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):13-18.

The management of luminal Crohn's disease, the most common form of initial presentation of the disease, depends on the location and the severity of the lesions. Mild to moderate disease represents a relatively large proportion of patients with a first flare of luminal disease, which may also be associated with perianal disease. As quality of life of these patients correlates with disease activity, adequate therapy is a central goal of the overall patient management. Treatment options include mainly sulfasalazine, budesonide and systemic steroids, while the role of mesalazine and antibiotics remains controversial. The role of biological therapies in mild to moderate disease has not been thoroughly evaluated and will not be discussed here. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Drug Safety in the Treatment of Crohn's Disease.
Juillerat P, Felley C, Mottet C, Froehlich F, Vader JP, Burnand B, Gonvers JJ, Michetti P
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):8-12.

The management of Crohn's disease usually consists of a succession of short-term acute phase treatments followed by long-term maintenance therapy. The disease affects young patients and for this reason the long-term safety of the drugs needs to be especially taken into consideration. The safety, dose, duration for optimal efficacy and the most frequent adverse events will be described in this article. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

The European Panel on the Appropriateness of Crohn's Disease Therapy.
Caprilli R, Michetti P
Digestion 2005 Feb 4;71(1):6-7.

Late-occurring liver metastases in colorectal cancer.
Rodriguez-Moranta F, Castells A, Miquel R, Pinol V, Maurel J, Fuster J, Lacy AM, Pique JM
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Feb;50(2):345-7.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome): criteria for identification and management.
Kouraklis G, Misiakos EP
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Feb;50(2):336-44.

Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC), or Lynch syndrome, is an autosomal dominant syndrome accounting for 5 to 10% of the total colorectal cancer population. Patients with this syndrome develop colorectal carcinoma at an early age, but disease onset can happen in all age groups. Usually the carcinomas are synchronous or metachronous, and most of them arise proximal to the splenic flexure. The prognosis is better than for the sporadic form of cancer, and there is increased risk for cancer development in certain extracolonic sites, such as the endometrium, ovary, stomach, small bowel, hepatobiliary tract, ureter, and renal pelvis. Most patients with HNPCC have a mutation in one of two DNA mismatch repair genes, hMSH2 or hMLH 1. More than 90% of colorectal carcinoma patients with hMSH2 or hMLH1 demonstrate high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H). If a patient is suspected to belong to an HNPCC family, the first screening test should be immunohistochemistry for the detection of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins, and if it is indicative, it should be followed by genomic sequencing for the identification of mutations in the mismatch repair genes. Genetic counseling and surveillance for high risk HNPCC family members should begin at age 25. Surveillance includes annual colonoscopy of the entire large bowel, with fecal occult blood testing performed twice a year. Systematic surveillance and individually designed treatment of affected patients may help to detect cancers at an earlier stage and subsequently improve the prognosis of the disease further.

Microsatellite analysis of sporadic flat and depressed lesions of the colon.
Kinney TP, Merel N, Hart J, Joseph L, Waxman I
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Feb;50(2):327-30.

Prior studies of molecular and genetic derangements in flat and depressed lesions of the colon have revealed lower frequencies in a number of markers commonly present in exophytic lesions. These and other differences suggest that flat lesions are driven by alternative pathways. We reviewed a database of patients who had undergone endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) for flat and depressed lesions at the University of Chicago from January 2001 to April 2003. Formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded colonic samples were retrieved from the tissue bank, and five standardized mononucleotide and dinucleotide microsatellite regions were analyzed for instability (MSI) using fluorescently labeled forward primers in nonmultiplex reactions. Sixteen patients were identified with flat or depressed lesions who had adequate tissue specimens available for MSI analysis. Of these specimens, eight were tubular adenomas, three were tubulovillous adenomas, and five were carcinomas in situ. Four of the lesions were microsatellite unstable, each at a single locus, and one lesion showed probable instability at a second locus. Eleven lesions were microsatellite stable. Aberrations in DNA repair mechanisms do not appear to significantly contribute to the molecular derangements underlying sporadic flat or depressed colonic lesions. The molecular bases that underlie the aggressive behavior of sporadic flat and depressed lesions remain to be determined, and further investigation is warranted.

Validation of the treatment satisfaction questionnaire for Crohn's disease (TSQ-C).
Coyne K, Joshua-Gotlib S, Kimel M, Thompson C, Lewis A, Danilewitz M
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Feb;50(2):252-8.

Treatment satisfaction is used to capture the full impact of disease on patients' lives. Currently, no instruments exist to evaluate satisfaction with pharmacologic therapy in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a treatment satisfaction questionnaire for CD (TSQ-C). The 36-item questionnaire was completed by CD patients who reported taking 5-aminosalicylic acid derivatives to treat their CD. Measures used in the validation study were the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ), Crohn's Work Activity Impairment Index (CWAII), and patient reports of clinical indicators (e.g., number of active flares and medications taken). Exploratory factor analysis was used to evaluate the items and subscale structure. Internal consistency reliability and concurrent and discriminant validity were assessed using Cronbach's alpha, Pearson correlation coefficients, and analysis of variance. A total of 813 CD patients participated, with the majority being Caucasian (95.9%), female (67.0%), and >34 years old (86.1%). Patient-rated severity of CD was mild (49.3%), moderate (41.7%), and severe (7.5%). The final TSQ-C consisted of 32 items, with six subscales (Symptoms, Satisfaction, Expectations, Physician Relationships, Bother, and Cost), with each subscale score ranging from 1 to 6. Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0.63 (Cost) to 0.94 (Symptoms). Strong correlations were observed among the IBDQ, CWAII, and the Satisfaction and Symptoms subscales of the TSQ-C. TSQ-C subscales, particularly Symptoms and Satisfaction, significantly discriminated among levels of number of flares per year, patient-rated disease severity, and number of medication classes. The TSQ-C demonstrated excellent validity and reliability and appears to be a useful tool for evaluating satisfaction with pharmacologic therapy among patients with CD.

Proposal of a new clinical index predictive of endoscopic severity in ulcerative colitis.
Azzolini F, Pagnini C, Camellini L, Scarcelli A, Merighi A, Primerano AM, Bertani A, Antonioli A, Manenti F, Rigo GP
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Feb;50(2):246-51.

Assessment of disease activity by clinical parameters in ulcerative colitis is still controversial. Different clinical indexes have been proposed. Colonoscopy provides detailed information on mucosal damage. The aim of this study was to identify, among 21 clinical and laboratory parameters, which were predictive of endoscopic activity. We included 137 consecutive patients with ulcerative colitis who underwent colonoscopy, clinical examination, and blood tests within 4 weeks. Endoscopic severity was recorded using a simple score (range, 0-30). The multiple stepwise regression coefficient of each significant variable predictive of mucosal damage was used to develop a new activity index predictive of endoscopic appearance (Endoscopic-Clinical Correlation Index; ECCI). We tested the ability of our score to discriminate patients with severe endoscopic disease, calculating the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, and we compared it to activity indexes proposed by other authors. Endoscopic severity was significantly influenced by four parameters: bloody stool, nocturnal bowel movements, body temperature >37.5 degrees C, and serum albumin. The new scoring system was calculated as ECCI = {[serum albumin x (-26)] + (bloody stool x 17) + (nocturnal bowel movements x 16) + [fever (0 or 1) x 39]} + 107. The ECCI accurately identified patients with severe endoscopic disease in our sample (sensitivity = 81%, specificity = 95%). In conclusion, the ECCI should be useful in clinical practice because it is simple and strongly related to endoscopic activity.

Risk factors for thromboembolic complications in inflammatory bowel disease: the role of hyperhomocysteinaemia.
Oldenburg B, Van Tuyl BA, van der Griend R, Fijnheer R, van Berge Henegouwen GP
Dig Dis Sci 2005 Feb;50(2):235-40.

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic events. Aim of this study was to examine the relationship of hyperhomocysteinemia and thrombosis in IBD patients and to assess the role of this factor in addition to other known prothrombotic abnormalities. IBD patients with a history of thrombosis (n = 22) and sex-, age-, and diagnosis-matched IBD controls (n = 23) were studied. Homocysteine (tHcy) was assessed before and after methionine loading. Plasma levels of protein C, protein S, antithrombin III, and fibrinogen and the presence of anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid antibodies were determined and genetic testing for factor V Leiden and the prothrombin gene mutation was performed. Results showed that fasting homocysteine levels in IBD patients with a history of arterial or venous thrombosis tended to be higher than in IBD controls, although not significantly. The increase in homocysteine levels after methionine loading was significantly higher in IBD patients in the arterial thrombosis group than in IBD controls (40.9 +/- 17.7 vs. 27.2 +/- 9.9 microM; P < 0.05). Among the other prothrombotic factors, only factor V Leiden was significantly associated with a history of venous thrombosis (20 vs. 0%). At least one risk factor was found in 64% of the IBD patients with previous thromboembolic complications. We conclude that there is an association between hyperhomocysteinemia and a history of arterial thrombosis in IBD patients. We confirm the high prevalence of factor V Leiden in IBD patients with a history of venous thrombosis. In the majority of IBD patients with previous thromboembolic complications, at least one prothrombotic risk factor is detected.

Patterns of local disease failure and outcome after salvage surgery in patients with anal cancer.
Renehan AG, Saunders MP, Schofield PF, O'dwyer ST
Br J Surg 2005 Feb 28;.

BACKGROUND: Salvage surgery for anal cancer is usually reserved for local disease failure, but issues relating to the prediction of local failure and surgical outcome are ill defined. METHODS: Between 1988 and 2000, 254 patients with non-metastatic anal epidermoid carcinoma were treated at a regional cancer centre with radiotherapy (n = 127) or chemoradiotherapy (n = 127). RESULTS: There were 99 local disease failures (39.0 per cent), all but five occurring within 3 years of initial treatment. Increasing age (P < 0.001, Cox model), total radiation dose (P = 0.004) and tumour stage (P = 0.010) were independent predictors of local failure. The overall 3- and 5-year survival rates after local disease failure were 46 and 29 per cent; the corresponding rates after salvage surgery (73 patients) were 55 and 40 per cent. A positive resection margin was the strongest negative predictor of survival after salvage surgery (P = 0.008, log rank test). Of 52 patients treated before the routine consideration of primary plastic reconstruction, delayed perineal wound healing occurred in 22 (42 per cent). CONCLUSION: In the management of anal cancer, local disease failure is a major clinical problem requiring early detection followed by radical surgery, often accompanied by plastic reconstruction. By implication, these factors favour the centralization of treatment for this uncommon cancer to a multidisciplinary oncology team. Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Primary rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for repair of perineal and vaginal defects after extended abdominoperineal resection.
Bell SW, Dehni N, Chaouat M, Lifante JC, Parc R, Tiret E
Br J Surg 2005 Feb 25;.

BACKGROUND: Significant morbidity can result from perineal wounds, particularly after radiotherapy and extensive resection for cancer. Myocutaneous flaps have been used to improve healing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morbidity and results of primary rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction of the vagina and perineum after extended abdominoperineal resection. METHODS: Thirty-one consecutive patients undergoing one-stage rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap reconstruction of extensive perineal wounds were studied prospectively. Twenty-six patients had surgery for recurrent or persistent epidermoid anal cancer or low rectal cancer, and 21 had high-dose preoperative radiotherapy. RESULTS: Three weeks after the operation, complete healing of the perineal wound was seen in 27 of the 31 patients. There were nine flap-related complications including three patients with partial flap necrosis, two with vaginal stenosis, one with vaginal scarring, one with small flap disunion and two with weakness of the anterior abdominal wall. There were no unhealed wounds at the completion of follow-up (median 9 months). CONCLUSION: The transpelvic rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap for the reconstruction of large perineal and vaginal wounds achieves wound healing with only moderate morbidity in the majority of patients after extensive abdominoperineal resection with or without radiotherapy. Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Abbasakoor F, Boulos PB
Br J Surg 2005 Mar;92(3):277-90.

BACKGROUND: Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is believed to be a precursor of anal squamous cell cancer and its incidence is rising in high-risk groups, particularly those infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The natural history of AIN is unclear and management strategies are lacking. METHODS: This review is based on a literature search (Medline and PubMed) with manual cross-referencing of all articles related to AIN. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The aetiology of AIN is intricately linked with human papilloma viruses. The pathological processes involved in the progression of AIN are becoming clearer but the natural history, particularly the rate of progression to invasive cancer, remains unknown. There is no standard management for AIN and this is mainly due to difficulties in both diagnosis and treatment. A variety of treatment options have been tried with varying success. Surgery is associated with significant recurrence, particularly in HIV-positive patients. Non surgical approaches with imiquimod, photodynamic therapy and vaccination are appealing, and further work is required. Long-term follow-up of these patients is essential until the natural history of AIN becomes clearer. Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

A novel educational strategy to enhance internal medicine residents' familial colorectal cancer knowledge and risk assessment skills.
Schroy PC 3rd, Glick JT, Geller AC, Jackson A, Heeren T, Prout M
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Mar;100(3):677-84.

BACKGROUND: Internal medicine residents are deficient in their knowledge about familial colorectal cancer (CRC) and thus unable to comply with appropriate screening guidelines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mixed educational program that incorporates both a didactic lecture (DL) and interactive, case-based seminar (ICBS), plus distribution of a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based risk assessment tool. METHODS: Internal medicine resident continuity care teams were randomly assigned to an intervention (9 teams; 43 residents) or control (11 teams; 39 residents) arm. Both groups participated in a DL addressing the current status of CRC screening for average, moderate, and high-risk groups. Intervention teams also participated in a 1-h pre-clinic ICBS that included vignettes about patients at moderate or high risk of CRC because of family history, following which they received the risk assessment tool by e-mail. Knowledge and clinical risk assessment skills were evaluated using pre/posttests, patient exit interviews, and chart audits. RESULTS: Baseline test scores were similar for both groups (intervention, 51%vs control, 54%; p= 0.35). Immediate post-ICBS scores (intervention group only) significantly increased to 82% (p < 0.001). Six-month post-ICBS scores declined for the intervention group but remained significantly higher than 6-month control group scores (63%vs 56%, p= 0.002), which were unchanged from baseline. No significant differences were observed with respect to family history-taking or documentation skills. CONCLUSION: A mixed educational program that incorporates both a DL and ICBS is more effective that the DL alone for increasing knowledge about familial CRC risk but may have limited influence on clinical risk assessment skills. (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:677-684).

Temporal trends in new diagnoses of colorectal cancer with obstruction, perforation, or emergency admission in ontario: 1993-2001.
Rabeneck L, Paszat LF, Rothwell DM, He J
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Mar;100(3):672-6.

TGF-beta Signaling in Colon Cancer Cells.
Li F, Cao Y, Townsend CM Jr, Ko TC
World J Surg 2005 Feb 22;.

Primary AL-amyloidosis, ulcerative colitis and collagenous colitis in a 57-year-old woman: a case study.
Janczewska I, Mejhert M, Hast R, Runarsson G, Sandstedt B
Scand J Gastroenterol 2004 Dec;39(12):1306-9.

Higher proliferative capacity of T lymphocytes from patients with Crohn disease than from ulcerative colitis is disclosed by use of Herpesvirus saimiri-transformed T-cell lines.
Aguilera-Montilla N, Perez-Blas M, Valeri AP, Lopez-Santalla M, Rodriguez-Juan C, Mencia A, Castellano G, Manzano ML, Casis B, Sanchez F, Martin-Villa JM
Scand J Gastroenterol 2004 Dec;39(12):1236-42.

Familial risk of tumors associated with hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer: a Swedish population-based study.
Ericson K, Nilbert M, Bladstrom A, Anderson H, Olsson H, Planck M
Scand J Gastroenterol 2004 Dec;39(12):1259-65.

Higher farnesyl diphosphate synthase activity in human colorectal cancer inhibition of cellular apoptosis.
Notarnicola M, Messa C, Cavallini A, Bifulco M, Tecce MF, Eletto D, Di Leo A, Montemurro S, Laezza C, Caruso MG
Oncology 2004;67(5-6):351-8.

Determinants of Life Satisfaction in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Janke KH, Klump B, Gregor M, Meisner C, Haeuser W
Inflamm Bowel Dis 2005 Mar;11(3):272-286.
In patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), medical, sociodemographic, and psychologic "risk and protective" factors for general and health-related life satisfaction (GLS and HRLS, respectively)-defined as preference-based judgments of general and health-related quality of life-have not been studied to date. METHODS: A total of 429 of 868 (49%) outpatients (CD, n = 317; UC, n = 112) attending 3 tertiary care centers and members of the German Crohn's Disease/Ulcerative Colitis Foundation completed the sociodemographic and medical questionnaires of the German "Competence Network Inflammatory Bowel Diseases," the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the "Questions on Life Satisfaction". Disease activity was assessed by the German Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index. "Questions on Life Satisfaction" data were compared with a representative sample of the German general population. RESULTS: GLS and HRLS were reduced compared with the general German population (P < 0.005). Logistic regression showed that mental disorder was a risk factor of reduced GLS in CD [odds-ratio (OR), 2.7; P < 0.01] and UC (OR, 6.3; P < 0.02). Membership in a self-help organization offered no protection against reduced GLS in CD (OR, 0.5; P < 0.02). In CD, psychiatric (OR, 10.4; P < 0.01) and medical comorbidity (OR, 2.0; P < 0.02) and disease activity (OR, 4.0; P < 0.01) were risk factors of reduced HRLS, whereas in UC, only disease activity (OR, 6.6; P < 0.01) predicted reduced HRLS. CONCLUSIONS: To improve GLS and HRLS in inflammatory bowel disease, both the treatment of bowel disease and medical and psychiatric comorbidity are necessary. Strengthening of social support is an additional way to promote GLS.

Altered intestinal motility in leptin-deficient obese mice(1).
Kiely JM, Noh JH, Graewin SJ, Pitt HA, Swartz-Basile DA
J Surg Res 2005 Mar;124(1):98-103.
INTRODUCTION: Leptin is produced by adipocytes and causes satiety by regulating hypothalamic neurotransmission and energy expenditure. Leptin functions through the active long form of its receptor, which is expressed throughout the gastrointestinal tract, including the vagal neurons concerned with small intestinal motility. However, the role of leptin in small intestinal motility is poorly understood. Therefore, we hypothesized that leptin-deficient (Lep(ob)) obese mice would have altered small intestinal response to neurotransmitters and transit time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Responses of jejunal and ileal segments from lean control and leptin-deficient obese animals to acetylcholine (ACh) and cholecystokinin (CCK) were determined in an organ bath. In addition, gastric emptying was determined as the amount of gavaged liquid diet remaining in the stomach after 1 h, and intestinal transit time was determined by calculating the geometric center (GC) of passage of a fluorescent-labeled marker. RESULTS: Leptin deficiency resulted in increased jejunal responses to CCK (P < 0.05) and a similar response to ACh compared to lean controls. Also, gastric emptying (97% versus 91%, P < 0.001) in obese mice was greater. Overall small intestinal transit (GC) in obese mice was decreased (7.3 versus 8.4, P < 0.05) even though proximal transit was increased (5.3 versus 1.5, P < 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that leptin-deficient (Lep(ob)) obese mice have an increased jejunal response to CCK as well as an increased proximal intestinal transit, but an overall decrease in small intestinal transit.

Aberrations of the intrinsic innervation of the anorectum in fetal rats with anorectal malformations.
Mandhan P, Qi BQ, Beasley SW
J Pediatr Surg 2005 Feb;40(2):397-402.
Abstract Background Fecal accumulation, constipation, soiling, and incontinence are common sequelae after repair of anorectal malformations (ARMs) in children. It is believed that besides the abnormalities of sacral roots, certain inherent abnormalities of the myenteric plexuses may play an important role in the final outcome after definitive repair. Methods This study was conducted to investigate the distribution of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), and substance P (SP)-100 neurotransmitters in the rectosigmoid and fistulous tract of the ethylenethiourea-treated rat with ARMs. Results ARMs were induced by administering 1% ethylenethiourea (125 mg/kg) on gestational day 10, and the litter was harvested on gestational day 21 by cesarean section. Forty-eight controls and 63 with ARMs (46 high-type and 17 low-type) were recovered. Whole-mount preparations of each rectosigmoid and fistulous communication between the rectum and genitourinary tract were stained with fluorescent antibodies against NSE, VIP, and SP-100. The tissues were counterstained with Eriochrome black-T and methyl green dyes to improve the visualization of the myenteric plexuses. Conclusions The immunoreactivity of NSE, VIP, and SP-100 was markedly reduced in the rectum and fistulous tract of high-type ARMs and slightly reduced in low-type ARMs compared with controls. Intramural nerves stained by VIP and SP-100 antisera were decreased in both types of ARM, indicating that both inhibitory and excitatory motor neural elements were affected, and this may explain the distal colonic dysmotility seen postoperatively in both high and low ARMs.

[EUS results of malignant rectal giant condyloma acuminatum (Buschke-Loewenstein tumor)]
Strock P, Barrioz T, Lauroy J, Babin P, Mordi A, Fort E, Laurin C, Sevestre C, Silvain C
Gastroenterol Clin Biol 2004 Aug-Sep;28(8-9):801-3.
Giant condyloma acuminatum is a large, exophytic, cauliflower-like lesion that usually affects the anogenital region. Localisation in the rectum is uncommon and has a high rate of malignant transformation but does not lead to develop distant metastases. For the time, we report the endosonographic appearance of a malignant intrarectal giant condyloma acuminatum.

Granuloma formation in the different phenotypes of Crohn's disease.
Hofstaedter F
Gut 2005 Feb;54(2):180-1.

Factors determining the severity of perianal dermatitis after enterostoma closure of pediatric patients.
Tokar B, Urer S
Int J Dermatol 2005 Feb;44(2):168-9.

A national survey of primary care physicians' methods for screening for fecal occult blood.
Nadel MR, Shapiro JA, Klabunde CN, Seeff LC, Uhler R, Smith RA, Ransohoff DF
Ann Intern Med 2005 Jan 18;142(2):86-94.
BACKGROUND: Screening with the fecal occult blood test (FOBT) has been shown to reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in randomized, controlled trials. Although the test is simple, implementation requires adherence to specific techniques of testing and follow-up of abnormal results. OBJECTIVE: To examine how FOBT and follow-up are conducted in community practice across the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional national surveys of primary care physicians and the public. SETTING: The Survey of Colorectal Cancer Screening Practices in Health Care Organizations and the 2000 National Health Interview Survey. PARTICIPANTS: 1147 primary care physicians who ordered or performed FOBT and 11 365 adults 50 years of age or older who responded to questions about FOBT use. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported data on details of FOBT implementation and follow-up of positive results. RESULTS: Although screening guidelines recommend home tests, 32.5% (95% CI, 29.8% to 35.3%) of physicians used only the less accurate method of single-sample in-office testing; another 41.2% (CI, 38.3% to 44.0%) used both types of test. Follow-up of positive test results showed considerable nonadherence to guidelines, with 29.7% (CI, 27.1% to 32.4%) of physicians recommending repeating FOBT. Furthermore, sigmoidoscopy, rather than total colon examination, was commonly recommended to work up abnormal findings. Nearly one third of adults who reported having FOBT said they had only an in-office test, and nearly one third of those who reported abnormal FOBT results reported no follow-up diagnostic procedures. Limitations: The study was based on self-reports. Data from the National Health Interview Survey may underestimate the prevalence of in-office testing and inadequate follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality reductions demonstrated with FOBT in clinical trials may not be realized in community practice because of the common use of in-office tests and inappropriate follow-up of positive results. Education of providers and system-level interventions are needed to improve the quality of screening implementation.

Accuracy of screening for fecal occult blood on a single stool sample obtained by digital rectal examination: a comparison with recommended sampling practice.
Collins JF, Lieberman DA, Durbin TE, Weiss DG
Ann Intern Med 2005 Jan 18;142(2):81-5.
BACKGROUND: Many expert panels recommend colorectal cancer screening for average-risk asymptomatic individuals older than 50 years of age. Recent studies have found that 24% to 64% of primary care providers use only the digital fecal occult blood test (FOBT) as their primary screening test. The effectiveness of a single digital FOBT is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital FOBT and the recommended 6-sample at-home FOBT for advanced neoplasia in asymptomatic persons. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 13 Veterans Affairs medical centers. PATIENTS: 3121 asymptomatic patients 50 to 75 years of age. INTERVENTION: 2665 patients had 6-sample at-home FOBT and digital FOBT, followed by complete colonoscopy. MEASUREMENTS: We measured the sensitivity of digital and 6-sample FOBT for advanced neoplasia and the specificity for no neoplasia. We calculated predictive values and likelihood ratios for advanced neoplasia, defined as tubular adenomas 10 mm or greater, adenomas with villous histology or high-grade dysplasia, or invasive cancer. RESULTS: Of all participants, 96.8% were men; their average age was 63.1 years. The 6-sample FOBT and the single digital FOBT had specificities of 93.9% and 97.5%, respectively, as defined by studying 1656 patients with no neoplasia. Sensitivities for detection of advanced neoplasia in 284 patients were 23.9% for the 6-sample FOBT and 4.9% for the digital FOBT. The likelihood ratio for advanced neoplasia was 1.68 (95% CI, 0.96 to 2.94) for positive results on digital FOBT and 0.98 (CI, 0.95 to 1.01) for negative results. LIMITATIONS: Most patients were men. CONCLUSIONS: Single digital FOBT is a poor screening method for colorectal neoplasia and cannot be recommended as the only test. When digital FOBT is performed as part of a primary care physical examination, negative results do not decrease the odds of advanced neoplasia. Persons with these results should be offered at-home 6-sample FOBT or another type of screening test.

Pseudomembranous colitis in children.
Brook I
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Feb;20(2):182-6.
Abstract This review presents the microbiology, management and prevention of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in children. PMC is commonly associated with prior antibiotic exposure and hospitalization. It is caused almost exclusively by toxins produced by Clostridium difficile. The clinical spectrum of this disease may range from a mild, non-specific diarrhea to severe colitis with toxic megacolon, perforation, and death. PMC may affect all age groups, although a lower incidence has been noted in children. Ampicillin, amoxicillin, the second- and third-generation cephalosporins and clindamycin are the drugs most frequently associated with development of PMC, although nearly all antimicrobials have been implicated as causes of diarrhea and colitis. Discontinuation of antibiotics and supportive therapy usually lead to resolution of this disorder. Administration of oral vancomycin or other therapeutic regimens may be needed.

Role of aberrant crypt foci detected using high-magnification-chromoscopic colonoscopy in human colorectal carcinogenesis.
Hurlstone DP, Cross SS
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Feb;20(2):173-81.
Abstract Liaison between gastrointestinal endoscopists and histopathologists is essential to provide the highest standards of diagnostic accuracy and patient management. The histopathologist needs to be aware of the endoscopic findings when interpreting endoscopic biopsies. High-magnification-chromoscopic-colonoscopy (HMCC) is a new technology that provides the endoscopists with much greater resolution and functional staining of the gastrointestinal tract. Using HMCC, the endoscopist is now able to identify subtle changes in the colorectal luminal openings or crypts. Changes in crypt appearances now allow detection of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon, which might themselves be precancerous lesions but additionally might serve as a valid biomarker of subsequent adenoma and colorectal cancer formation. This article describes the role of the aberrant crypt focus in colorectal carcinogenesis and discusses the clinical impact of HMCC techniques as applicable to ACF.

Allelic variations of the multidrug resistance gene determine susceptibility and disease behavior in ulcerative colitis.
Ho GT, Nimmo ER, Tenesa A, Fennell J, Drummond H, Mowat C, Arnott ID, Satsangi J
Gastroenterology 2005 Feb;128(2):288-96.

Background & Aims: The MDR1 gene encodes P-glycoprotein 170, an efflux transporter that is highly expressed in intestinal epithelial cells. The MDR1 exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) C3435T and G2677T have been shown to correlate with activity/expression of P-glycoprotein 170. Methods: This was a case-control analysis of MDR1 C3435T and G2677T SNPs in a large well-characterized Scottish white cohort (335 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 268 with Crohn's disease [CD], and 370 healthy controls). We conducted 2-locus haplotype and detailed univariate and multivariate genotypic-phenotypic analyses. Results: The MDR1 3435 TT genotype (34.6% vs 26.5%; P = .04; odds ratio [OR], 1.60; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.04-2.44) and T-allelic frequencies (58.2% vs 52.8%; P = .02; OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.03-1.58) were significantly higher in patients with UC compared with controls. No association was seen with CD. The association was strongest with extensive UC (TT genotype: 42.4% vs 26.5%; P = .003; OR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.34-4.99; and T allele: 63.9% vs 52.8%; P = .009; OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.24-2.29), and this was also confirmed on multivariate analysis ( P = .007). The G2677T SNP was not associated with UC or CD. These 2 SNPs lie in linkage disequilibrium in our population (D', .8-.9; r 2 , .7-.8). Two-locus haplotypes showed both positive (3435T/G2677 haplotype: P = .03; OR, 1.44) and negative (C3435/2677T haplotype: P = .002; OR, .35) associations with UC. Homozygotes for the haplotype 3435T/G2677 were significantly increased in UC ( P = .017; OR, 8.88; 95% CI, 1.10-71.45). Conclusions: Allelic variations of the MDR1 gene determine disease extent as well as susceptibility to UC in the Scottish population. The present data strongly implicate the C3435T SNP, although the 2-locus haplotype data underline the need for further detailed haplotypic studies.

Screening behavior of individuals at high risk for colorectal cancer.
Bleiker EM, Menko FH, Taal BG, Kluijt I, Wever LD, Gerritsma MA, Vasen HF, Aaronson NK
Gastroenterology 2005 Feb;128(2):280-7.

Background & Aims: Periodic colonoscopy is an effective means of reducing the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer in individuals with a family history of the disease. The aims of this study were to determine the degree of compliance and to identify the factors related significantly to noncompliance with periodic screening in this high-risk population. Methods: A total of 178 individuals who had undergone genetic counseling for colorectal cancer between 1986 and 1998 and who had been advised to undergo periodic screening because of familial colorectal cancer (FCRC) or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) were invited to complete a self-report questionnaire on psychosocial issues and screening experiences. Compliance data were derived from medical records and via self-report. Results: A total of 149 individuals (84%) participated in the study. Noncompliance with screening advice was rare (in 3% of cases), but significant delays (more than 1 year) in undergoing screening were observed in approximately 25% of the cases. The number of perceived barriers to screening (eg, discomfort, embarrassment) was the only variable related significantly to noncompliance/screening delay (odds ratio, 1.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-1.3). Use of sedatives during the procedure and receipt of a reminder letter seemed to facilitate better compliance. Conclusions: Although few high-risk individuals abstain from screening entirely, approximately one in 4 deviates significantly from the recommended frequency of screening. Increased compliance may be achieved by reducing the discomfort and embarrassment associated with the procedure and by the use of reminder letters.

Synbiotic therapy (Bifidobacterium longum/Synergy 1) initiates resolution of inflammation in patients with active ulcerative colitis: a randomised controlled pilot trial.
Furrie E, Macfarlane S, Kennedy A, Cummings JH, Walsh SV, O'neil DA, Macfarlane GT
Gut 2005 Feb;54(2):242-9.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an acute and chronic inflammatory disease of the large bowel with unknown aetiology. The immune response against normal commensal microorganisms is believed to drive inflammatory processes associated with UC. Therefore, modulation of bacterial communities on the gut mucosa, through the use of probiotics and prebiotics, may be used to modify the disease state. METHODS: A synbiotic was developed for use in UC patients combining a probiotic, Bifidobacterium longum, isolated from healthy rectal epithelium, and a prebiotic (Synergy 1), a preferential inulin-oligofructose growth substrate for the probiotic strain. Treatment was employed in a double blinded randomised controlled trial using 18 patients with active UC for a period of one month. Clinical status was scored and rectal biopsies were collected before and after treatment, and transcription levels of epithelium related immune markers were measured. RESULTS: Sigmoidoscopy scores (scale 0-6) were reduced in the test group (start 4.5 (1.4), end 3.1 (2.5)) compared with placebo (start 2.6 (2.1), end 3.2 (2.2)) (p=0.06). mRNA levels for human beta defensins 2, 3, and 4, which are strongly upregulated in active UC, were significantly reduced in the test group after treatment (p=0.016, 0.038, and 0.008, respectively). Tumour necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 1alpha, which are inflammatory cytokines that drive inflammation and induce defensin expression, were also significantly reduced after treatment (p=0.018 and 0.023, respectively). Biopsies in the test group had reduced inflammation and regeneration of epithelial tissue. CONCLUSIONS: Short term synbiotic treatment of active UC resulted in improvement of the full clinical appearance of chronic inflammation in patients receiving this therapy.

Impact of the increasing use of immunosuppressants in Crohn's disease on the need for intestinal surgery.
Cosnes J, Nion-Larmurier I, Beaugerie L, Afchain P, Tiret E, Gendre JP
Gut 2005 Feb;54(2):237-41.

BACKGROUND/AIM: Immunosuppressants are now used much earlier in the course of Crohn's disease; however their effect on the natural history of the disease, especially on the need for surgery, is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of the need for surgery in Crohn's disease during the last 25 years. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The medical charts of 2573 patients were reviewed retrospectively. The use of immunosuppressants (azathioprine or methotrexate), the need for intestinal resection, and the occurrence of intestinal complications were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis in five consecutive cohorts of patients defined by the date of diagnosis of Crohn's disease (1978-82; 1983-87; 1988-92; 1993-97; 1998-2002). RESULTS: In 565 patients seen in the authors' unit within the first three months after diagnosis, characteristics of Crohn's disease at diagnosis did not differ from one cohort to another. The five year cumulative probability to receive immunosuppressants increased from 0 in the 1978-82 cohort to 0.13, 0.25, 0.25, and 0.56 in the 1983-87, 1988-92, 1993-97, and 1998-2002 cohorts, respectively (p<0.001). Concomitantly, the cumulative risk of intestinal resection remained unchanged (from 0.35 to 0.34 at five years; p=0.81). The cumulative risk of developing a stricturing or a penetrating intestinal complication remained also unchanged. Similar results were obtained in the 2008 patients seen during the same period who were referred to us more than three months after diagnosis. CONCLUSION: Although immunosuppressants have been used more frequently over the last 25 years, there was no significant decrease of the need for surgery, or of intestinal complications of Crohn's disease.

Frequency and significance of granulomas in a cohort of incident cases of Crohn's disease.
Heresbach D, Alexandre JL, Branger B, Bretagne JF, Cruchant E, Dabadie A, Dartois-Hoguin M, Girardot PM, Jouanolle H, Kerneis J, Le Verger JC, Louvain V, Politis J, Richecoeur M, Robaszkiewicz M, Seyrig JA l'Appareil Digestif).

Gut 2005 Feb;54(2):215-22.
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Epithelioid granulomas is one of the best histological criterion for distinguishing Crohn's disease (CD) from other inflammatory bowel diseases. Few data are available on the time of occurrence of epithelioid granulomas, and the value of epithelioid granulomas in predicting outcome has been determined only in cohorts of prevalent CD cases. Our objective was to evaluate epithelioid granuloma occurrence in incident CD cases and to examine the associations between epithelioid granulomas and outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the histological reports of endoscopic and surgical specimens in a cohort of 188 consecutive incident CD cases seen in 1994 and 1995, and recorded the occurrence of epithelioid granulomas, isolated giant cells, and microgranulomas. Kaplan-Meier curves were plotted for time from CD diagnosis to immunosuppressive treatment or surgery, and associations between epithelioid granulomas and outcome were evaluated in a multivariate analysis. Follow up was at least five years. RESULTS: Granulomas were found in 69 (37%) patients, including 46 (25%) at presentation. Median time from CD diagnosis to epithelioid granuloma detection was 0.16 (0-63) months overall, and 9.59 (0.1-63) months in 23 patients who became epithelioid granuloma positive during follow up. Isolated giant cells were found in 6% of patients and microgranulomas in 12%. Epithelioid granuloma detection increased with the number of endoscopic sampling procedures; sampling site had no influence. By multivariate analysis, epithelioid granulomas were associated with surgical resection but not immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelioid granulomas may separate CD into two pathological subsets and may indicate aggressive disease.

Transabdominal repair of prolapsed pelvic ileal J-pouch after restorative proctocolectomy.
Funayama Y, Fukushima K, Shibata C, Takahashi KI, Sasaki I
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Jan 19;.

Ileostomy-site adenocarcinoma after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis.
Azem J, Lopez-Cano M, Ponseti JM, Espin E, Sanchez JL, Armengol M
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Jan 14;.

Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer.
Chao A, Thun MJ, Connell CJ, McCullough ML, Jacobs EJ, Flanders WD, Rodriguez C, Sinha R, Calle EE
JAMA 2005 Jan 12;293(2):172-82.

CONTEXT: Consumption of red and processed meat has been associated with colorectal cancer in many but not all epidemiological studies; few studies have examined risk in relation to long-term meat intake or the association of meat with rectal cancer. OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between recent and long-term meat consumption and the risk of incident colon and rectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A cohort of 148 610 adults aged 50 to 74 years (median, 63 years), residing in 21 states with population-based cancer registries, who provided information on meat consumption in 1982 and again in 1992/1993 when enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS II) Nutrition Cohort. Follow-up from time of enrollment in 1992/1993 through August 31, 2001, identified 1667 incident colorectal cancers. Participants contributed person-years at risk until death or a diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Incidence rate ratio (RR) of colon and rectal cancer. RESULTS: High intake of red and processed meat reported in 1992/1993 was associated with higher risk of colon cancer after adjusting for age and energy intake but not after further adjustment for body mass index, cigarette smoking, and other covariates. When long-term consumption was considered, persons in the highest tertile of consumption in both 1982 and 1992/1993 had higher risk of distal colon cancer associated with processed meat (RR, 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.17), and ratio of red meat to poultry and fish (RR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.08-2.18) relative to those persons in the lowest tertile at both time points. Long-term consumption of poultry and fish was inversely associated with risk of both proximal and distal colon cancer. High consumption of red meat reported in 1992/1993 was associated with higher risk of rectal cancer (RR, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.15-2.52; P = .007 for trend), as was high consumption reported in both 1982 and 1992/1993 (RR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.00-2.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate the potential value of examining long-term meat consumption in assessing cancer risk and strengthen the evidence that prolonged high consumption of red and processed meat may increase the risk of cancer in the distal portion of the large intestine.

Differential expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in keratinizing versus non-keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma of the anus.
Allal AS, Brundler MA, Gervaz P
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Mar;20(2):161-4. Epub 2004 Oct 02.

BACKGROUND: Histologically, tumors of the anal region are either keratinizing (K) or non-keratinizing (NK) squamous cell carcinomas (SCCA). We hypothesized that these two variants might represent, not only morphologically, but also biologically, dissimilar malignancies. The present study was undertaken to compare the expression of apoptosis-regulating proteins Bcl-2 and p53 in K versus NK SCCA.METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical analysis on 98 pre-treatment biopsies of patients with anal canal cancers. Tissue sections were examined immunohistochemically for expression of proteins Bcl-2 (clone 124, DAKO, 1:100) and p53 (clone DO7, DAKO, 1:200). Expression of p53 and Bcl-2 was considered positive when >5% of tumor cells were stained. Tumor histology was correlated with protein expression as well as with other clinical variables.RESULTS: There were 64 NK and 34 K SCC. The proportion of Bcl-2 positive tumors was statistically higher in NK carcinomas (51.5 vs. 23.5%, p=0.009). In addition, women were more likely than men to present with NK carcinomas (71 vs. 45%, p=0.03) as well as with Bcl-2 positive tumors (47 vs. 29%, p=0.05). The more distal the tumor is (anal margin), the more frequently the keratinizing subtype is observed (87 vs. 23%, p=0.0002). By contrast, there was no correlation between p53 and tumor histology (p=0.83).CONCLUSIONS: Our data demonstrate that non-keratinizing and keratinizing SCCA differ in their Bcl-2 expression. In addition, significant differences were observed in the distribution of these two histological subtypes according to gender and tumor sublocation. These findings may indicate possible differences in the carcinogenesis process of these two histological subtypes.

Inflammatory bowel disease.
Herfarth H, Rogler G
Endoscopy 2005 Jan;37(1):42-7.

This review summarizes important publications that have appeared during the last year dealing with imaging techniques and endoscopy, as well as the management of low-grade dysplasia and stenosis in inflammatory bowel disease. Magnetic resonance enteroclysis and capsule endoscopy are currently emerging as new imaging techniques for the small bowel in Crohn's disease. While magnetic resonance enteroclysis is, at least in Europe, increasingly being used as a reference method, the value of capsule endoscopy for the management of inflammatory bowel disease is still being evaluated. Chromoendoscopy is being studied in patients with long-lasting ulcerative colitis and may be a promising and sensitive technique for the diagnosis of dysplasia. However, there are conflicting data regarding the appropriate management when low-grade dysplasia is diagnosed in patients with ulcerative colitis. Endoscopic dilation can often be successfully carried out in cases of intestinal stenosis. The results of long-term follow-up studies indicate that several dilation procedures are often necessary and that a relatively high percentage of patients still have to undergo surgery.

Perineal resection of a sigmoid tumour presenting as colorectoanal intussusception: report of a case and review of the literature.
Lambrou NA, Dunn WK, Robinson MH
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Feb 8;.

Converging patterns of colorectal cancer mortality in Europe.
Fernandez E, Vecchia CL, Gonzalez JR, Lucchini F, Negri E, Levi F
Eur J Cancer 2005 Feb;41(3):430-437.

Trends in mortality rates from colorectal cancer during the second half of the 20th century were analysed for 21 European countries and grouped in three broad European regions. For each gender, age-standardised (world standard population) mortality rates were computed by the direct method, and joinpoint analysis was used to identify significant changes in rates. A favourable pattern in colorectal cancer mortality for both genders was observed in most European countries from the 1990s onwards. Colorectal cancer mortality rates were still in the upward direction in some Eastern European countries, as well as in some Mediterranean countries. Mortality rates tended to converge at around 20/100000 in men and around 11/100000 in women. This converging pattern is even clearer when colorectal mortality rates are examined in three broad European regions. Similar mortality rates over recent calendar years have been reached by countries where mortality has been decreasing in recent decades and in those countries (mainly Eastern European and Mediterranean countries) which have experienced a recent levelling-off and decrease. If recent trends are maintained, colorectal cancer mortality is likely to decline further in Europe in the current decade.

Colorectal cancer risk after colonoscopic polypectomy: a population-based study and literature search.
Loeve F, van Ballegooijen M, Snel P, Habbema JD
Eur J Cancer 2005 Feb;41(3):416-22.

Adenoma patients are considered to be at an elevated risk for colorectal cancer, even after their adenomas have been removed. The aim of this study was to estimate the colorectal cancer risk after colonoscopic polypectomy compared with age- and gender-matched general population controls. Colorectal cancer incidence was studied in 553 consecutive patients without cancer whose adenomas were colonoscopically removed in the endoscopy department of a general hospital. The colorectal cancer relative risk in these patients was 0.9 (0.3-2.0). A literature search was performed to identify all published studies on relative colorectal cancer risk after polypectomy. The relative risk estimates in seven other studies ranged from 0.2 (0.1-0.6) to 1.3 (0.6-2.3). The difference can, be explained partially by the inclusion or exclusion of patients with large sessile polyps and other factors. Our review shows that colorectal cancer risk after colonoscopic polypectomy does not exceed the risk in the general population.

Free colorectal cancer cells on the peritoneal surface: correlation with pathologic variables and survival.
Baskaranathan S, Philips J, McCredden P, Solomon MJ
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2076-9.

BACKGROUND: Clinicopathologic staging of colorectal cancer remains the best predictor of survival. Prognostication for an individual with colorectal cancer remains elusive. This study was designed to investigate the incidence of free surface colorectal cancer cells detected by cytology during elective open curative resection, to correlate their presence with particular clinicopathologic variables and determine whether their presence was predictive of cancer-specific survival. METHODS: Over a six-year period in one institution, all elective colon and intraperitoneal rectal cancer specimens were assessed during primary resection for the presence of free colorectal cancer cells by means of a simple and tested specimen imprint cytology methodology. Clinicopathologic variables were assessed prospectively and blinded to cytology results. All patients were followed up routinely until death and if the patient was not seen within the last six months, information was obtained from the New South Wales Registry of Births, Deaths and Marriages in Australia. RESULTS: Overall, 26 of 281 (9.25 percent) colorectal cancers had positive cytology for cancer cells on the peritoneal surface of the bowel. Poorly differentiated tumors were significantly associated with positive cytology. Tumor penetration, presence of vascular or neural invasion, mucinous characteristics, lymph node status, and operative procedure performed were not statistically significant predictors of positive cytology. Overall, 43 of the 281 patients (15.3 percent) died during the mean follow-up period of 49.2 months from cancer-related deaths. Of these patients, 8 had positive cytology and 35 had negative cytology results. Cancer-specific survival assessed with the log-rank test was significantly associated with positive cytology in univariate (P = 0.008) and multivariate analysis (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, the presence of free surface colorectal cancer cells has been shown to be predictive of survival and is independent of direct peritoneal invasion and lymph node status. Thus, further assessment of this simple prognostic variable is warranted and selection of patients with positive cytology for possible adjuvant therapies may be beneficial.

Review of survival curves for colorectal cancer.
Platell CF, Semmens JB
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2070-5.

PURPOSE: Actuarial and Product Limited (i.e., Kaplan-Meier) estimates of survival are commonly used in the literature to describe outcomes in patients treated for cancer. Terms such as cancer-specific and cancer-free survival are frequently quoted, although often without clear definitions. This study was designed to compare survival estimates using the Kaplan-Meier method on the same population of patients but using different definitions of what constitutes an event. This was to highlight some of the variation that can occur when different techniques are used to perform these calculations. METHODS: Data were obtained from a prospective database that had recorded all patients presenting with colorectal cancer from 1996 to 2002. Using this information, we calculated the 1) overall (all-cause mortality), 2) cancer-specific, 3) cancer-free, 4) recurrence-free, and 5) relative survival (and 95 percent confidence intervals) at five years postpresentation. RESULTS: The study included 497 patients with a mean age of 68 years, and a male-to-female ratio of 1.3:1. They were followed for a mean of 2.2 years (standard deviation, +/-1.1), with 50 patients (10.1 percent) followed for more than five years. The various survivals at five years were: 1) overall survival, 55.6 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 49.1-62.1 percent), 2) cancer-specific survival, 67 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 60.9-73.1 percent), 3) cancer-free survival, 49.9 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 43.6-56.2 percent), 4) recurrence-free survival, 43.5 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 37.2-49.8 percent), and 5) relative survival, 73.4 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 65.4-81.4 percent). CONCLUSIONS: The five-year survival calculations for this group of patients with colorectal cancer varied by as much as 30 percent depending on how the data was censored. This highlights that there needs to be a clear and accountable definition on how survival curves are calculated and presented in the literature to allow for meaningful interpretation and comparisons.

Are survival rates different for young and older patients with rectal cancer?
O'Connell JB, Maggard MA, Liu JH, Etzioni DA, Ko CY
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2064-9.

PURPOSE: Although it is generally believed that young patients with rectal cancer have worse survival rates, no comprehensive analysis has been reported. This study uses a national-level, population-based cancer registry to compare rectal cancer outcomes between young vs. older populations. METHODS: All patients with rectal carcinoma in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer database from 1991 to 1999 were evaluated. Young (range, 20-40 years; n = 466) and older groups (range, 60-80 years; n = 11,312) were compared for patient and tumor characteristics, treatment patterns, and five-year overall and stage-specific survival. Cox multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of survival. RESULTS: Mean ages for the groups were 34.1 and 70 years. The young group was comprised of more black and Hispanic patients compared with the older group (P < 0.001). Young patients were more likely to present with late-stage disease (young vs. older: Stage III, 27 vs. 20 percent respectively, P < 0.001; Stage IV, 17.4 vs. 13.6 percent respectively, P < 0.02). The younger group also had worse grade tumors (poorly differentiated 24.3 vs. 14 percent respectively, P < 0.001). Although the majority of both groups received surgery (85 percent for each), significantly more young patients received radiation (P < 0.001). Importantly, overall and stage-specific, five-year survival rates were similar for both groups (P = not significant). CONCLUSIONS: Although previous studies have found young rectal cancer patients to have poorer survival compared with older patients, this population-based study shows that young rectal cancer patients seem to have equivalent overall and stage-specific survival.

Comparison of multivisceral resection and standard operation for locally advanced colorectal cancer: analysis of prognostic factors for short-term and long-term outcome.
Nakafusa Y, Tanaka T, Tanaka M, Kitajima Y, Sato S, Miyazaki K
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2055-63.

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study is to clarify the characteristics of multivisceral resection and to discuss strategies for improving the overall outcome of multivisceral resection for locally advanced colorectal cancer. METHODS: The study included 323 patients who electively underwent curative surgery for pT3-pT4 colorectal carcinoma without distant metastasis. We evaluated the short-term and long-term outcome of multivisceral resection relative to that of the standard operation by means of multivariate analysis of the prognostic factors. RESULTS: Of 323 patients, 53 (16.4 percent) received multivisceral resection because of adhesion to other organs. Multivisceral resection was significantly associated with tumor size, depth of invasion, operative blood loss, operation time, and blood transfusion (all: P < 0.0001). Overall morbidity rates were 49.1 percent after multivisceral resection vs. 17.8 percent after the standard operation (P < 0.0001), and postoperative mortality rate was 0 percent in both groups (not significant). Only multivisceral resection (odds ratio, 2.725; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.125-6.623; P = 0.0264) was an independent factor for overall postoperative complications. The survival rate of patients after multivisceral resection was similar to that after the standard operation (5-year rate, 76.6 percent vs. 79.5 percent, P = 0.9347). Lymph node metastasis (hazard ratio, 2.510; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.460-4.315; P = 0.0009) and blood transfusion (hazard ratio, 2.353; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.185-4.651; P = 0.0145) were independently associated with patient survival. CONCLUSIONS: For locally advanced colorectal cancer, the long-term outcome after multivisceral resection is comparable to that after the standard operation. However, it should be recognized that multivisceral resection is associated with higher postoperative morbidity. In addition, a reduction in the incidence of blood transfusion may contribute to improving patient survival.

Total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy for fixed recurrent rectal cancer in the pelvis.
Moriya Y, Akasu T, Fujita S, Yamamoto S
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2047-53; discussion 2053-4.

PURPOSE: This study evaluates the effectiveness of total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy for fixed recurrent tumor that developed from primary rectal cancer. METHODS: We investigated surgical indications, techniques to minimize blood loss and reduce complications, and oncological outcomes in 57 patients who underwent total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy between 1983 and 2001. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients (84 percent) had negative margins. A comparison between two periods (1983-1992 and 1993-2001) showed that mean blood loss decreased from 4,229 to 2,500 ml (P = 0.002), indicating a favorable learning curve in minimizing blood loss. Two hospital deaths were observed in the earlier period and none in the later period. The most common sacral amputation level was the S3 superior margin, followed by the S4 inferior margin and the S2 inferior margin. The most frequent complication was sacral wound dehiscence in 51 percent, followed by pelvic sepsis in 39 percent. The incidence of pelvic sepsis in the later period was significantly decreased to 23 percent, compared with 72 percent in the earlier period (P = 0.046). Multivariate analysis showed that negative margins and negative carcinoembryonic antigen predicted improved survival. In 48 patients with negative margins, three-year and five-year disease-specific survival rates were 62 percent and 42 percent, respectively. CONCLUSION: Strict patient selection makes total pelvic exenteration with distal sacrectomy a feasible radical approach for fixed recurrent tumor. Careful performance of this surgical procedure along with the proper steps to decrease blood loss should achieve a favorable learning curve and low rate of surgical complications.

Outcome of salvage abdominoperineal resection after failed endocavitary radiation in patients with rectal cancer.
Winslow ER, Kodner IJ, Mutch MG, Birnbaum EB, Fleshman JW, Dietz DW
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2039-46.

PURPOSE: Endocavitary radiation is a treatment option for selected patients with rectal cancer, but concern exists for the effectiveness of salvage abdominoperineal resection. This study was designed to examine outcomes after salvage abdominoperineal resection for recurrence after endocavitary radiation. METHODS: A prospective database was used to identify patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection after endocavitary radiation from 1985 to 2001. Office records and a tumor registry were used for disease status and survival data. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method and groups compared using the Mantel-Haenszel test. RESULTS: Thirty-eight patients underwent salvage abdominoperineal resection. The mean time to recurrence after completion of endocavitary radiation was 21 +/- 27 months, with 29 percent having persistent disease, 63 percent recurrent disease, and 8 percent a second primary. At abdominoperineal resection, 47 percent had tumor transection, specimen perforation, or injury to the genitourinary or gynecologic tract. Nine patients (24 percent) had positive radial margins. The mean time to perineal wound healing was 56 +/- 74.1 days postoperatively, with 36.8 percent taking more than 60 days. Seventeen patients (45 percent) re-recurred at a mean of 21 +/- 25 months after salvage, with a local control rate of 26 percent at 45 +/- 37 months of follow-up. Median disease-specific survival from completion of endocavitary radiation was 115.5 months, with a five-year, disease-specific survival rate of 66 percent. Patients with recurrent disease after endocavitary radiation had significantly (P = 0.025) better disease-specific survival than those with persistent disease (median survival 115 vs. 25 months). CONCLUSIONS: Although technically difficult and associated with a high morbidity, abdominoperineal resection can salvage a significant fraction (55 percent) of patients failing endocavitary radiation. A high index of suspicion for recurrence and a tenacious approach to its diagnosis are essential for optimal outcomes.

The efficacy of a nerve stimulator (CaverMap) to enhance autonomic nerve identification and confirm nerve preservation during total mesorectal excision.
da Silva GM, Zmora O, Borjesson L, Mizhari N, Daniel N, Khandwala F, Efron J, Weiss EG, Nogueras JJ, Vernava AM 3rd, Wexner SD
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2032-8.

PURPOSE: Sexual dysfunction after total mesorectal excision may be caused by injury to the autonomic nerves. During surgery, nerve identification is not always achieved, and, to date, there has been no method to objectively confirm nerve preservation. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a nerve-stimulating device (CaverMap) to assist in the intraoperative identification of the autonomic nerves during total mesorectal excision, and objectively confirm nerve preservation after proctectomy is completed. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sexually active consecutive male patients undergoing total mesorectal excision were prospectively enrolled in this study. During pelvic dissection, the surgeon attempted to localize the hypogastric and cavernous nerves. CaverMap was used to confirm these findings and to facilitate the identification in cases of uncertainty. At the completion of proctectomy, the nerves were restimulated to ensure preservation. Factors that could affect the surgeon's ability to localize the nerves and CaverMap to confirm this were evaluated. RESULTS: Twenty-nine male patients with a median age of 58 years were enrolled in this study. An attempt to visualize the hypogastric nerves during dissection was made in 26 patients; the surgeon was able to identify the nerves in 19 (73 percent) patients. CaverMap successfully identified the nerves in six of the seven remaining patients, and failed to identify them in only one case. An attempt to localize the cavernous nerves during dissection was made in 13 patients, of which localization was successful in 8 (61.5 percent) patients. CaverMap improved the identification rate in four of the remaining five patients. After proctectomy, CaverMap successfully confirmed the preservation of both hypogastric and cavernous nerves in 27 of 29 (93 percent) patients. A history of previous surgery statistically correlated with failure to identify the hypogastric nerves by the surgeon (P = 0.005). There were no adverse events related to use of the device. CONCLUSION: CaverMap may be a useful tool to facilitate identification of the pelvic autonomic nerves during total mesorectal excision and to objectively confirm nerve preservation.

Preoperative chemoradiotherapy and total mesorectal excision surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer: correlation with rectal cancer regression grade.
Wheeler JM, Dodds E, Warren BF, Cunningham C, George BD, Jones AC, Mortensen NJ
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2025-31.

PURPOSE: Preoperative long-course chemoradiotherapy is recommended for rectal carcinoma when there is concern that surgery alone may not be curative. Downstaging of the tumor can be measured as rectal cancer regression grade (1-3) and may be of importance when estimating the prognosis. The aim of this study was to look at the long-term results of tumor regression in patients receiving long-course chemotherapy before surgical resection of rectal cancer. METHODS: We reviewed those patients who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection for carcinoma of the mid rectum or distal rectum found to be stage T3/4 between January 1995 and November 1999. Patients received 45 to 50 Gy irradiation in 2-Gy fractions and an infusion of 5-fluorouracil. Surgical specimens were assessed for rectal cancer regression grade. Patients were followed up routinely with clinical examination, computed tomography, and colonoscopy. RESULTS: Sixty-five patients with a mean age 65 (range, 32-83) years underwent chemoradiotherapy before surgical resection. Thirty patients (46 percent) were classified as rectal cancer regression Grade 1, with 9 patients (14 percent) having complete sterilization of the tumor. Fifty-three patients (82 percent) underwent a curative resection. Overall survival, with a median follow-up of 39 (range, 24-83) months, was 67 percent and was associated with tumor downstaging. The local recurrence rate was 5.8 percent in those patients who underwent a curative resection and was significantly lower with rectal cancer regression Grade 1 tumors (P = 0.03). Eight of nine patients (89 percent) whose tumor had been sterilized were alive and well with no recurrence of tumor at a median follow-up of 41 (range, 24-70) months. CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative chemoradiotherapy resulted in significant regression of tumor. Overall survival was high and was associated with downstaging of tumor. The local recurrence rate was significantly lower with rectal cancer regression Grade 1 tumors and was not seen in patients with sterilized tumors.

Assessment of operative risk in colorectal cancer surgery: the Cleveland Clinic Foundation colorectal cancer model.
Fazio VW, Tekkis PP, Remzi F, Lavery IC
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2015-24.

INTRODUCTION: Predictive models play a pivotal role in the provision of risk-adjusted, operative mortality rates. The purpose of the study was to describe the development of a dedicated prognostic index for quantifying operative risk in colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Data were collected from 5,034 consecutive patients undergoing major surgery in a single center from October 1976 to July 2002. Primary end point was 30-day operative mortality. A multilevel Bayesian logistic regression model was developed to adjust for case-mix and accommodate the variability of outcomes between surgeons. The model was internally validated (split-sample) and tested using measures of discrimination, calibration, and subgroup analysis. RESULTS: The patients' median age was 66 (range, 18-98) years. Operative mortality was 2.3 percent with no significant variability between surgeons or through time. Multivariate analysis identified the following independent risk factors: age (odds ratio = 1.5 per 10-year increase), American Society of Anesthesiologists grade (odds ratio for ASA II, III, IV-V vs. I = 2.6, 4.3, 6.8), TNM staging (odds ratio for Stage IV vs. I-III = 2.6), mode of surgery (odds ratio for urgent vs. nonurgent = 2.1) no-cancer resection vs. cancer resection (odds ratio = 4.5), and hematocrit level. The model offered adequate discrimination (area under receiver operator characteristic curve = 0.801) and excellent agreement between observed and model-predicted outcomes over ten major colorectal procedures (P = 0.191). CONCLUSIONS: The colorectal cancer model provided an accurate means of estimating risk for individual patients in the preoperative setting. It has important implications in everyday practice, because it may be used as an adjunct in the process of informed consent and for monitoring surgical performance through time.

Health-related quality of life and pouch function in continent ileostomy patients: a 30-year perspective.
Berndtsson IE, Lindholm E, Oresland T, Hulten L
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2131-7.

PURPOSE: The principal aim of this study was to assess long-term pouch durability and health-related quality of life in an original series of patients operated on with a continent ileostomy. PATIENTS: Data from 68 of 88 patients who had a continent ileostomy performed at Sahlgrenska University Hospital between 1967 and 1974 were analyzed. Median age at follow-up was 60 (range, 40-89) years and median follow-up was 31 (range, 29-36) years. METHODS: Patients were sent a questionnaire on pouch function along with the Short Form-36 Health Survey 2.0. A random age-matched and gender-matched sample was drawn from the Swedish national Short Form-36 Health Survey norm database to compare with the patient group. RESULTS: The majority of the patients reported good physical condition and satisfactory pouch function. Patients evacuated the pouch a median of four times every 24 hours. Twelve patients (18 percent) had leakages. Forty-four patients (65 percent) had had at least one postoperative revision to restore continence. Generally minor peristomal skin irritation occurred in seven patients (10 percent). Patients with concurrent complaints (mostly age related) reported poorer health-related quality of life. Nevertheless, 78 percent of the patients rated their overall health as good, very good, or excellent. The patients' Short Form-36 Health Survey scores were comparable to reference values. CONCLUSIONS: Although revisional operations may be needed to restore continence, continent ileostomy has a good durability. Pouch function was satisfactory and patients' satisfaction was high. Health-related quality of life levels were similar to those of the general population.

Azathioprine or ileocolic resection for steroid-dependent terminal ileal Crohn's disease? A Markov analysis.
Kennedy ED, Urbach DR, Krahn MD, Steinhart AH, Cohen Z, McLeod RS
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2120-30.

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine whether initial azathioprine therapy, followed by ileocolic resection if azathioprine fails, or initial ileocolic resection without a trial of azathioprine is the preferred treatment strategy in steroid-dependent, terminal ileal Crohn's disease. METHODS: A Markov, decision analytic model was developed to simulate a 36-month course for a patient with steroid-dependent, terminal ileal Crohn's disease who would initially take azathioprine or have ileocolic resection. Clinically important outcomes in the model included side effects and effectiveness of azathioprine and postoperative complications, mortality, and recurrence following ileocolic resection. The probabilities and utilities for these variables were derived from previously published studies. RESULTS: Initial azathioprine therapy offered a relatively small benefit of 0.45 quality-adjusted life-months over initial ileocolic resection. The model was sensitive to utility for being symptom-free on azathioprine and utility for being symptom-free postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Initial azathioprine therapy and initial ileocolic resection are both reasonable treatment strategies in this setting. The preferred treatment strategy is highly dependent on the quality of life that can be achieved with each treatment option. Therefore, individual response and symptom control with each treatment must be strongly considered in this treatment decision.

Distilled water peritoneal lavage after colorectal cancer surgery.
Huguet EL, Keeling NJ
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2114-9.

PURPOSE: Tumor cells exfoliated into the peritoneal cavity during colorectal cancer surgery are viable and tumorigenic and may contribute to peritoneal recurrence. Although commonly used, the tumoricidal effectiveness of antiseptics in peritoneal lavage is doubted because of their chemical alteration by peritoneal secretions. In contrast, osmotic lysis by incubation in distilled water may offer an effective tumoricidal activity. Data defining the susceptibility of colorectal carcinoma cells to osmotic lysis are lacking and hence there is no consensus on optimal lavage methodology. METHODS: We examined the cytocidal activity of water on colorectal cancer cell lines in culture and determined the effect of peritoneal secretions in vivo on the tumoricidal effectiveness of water. RESULTS: Incubation of cells in distilled water resulted in cell lysis, with 100 percent lysis achieved after 14 minutes of incubation. In vivo, contamination of lavage water by peritoneal secretions produced a resultant solution with an osmolality of 50 mM. Sequential lavages reduced this contamination, enabling a final resultant solution with an osmolality of 10 mM, which produced 100 percent cell lysis after 32 minutes of incubation. CONCLUSIONS: Current peritoneal lavage methodology is inadequate because complete cell lysis requires water incubation for longer time periods than is currently practiced. Solutions to this problem are discussed.

Hyperplastic polyposis and the risk of colorectal cancer.
Hyman NH, Anderson P, Blasyk H
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2101-4.

PURPOSE: Hyperplastic polyps are usually considered to be an innocent finding with little or no potential to progress to colorectal cancer. However, recent literature suggests that some of these polyps may be morphologically and genetically distinct and lead to microsatellite unstable colorectal cancers. The purpose of this study was to define the cancer risk associated with hyperplastic polyposis. METHODS: All patients with hyperplastic polyposis diagnosed by a single colorectal surgeon at a university hospital were followed prospectively. The diagnosis of hyperplastic polyposis was made by the presence of more than 20 hyperplastic polyps distributed throughout the colon and/or a hyperplastic polyp at least 1 cm in size in diameter in the right colon. Patient demographics, family history, size, location, and distribution of polyps and the development of colorectal cancer were noted. RESULTS: Thirteen patients who met the criteria for hyperplastic polyposis were identified and followed prospectively. All of these patients had at least 30 polyps distributed throughout the colon, often > 100. Nine of 13 also had a hyperplastic polyp at least 1 cm in size, usually in the right colon. Of particular note, 7 of 13 patients (54 percent) were diagnosed with colorectal cancer during the study period. Four had cancer on initial diagnosis and three patients developed cancer despite frequent colonoscopic surveillance. Five of seven colorectal cancers were located in the right colon. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with hyperplastic polyposis are at high risk for colorectal cancer. Failure to identify this subset of patients could have dire consequences.

Prognostic implications of hMLH1 and p53 immunohistochemical status in right-sided colon cancer.
Smyth EF, Sharma A, Sivarajasingham N, Hartley J, Monson JR, Cawkwell L
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2086-91; discussion 2091-2.

A ten-year study of penetrating injuries of the colon.
Adesanya AA, Ekanem EE
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2169-77.

BACKGROUND: Colon injury has been associated with a high risk of septic complications and mortality. We prospectively studied the pattern, management, outcome, and prognostic factors in patients who sustained penetrating colon injuries. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty patients who presented to our hospital with penetrating colon injuries over a ten-year period (1992 to 2001) were studied. RESULTS: Colon wounds were caused by gunshots in 55 (91.7 percent) patients and knife stabs in 5 (8.3 percent). There was a delay of more than 12 hours before laparotomy in 30 (50 percent) patients. Moderate or major fecal contamination of the peritoneal cavity occurred in 58 (96.7 percent) patients. The average penetrating abdominal trauma index score was 25.9 and 20 (33.3 percent) patients sustained Flint Grade 3 colon injury. Associated intra-abdominal injuries occurred in the small bowel (73.3 percent), liver (25 percent), stomach (23.3 percent), and mesentery (16.7 percent). Right colon wounds (35) were managed by primary repair in 24 (68.6 percent) patients and proximal diverting colostomy in 11 (31.4 percent), whereas left colon wounds (25) were managed by diverting colostomy in 22 (88.0 percent) patients and primary repair in 3 (12.0 percent) patients. Common complications included wound infection (56.7 percent), septicemia (31.7 percent), and enterocutaneous fistula (16.7 percent). The overall mortality rate was 33.3 percent and colon injury-related mortality was 21.7 percent. Presence of destructive colon injury was associated with a greater than fourfold increased incidence of death. Other significant risk factors included shock on admission, major fecal contamination, duration of operation more than four hours, penetrating abdominal trauma index score >25, and more than two postoperative complications. There was no difference in outcome between patients who had primary repair and those undergoing diverting colostomy. Colostomy closure-related morbidity was 21 percent and mortality was 5.3 percent. CONCLUSION: A more liberal use of primary repair is required in our patients with penetrating injuries of the colon.

Robotic and laparoscopic surgery for treatment of colorectal diseases.
D'Annibale A, Morpurgo E, Fiscon V, Trevisan P, Sovernigo G, Orsini C, Guidolin D
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2162-8.

PURPOSE: In the last ten years, several robotic systems have been developed to overcome the loss of the three-dimensional view and dexterity characteristic of laparoscopic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare the traditional laparoscopic approach and robotic techniques in the treatment of colorectal diseases. METHODS: The study compares a consecutive series of patients treated surgically for colorectal disease from June 2001 to May 2003 with the da Vinci robotic system (Intuitive Surgical) and a matched number of patients who underwent conventional laparoscopy during the same time interval. The factors analyzed were the time required to prepare the patient and the room, total time of surgery, length of specimens, number of lymph nodes retrieved, blood loss, complications, and postoperative results. RESULTS: The study included 106 patients (53 in each group). No differences were observed in total time of surgery (laparoscopic group, 222 +/- 77 minutes vs. robotic group, 240 +/- 61 minutes), specimen length (laparoscopic group, 29 +/- 11 cm vs. robotic group, 27 +/- 13 cm), or number of lymph nodes retrieved (laparoscopic group, 16 +/- 9 vs. robotic group, 17 +/- 10). It took significantly longer to prepare the operating room and patient in the robotic group (24 +/- 12 minutes) than in the laparoscopic group (18 +/- 7 minutes). There were three conversions to laparotomy in the laparoscopic group; in the robotic group, two cases were converted to laparoscopy and three to hand-assisted laparoscopy. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of recovery of bowel function and postoperative hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: Robot-assisted surgery proved to be as safe and effective as laparoscopic techniques in the treatment of colorectal diseases. Because of its dexterity and three-dimensional view, the da Vinci system was particularly useful in specific stages of the procedure, e.g., takedown of the splenic flexure, dissection of a narrow pelvis, identification of nervous plexus, and handsewn anastomosis. The cost-effectiveness of the procedure still needs to be evaluated.

Prevention of peritoneal adhesions by intraperitoneal administration of vitamin E: an experimental study in rats.
de la Portilla F, Ynfante I, Bejarano D, Conde J, Fernandez A, Ortega JM, Carranza G
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2157-61.

PURPOSE: Previous studies have shown dietary supplements of vitamin E to reduce the incidence of postoperative peritoneal adhesions. The objective of this study was to show the effect of intramuscular or intraperitoneal administration of vitamin E on peritoneal adhesions. METHODS: Eighty rats were divided into four groups: Group A (control), Group B (intramuscular vitamin E), Group C (intraperitoneal olive oil, the vehicle/diluent of vitamin E), and Group D (intraperitoneal vitamin E diluted in olive oil). The same experimental method was used in all rats to produce adhesions, consisting of cecal abrasion and ligature of the adjacent parietal peritoneum. The rats were killed at 14 days to assess the adhesions occurring. The results were analyzed using a chi-squared test. RESULTS: All animals in Groups A, B, and C had substantial adhesions. In Group D, 11 rats had insubstantial adhesions and only 4 had substantial adhesions. There were no significant differences between Groups A, B, and C in terms of percent formation of adhesions. A significant difference was found between Group D (vitamin E plus olive oil by the intraperitoneal route) and each of the experimental groups, A, B, and C (P < 0.0005). CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that intraperitoneal administration of vitamin E just before closing the laparotomy was effective for reducing adhesion formation. By contrast, the same effect was not achieved after intramuscular administration.

Retroperitoneal perforation of the colon caused by colonic tuberculosis: report of a case.
Heinrich S, Hetzer FH, Bauerfeind P, Jochum W, Demartines N, Clavien PA
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2211-4.

We present a 25-year-old, HIV-negative patient from Kosovo, with no significant past medical history, who was admitted to a local hospital for nonspecific upper abdominal discomfort. He was transferred to us after a retroperitoneal mass with contact to the right colonic flexure had been found during workup. Colonoscopy demonstrated an edemateous area with a central fistula in the right flexure, and histology showed caseous necrosis. Although neither bacteriology nor histology could detect any germs, gastrointestinal tuberculosis seemed to be very probable. Laparotomy with a segmental resection of the colon was performed to remove the fistula-bearing segment, and histologic examination of the resected specimen confirmed the intraoperative suspect of a retroperitoneal colonic perforation. Again, all cultures from the specimen were negative for tuberculosis, but polymerase chain reaction of a regional lymph node revealed acid-fast bacilli of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis/bovis species. Although the patient had no other sites of tuberculosis infection like pulmonary or urinary, he received adjuvant standard tuberculosis treatment for six months. At control examination one year after the operation, the patient was free of recurrence and in very good general condition. We report this extremely rare presentation of gastrointestinal tuberculosis to sensitize physicians to tuberculosis again, because incidence rates are increasing and this disease will certainly play a more important role in the future.

Angiosarcoma of the colon and rectum: report of a case and review of the literature.
Brown CJ, Falck VG, MacLean A
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2202-7.

Angiosarcoma is a malignancy that occurs rarely in the gastrointestinal tract. We present a case of a 77-year-old male who had rectal bleeding and obstructive bowel symptoms. A large near-obstructing mass was seen endoscopically, but biopsies were inconclusive. A CT scan showed a large sigmoid lesion, and the patient had surgical resection. A large hemorrhagic-appearing tumor was found at operation. Angiosarcoma of the sigmoid colon was diagnosed on histologic examination. After colonic resection, the patient rapidly developed numerous liver metastases and died six months later. A review of the literature reveals only 12 other reported cases of colorectal angiosarcoma; 62 percent of these patients died within one year of surgical resection. The role of adjuvant radiation and/or chemotherapy is unclear. In conclusion, colorectal angiosarcomas are rare tumors that behave very aggressively, and the outcome is generally poor.

Quality assessment and improvement in colon and rectal surgery.
Cook A, Hyman N
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2195-201.

Improvement of colonic healing by preoperative rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids in rats given radiotherapy.
Terzi C, Sevinc AI, Kocdor H, Oktay G, Alanyali H, Kupelioglu A, Ergor G, Fuzun M
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2184-94.

BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of preoperative rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids on irradiated colonic anastomosis in rats. METHODS: Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups. Group I (control group, n = 15) underwent left colon resection and primary anastomosis. Group II (Short-chain fatty acids pretreatment group, n = 15) had short-chain fatty acids rectal irrigation for five days preoperatively. Group III (preoperative radiotherapy group, n = 15) underwent irradiation to the whole pelvis eight and four days before the operation, for a total dose of 20 Gy. Group IV (preoperative radiotherapy group + short-chain fatty acids pretreatment group, n = 15) had rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids for five days after the second irradiation. Within each group, animals were anesthetized to assess the clinical, mechanical, histologic, and biochemical parameters of anastomotic healing on either the third or seventh postoperative days. RESULTS: The mean bursting pressure was significantly low in Group III on Day 3 and was significantly high in Group IV on Day 7 (P = 0.001, P = 0.021). The burst occurred at the anastomoses in all animals tested on the third postoperative day, and outside of the anastomoses in all animals tested on the seventh postoperative day. The histologic parameters of anastomotic healing, such as epithelial regeneration and formation of granulation tissue, were significantly improved by use of preoperative rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids on Day 7. The amount of total and salt-soluble collagen concentrations significantly increased in Group IV compared with the control group on Day 3 (P = 0.008, P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Some mechanical and histologic aspects of colonic anastomotic healing can be adversely affected by preoperative radiotherapy, but rectal irrigation with short-chain fatty acids may improve anastomotic healing.

Salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment in anal epidermoid cancer.
Ghouti L, Houvenaeghel G, Moutardier V, Giovannini M, Magnin V, Lelong B, Bardou VJ, Delpero JR
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):16-22.

PURPOSE: Radiotherapy alone or with combined chemotherapy is the first therapeutic option for epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Failure of this conservative treatment may benefit of salvage abdominoperineal resection. This study was designed to analyze postoperative outcome and oncologic results in a single anticancer institution. METHODS: Medical charts of 36 patients (median age, 57.9 years) who underwent salvage abdominoperineal resection after failure of conservative treatment between 1987 and 2002 were reviewed retrospectively. There were 15 patients treated for immediate failure (Group I) and 21 patients for recurrence (Group II). Twenty-two patients have undergone primary use of flap reconstruction of the perineal wound. There were ten rectus abdominis myocutaneous flaps, nine omental flaps, two gracilis muscular flaps, and one combined flap. RESULTS: There was no postoperative mortality. Median follow-up was 67 (range, 15-155) months. Primary closure of the perineum was obtained in 33 patients (92 percent). Secondary wound breakdown occurred in 23 of 33 patients (70 percent). Complications unrelated to the perineal wound occurred in 13 patients. The overall crude five-year survival after salvage abdominoperineal resection was 69.4 percent. The crude five-year survival in Group I and Group II was 60.7 and 71.5 percent respectively (P = 0.28). The crude five-year, disease-free survival in Groups I and II was 31.1 and 48.2 percent respectively (P = 0.10). Twenty-three patients experienced recurrences after salvage abdominoperineal resection (64 percent) with a mean delay of 30 months. CONCLUSIONS: Despite high incidence of perineal morbidity, salvage abdominoperineal resection for epidermoid carcinomas of the anal canal has a high long-term survival rate.

Adjuvant radiation for rectal cancer: do we measure up to the standard of care? An epidemiologic analysis of trends over 25 years in the United States.
Baxter NN, Rothenberger DA, Morris AM, Bullard KM
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):9-15.

PURPOSE: In the United States, adjuvant radiation therapy is currently recommended for most patients with rectal cancer. We conducted this population-based study to evaluate the rate of radiation therapy and the factors affecting its delivery. METHODS: We used the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database to assess treatment of patients with nonmetastatic rectal cancer diagnosed over a 25-year period (1976 through 2000). We evaluated the rate of radiation therapy use and its timing (preoperative vs. postoperative) and the influence of factors such as tumor stage and grade; patient gender and race; and geographic location. RESULTS: In this 25-year period, 45,627 patients met our selection criteria. The rate of radiation therapy use increased dramatically over time: from 17 percent of advanced-stage patients in 1976 to 65 percent in 2000 (P < 0.0001). Until 1996, the increase was due almost entirely to postoperative radiation therapy. Since 1996, the rate of preoperative radiation therapy use has increased (P < 0.0001) and the rate of postoperative radiation therapy use has begun to decline. We found, after controlling for the year of diagnosis, that female patients, African Americans, older patients, and patients with low-grade lesions were less likely to undergo radiation therapy (P < 0.0001). Geographic location was also an important predictor of radiation therapy use. CONCLUSIONS: The use of radiation therapy for patients with rectal cancer has dramatically increased over the 25-year period studied, with a recent shift to the use of preoperative radiation therapy; however, in 2000, over 30 percent of patients with advanced-stage nonmetastatic rectal cancer did not undergo radiation therapy. Given the variation in radiation therapy use that we found to be due to demographic factors, access to adjuvant radiation therapy can be improved.

A prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of retinol palmitate (vitamin A) for symptomatic chronic radiation proctopathy.
Ehrenpreis ED, Jani A, Levitsky J, Ahn J, Hong J
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):1-8.

PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine whether oral retinol palmitate (vitamin A) can reduce the symptoms of radiation proctopathy. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind trial comparing retinol palmitate (10,000 IU by mouth for 90 days) to placebo was conducted. Eligible patients were more than six months postpelvic radiotherapy and had significant symptoms as measured with the Radiation Proctopathy System Assessments Scale. Nineteen patients were randomized in total: ten to retinol palmitate and nine to placebo. The Radiation Proctopathy System Assessments Scale scores before and every 30 days for 90 days were measured. Five placebo nonresponders were crossed over to the retinol palmitate for another 90 days. Response was defined as a reduction in two or more symptoms by at least two Radiation Proctopathy System Assessments Scale points. RESULTS: Seven of ten retinol palmitate patients responded, whereas two of nine responded to placebo (P = 0.057). Mean pre-post-treatment change in Radiation Proctopathy System Assessments Scale (delta Radiation Proctopathy System Assessments Scale) in the retinol palmitate group was 11 +/- 5, whereas delta Radiation Proctopathy System Assessments Scale in the placebo group was 2.5 +/- 3.6 (P = 0.013, Mann-Whitney U test). Additionally, all five placebo nonresponders who were crossed over to treatment with retinal palmitate responded to treatment. CONCLUSIONS: In our trial, retinol palmitate significantly reduced rectal symptoms of radiation proctopathy, perhaps because of wound-healing effects. The current results can serve as the foundation for future trials examining retinol palmitate in the multi-institutional setting.

Functional and physiologic assessment of the colonic reservoir or side-to-end anastomosis after low anterior resection for rectal cancer: a two-year follow-up.
Machado M, Nygren J, Goldman S, Ljungqvist O
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):29-36.

PURPOSE: Functional disturbances are common after anterior resection for rectal cancer. This study was designed to compare functional and physiologic outcome after low anterior resection and total mesorectal excision with a colonic J-pouch or a side-to-end anastomosis. METHODS: Functional and physiologic variables were analyzed in patients randomized to a J-pouch (n = 36) or side-to-end anastomosis (n = 35). Postoperative functional outcome was investigated with questionnaires. Anorectal manometry was performed preoperatively and at six months, one year, and two years postoperatively. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference in functional outcome between groups at two years. Maximum neorectal volume increased in both groups but was approximately 40 percent greater at two years in pouches compared with the side-to-end anastomosis. Anal sphincter pressures volumes were halved postoperatively and did not recover during follow-up of two years. Male gender, low anastomotic level, pelvic sepsis, and the postoperative decrease of sphincter pressures were independent factors for more incontinence symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Colonic J-pouch and side-to-end anastomosis gives comparable functional results two years after low anterior resection. Neorectal volume had no detectable influence on function. There was a pronounced and sustained postoperative decrease in sphincter pressures.

Colonic surgery in patients with juvenile polyposis syndrome: a case series.
Oncel M, Church JM, Remzi FH, Fazio VW
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):49-55; discussion 55-6.

PURPOSE: Juvenile polyposis syndrome is characterized by multiple hamartomatous polyps in the large intestine. When indicated, the surgical choices in symptomatic juvenile polyposis syndrome patients are colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis or proctocolectomy with pouch. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of the surgical options in juvenile polyposis syndrome patients who present with symptomatic colonic polyps. METHODS: The charts of all juvenile polyposis syndrome patients who had had at least one colonic operation since 1953 in our institution were reviewed. The following data were abstracted: demographics, the number and site of the polyps, symptoms, the intervals and types of the colonic operation, follow-up, and the patients' current status. RESULTS: There were 13 patients (6 males) with a median age of 10 years (range, 1-50 years) at the time of diagnosis. Patients had colonic (n = 13), rectal (n = 12), and gastric (n = 6) polyps. Rectal bleeding (n = 11) was the most common presenting symptom. Three patients underwent proctectomy as the initial operation. Although a rectum-preserving operation was initially performed in ten patients, a subsequent proctectomy was required in five of them within a median of 9 years (range, 6-34 years). Therefore, eight patients had their rectum removed during the study period; five had an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, one had a Koch pouch as a restorative surgery, and two had an end ileostomy. No relation was observed between the number of colonic and rectal polyps and the type of surgery or the need for proctectomy. Patients were followed up a median of 3 years (range, 2-24 years) after their ultimate operations. During this period, one patient (20 percent) who underwent restorative proctectomy and 4 patients (80 percent) whose rectums were preserved required multiple endoscopic polypectomies for recurrent polyps in the pouch (first patient) or their rectums (the other four patients). The patient who underwent the Koch procedure required surgery for recurrent polyps in her pouch. CONCLUSIONS: One-half of the patients who initially underwent rectal preservation required subsequent proctectomy. The number of colonic or rectal polyps does not influence the choice of the surgical procedure. Both restorative proctocolectomy and subtotal colectomy with ileorectal anastomosis need endoscopic follow-up because of the high recurrence rates of juvenile polyps in the remnant rectum or pouch.

Risk factors for perineal wound complications following abdominoperineal resection.
Christian CK, Kwaan MR, Betensky RA, Breen EM, Zinner MJ, Bleday R
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):43-8.

PURPOSE: Perineal wound complications are common following abdominoperineal resection. This study investigates the factors contributing to these complications. METHODS: Patients undergoing abdominoperineal resection at our institution from June 1997 to May 2003 were reviewed. Significant predictors associated with minor (separation <2 cm, stitch abscesses, or sinus tracts) or major (>2 cm of separation, reoperation required, or readmission) wound complications were ascertained. RESULTS: Of 153 patients, there were 22 major (14 percent) and 32 minor (24 percent) wound complications. Patients with anal cancer had a higher rate of major complications than those with rectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease. Minor wound complications were more common in patients with anal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease than those with rectal cancer. Factors associated with a higher rate of major wound complications included flap closure, tumor size, body mass index, diabetes, and indication for the procedure. When the subset of patients with rectal cancer was considered, higher rates of major wounds were associated with increased body mass index, diabetes, and stage. Minor complications were associated with a two-team approach and increasing body mass index. CONCLUSIONS: This is currently the largest review of perineal wound complications following abdominoperineal resection. Patients with anal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease were at higher risk for perineal wound complications than those with rectal cancer. Preoperative radiation and primary closure were not associated with increased complications following abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer.

Flat-type early colorectal cancer preferentially develops in right-sided colon in older patients.
Okamoto M, Kawabe T, Yamaji Y, Kato J, Ikenoue T, Togo G, Watabe H, Yoshida H, Shiratori Y, Omata M
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):101-7.

BACKGROUND: Flat-type colorectal cancer is frequently reported in Japan and Europe, but its clinical features remain obscure. Thus, we investigated the clinical features of flat-type early colorectal cancer with respect to tumor location and patient age and compared them with those of polypoid-type early and advanced cancer. METHODS: Between January 1999 and June 2001, total colonoscopy was performed in 6,178 patients (mean age, 61 years; 4,290 males and 1,888 females). Of these patients, 402 patients with 429 colorectal cancers were found: 202 at advanced stage (invading beyond muscularis propria) and 227 at early stage (carcinoma in situ or invading within submucosa). Early-stage cancer was classified into two macroscopic subgroups: flat-type and polypoid-type. RESULTS: Out of 227 early cancers, 44 were flat type and 183 were polypoid. Flat-type early cancer was more frequently located in the right colon (57 percent, 25/44) than polypoid-type cancer (19 percent, 35/183; P < 0.001). Adenomatous component in flat-type early cancer was less frequent than in polypoid-type cancer (23 percent vs. 92 percent, P < 0.001). The proportion of right-sided colon in flat-type early cancer increased with age (33 percent in patients < or = 59 years, 50 percent in patients between 60 and 69 years, and 72 percent in patients > or = 70 years), whereas polypoid-type early cancer showed minimal change (16 percent, 18 percent, and 25 percent, respectively). An increase in the proportion of right-sided colon with age was also found in advanced cancer (20 percent, 38 percent, and 52 percent, respectively). CONCLUSION: The incidence of flat-type early cancer in right-sided colon increased with age, similar to the pattern of advanced cancer. This suggests that flat-type early cancer may be a precursor of advanced cancer in the right colon, especially in older people.

Assessment of JC polyoma virus in colon neoplasms.
Theodoropoulos G, Panoussopoulos D, Papaconstantinou I, Gazouli M, Perdiki M, Bramis J, Lazaris ACh
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):86-91.

PURPOSE: Research data have recently emphasized an intriguing association of JC polyoma virus with colon carcinogenesis. Tumorigenicity of JC virus is attributed to the T-antigen of its Mad-1 variant. Controversy arose when another research group did not confirm this association. The purpose of this study was to detect JC virus in a series of colon neoplasms from Greek patients. METHODS: A nested polymerase chain reaction assay was used to detect JC virus in 80 cancerous, 25 adenomatous specimens of large bowel, and 20 colonoscopic biopsy samples from normal patients without colorectal neoplasia. Quantitation of JC virus DNA was performed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: JC polyoma virus nucleotide sequence was detected in 61 percent of colon adenocarcinomas and in 60 percent of adenomas, at a viral load of 9 x 10(3) to 20 x 10(3) copies/microg DNA. Adjacent normal mucosa in 35 positive colon adenocarcinoma specimens, and normal mucosa from six patients of the control group, had low viral loads (50-450 copies/microg DNA). CONCLUSIONS: JC polyoma virus genome is present in colon neoplasms. JC virus detection in adenomas at comparable viral loads to malignant tumors suggests its implication at early steps of colonic carcinogenesis. Taking into consideration other published data, infection of colonic epithelium with JC virus might be a prime candidate for a role in chromosomal and genomic instability.

Sentinel lymph node mapping for adenocarcinoma of the colon does not improve staging accuracy.
Read TE, Fleshman JW, Caushaj PF
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):80-5.

PURPOSE: This study was designed to: determine the efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping in patients with intraperitoneal colon cancer; and create an algorithm to predict potential survival benefit by using best-case estimates in favor of sentinel node mapping and lymph node ultraprocessing techniques. METHODS: Forty-one patients with intraperitoneal colon cancer undergoing colectomy with curative intent were studied prospectively. After mobilization of the colon and mesentery, 1 to 2 ml of isosulfan blue dye was injected subserosally around the tumor. The first several nodes highlighted with blue dye were identified as sentinel nodes. Additional nodes were identified by the pathologist in routine fashion by manual dissection of the mesentery. All nodes were processed in routine fashion by bivalving and hematoxylin and eosin staining. To create an algorithm to predict potential survival benefit of sentinel node mapping and lymph node ultraprocessing techniques, assumptions were made using data from the literature. All bias was directed toward success of the techniques. RESULTS: Three of 41 patients (7 percent) did not undergo injection of dye and were excluded from further analysis. Stage of disease in the remaining 38 patients was: I, n = 10 (26 percent); II, n = 15 (39 percent); III, n = 11 (29 percent); IV, n = 2 (5 percent). At least one sentinel node was identified in 30 of 38 patients (79 percent). The median number of sentinel nodes identified was two (range, 1-3). Median total nodal retrieval was 14 (range, 7-45). All nodes were negative in 26 of 38 patients (68 percent). Sentinel nodes and nonsentinel nodes were positive in 2 of 38 patients (5 percent). Sentinel nodes were the only positive nodes in 1 of 38 patients (3 percent). Sentinel nodes were negative and nonsentinel nodes were positive in 9 of 38 patients (24 percent). Thus, sentinel node mapping would have potentially benefited only 3 percent, and failed to accurately identify nodal metastases in 24 percent of the patients in our study. To create a survival benefit algorithm, we assumed the following: combined fraction of Stage I and II disease (0.5); fraction understaged by bivalving and hematoxylin and eosin staining that would have occult positive nodes by more sophisticated analysis (0.15); fraction of occult positive nodes detected by sentinel node mapping (0.9); and survival benefit from chemotherapy (0.33). Thus, the fraction of patients benefiting from sentinel lymph node mapping and lymph node ultraprocessing techniques would be 0.02 (2 percent). CONCLUSIONS: Sentinel node mapping with isosulfan blue dye and routine processing of retrieved nodes does not improve staging accuracy in patients with intraperitoneal colon cancer. Even using best-case assumptions, the percentage of patients who would potentially benefit from sentinel lymph node mapping is small.

Ex vivo sentinel lymph node mapping in colorectal cancer.
Bell SW, Mourra N, Flejou JF, Parc R, Tiret E
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):74-9.

INTRODUCTION: Sentinel lymph node mapping has been used in clinical work in malignant melanoma and breast cancer and shown an advantage over routine regional lymphadenectomy. The technique has been applied to colorectal cancer, but concerns over accuracy and high false-negative rates have restricted its use in the routine clinical setting. Most published series have used the in vivo technique and only three studies have been published in which the ex vivo technique was used. The aim of this study was to report the results of a larger study of ex vivo sentinel node mapping. METHODS: All patients with colorectal cancer were considered for the trial, except patients who received preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer. All specimens were examined in the operating room within 30 minutes of resection. After opening the bowel, 0.5 ml of patent blue dye was injected submucosally at four sites immediately adjacent to the tumor (2 ml). The pathologic examination of the sentinel nodes and of an equal number of nonsentinel nodes consisted of standard hematoxylin and eosin sectioning, followed by multiple sectioning for further hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry if initial samples did not show tumor metastases. RESULTS: A total of 58 tumors in 57 patients were studied. One or more sentinel nodes were found in relation to 56 tumors, with one of the two failures being attributed to gross mesenteric metastases obstructing lymphatic flow. A mean of 2.93 (0-8) sentinel nodes were found per patient. There was concordance between the sentinel nodes and nonsentinel nodes in 43 patients (76.8 percent). There were nine false-negative sentinel nodes (16 percent). Two patients were upstaged by detailed pathologic examination of the sentinel nodes (micrometastases), and in a further two patients the sentinel node was the only positive node on simple hematoxylin and eosin sectioning. CONCLUSIONS: The technique of ex vivo sentinel node mapping is feasible and accurate in defining sentinel nodes in colorectal cancer. There is, however, a significant false-negative rate making the sentinel nodes not representative of the lymph node basin. This precludes the use of this technique in routine clinical practice. There may be a role in a research setting to help define the prognostic significance of micrometastases.

Urgent subtotal colectomy for severe inflammatory bowel disease.
Hyman NH, Cataldo P, Osler T
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):70-3.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the safety of subtotal colectomy and outcomes after this procedure in the modern era of immunosuppressive agents and primary pelvic pouch surgery. METHODS: All patients undergoing subtotal colectomy with ileostomy for ulcerative colitis or Crohn's colitis from July 1, 1990 to June 30, 2003 were identified from a prospective database. Only patients who were operated on while hospitalized for disease exacerbation were included in the analysis. Age at colectomy, preoperative days in the hospital, postoperative length of stay, and complications were recorded. The medical records were then reviewed for duration of disease, preoperative diagnosis, use of steroids and immunomodulators, parenteral nutrition, endoscopy findings, albumin level, postoperative diagnosis, and ultimate disposition. RESULTS: One hundred one patients underwent subtotal colectomy for inflammatory bowel disease during the study period. Seventy-four patients met all the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 35.9 (range, 18-86) years. Median duration of disease was 36 (0-240) months, but 28 patients had colitis for less than 1 year, whereas 10 patients had disease of greater than 10 years duration at the time of colectomy. Median preoperative hospital stay was 7 (range, 0-43) days and median postoperative length of stay was 6.5 (range, 4-37) days. Sixty-six patients underwent surgery for refractory exacerbation, 5 for free perforation, 2 for abscess, and 1 patient for hemorrhage. Twenty-seven patients (36.5 percent) had a change in diagnosis after surgery. Complications occurred in 17 patients (23 percent), including 8 cases of central venous catheter-associated thrombosis; 7 of these occurred in patients who had been hospitalized for more than a week before surgery. In the ulcerative colitis patients, 31 of 52 ultimately underwent ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, but 20 (39 percent) chose either completion proctectomy or no further surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Subtotal colectomy with ileostomy remains a safe and effective treatment for patients requiring urgent surgery for severe inflammatory bowel disease. Because of the substantial incidence of change in diagnosis and satisfaction in many patients with an ileostomy, subtotal colectomy with ileostomy may be preferable to primary ileal pouch-anal anastomosis, even when a pouch is considered safe.

Is cytomegalovirus really a cause of resistance to steroids in ulcerative colitis?
Roblin X, Bonaz B
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):174; author reply 174-5.

Does rectal washout during anterior resection prevent local tumor recurrence?
Byrne CM, Perera DS, King DW
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):172-3; author reply 173-4.

Diverticulitis in young patients: why we still should not pretend to know.
Kaiser AM
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):172.

Right colon, sigmoid colon, and transverse colon diverticulitis in the same patient: report of a case.
Greenwald M, Nussbaum T
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):162-6.

Although sigmoid colon diverticulitis is frequently seen, right colon and transverse colon diverticulitis remain rare forms of the disease. This case report examined the disease course of a 46-year-old female who first presented to our institution in 1990 with perforated right-sided diverticulitis. During the next 11 years, she developed sigmoid colon diverticulitis and then transverse colon diverticulitis. The right and sigmoid colon diverticulitis were treated with surgery and the transverse colon diverticulitis was managed conservatively. This is the first reported case of a single patient who had separate episodes of diverticulitis in the right, transverse, and sigmoid colon. The evaluation and management of this patient has mirrored a trend in the literature and clinical practice.

Lymphogranuloma venereum in the differential diagnosis of proctitis.
Weir E
CMAJ 2005 Jan 18;172(2):185.

Elective surgery after acute diverticulitis.
Janes S, Meagher A, Frizelle FA
Br J Surg 2005 Jan 31;92(2):133-142.

BACKGROUND: Diverticulitis is a common condition. Practice guidelines from many organizations recommend bowel resection after two attacks. The evidence for such a recommendation is reviewed. METHODS: A Medline literature search was performed to locate English language articles on surgery for diverticular disease. Further articles were obtained from the references cited in the literature initially reviewed. RESULTS: Most people with diverticulosis are asymptomatic. Diverticular disease occurs in over 25 per cent of the population, increasing with age. After one episode of diverticulitis one-third of patients have recurrent symptoms; after a second episode a further third have a subsequent episode. Perforation is commonest during the first episode of acute diverticulitis. After recovering from an episode of diverticulitis the risk of an individual requiring an urgent Hartmann's procedure is one in 2000 patient-years of follow-up. Surgery for diverticular disease has a high complication rate and 25 per cent of patients have ongoing symptoms after bowel resection. CONCLUSION: There is no evidence to support the idea that elective surgery should follow two attacks of diverticulitis. Further prospective trials are required. Copyright (c) 2005 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The role of breastfeeding in postpartum disease activity in women with inflammatory bowel disease.
Kane S, Lemieux N
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):102-5.

BACKGROUND: Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of experiencing a flare in the postpartum period. Work in other autoimmune disorders has found that breastfeeding may be associated with an increased risk for developing postpartum disease relapse. AIM: To assess the association between breastfeeding behavior and postpartum disease activity. METHODS: Women with IBD followed at a tertiary care center with a history of childbirth within the past 5 yr were recruited. Medical records were reviewed for disease type, disease activity during and after pregnancy, medication use, smoking, and breastfeeding behavior. The exposure of interest was breastfeeding prior to the onset of disease activity following a successful asymptomatic pregnancy. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty-two consecutive women who fit eligibility criteria were studied. Overall, only 44% (54/122) of the women had breastfed their infant. Reasons included physician recommendation, fear of medication interactions, and personal choice. Forty-three percent (23/54) of those who breastfed experienced a postpartum flare of their disease. The unadjusted odds ratio for disease activity with a history of breastfeeding was 2.2 (95% CI 1.2-3.9, p= 0.004). When stratified by disease type, the OR for ulcerative colitis was 0.89 (0.29-2.7, p > 0.05) and Crohn's disease 3.8 (1.9-7.4, p < 0.05). When adjusted for medication cessation, the OR became nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: A significant number of women with IBD do not breastfeed their children. Any relationship between breastfeeding and disease activity may be more a consequence of discontinuation of IBD therapies.

Comprehensive evaluation of inflammatory and noninflammatory sequelae of ileal pouch-anal anastomoses.
Shen B, Fazio VW, Remzi FH, Delaney CP, Bennett AE, Achkar JP, Brzezinski A, Khandwala F, Liu W, Bambrick ML, Bast J, Lashner B
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):93-101.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) improves quality of life (QOL) for ulcerative colitis patients who require surgery. Crohn's disease (CD) of the pouch, pouchitis, cuffitis, and irritable pouch syndrome (IPS) have an adverse impact on physical and psychological well-being, which can compromise the gain in QOL after the surgery. Their clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features have not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to compare demographic, clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features between CD of the pouch, pouchitis, cuffitis, IPS, and normal pouches. METHODS We enrolled 124 patients: normal pouches (N = 26), CD of the pouch (N = 23), pouchitis (N = 22), cuffitis (N = 21), and IPS (N = 32). Symptomatology, endoscopy, histology, and the Cleveland Global QOL and the Irritable Bowel Syndrome-QOL scores were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Univariate analysis of demographic and clinical data showed a possible association between NSAID use and pouchitis, extraintestinal manifestation and cuffitis, and antidepressant use and IPS. There were no differences in the Pouchitis Disease Activity Index symptom scores between the disease groups, with an exception of bleeding, which occurred almost exclusively in cuffitis. Endoscopy was useful in discriminating between CD of the pouch, pouchitis, cuffitis, and normal pouches or IPS. Patients with diseased IPAA had worse QOL scores. CONCLUSIONS: Symptoms largely overlapped among the disease groups of IPAA. Endoscopy is valuable for diagnosis. Inflammatory or noninflammatory sequelae of IPAA adversely affected patients' QOL.

Variants of CARD15 are associated with an aggr1essive clinical course of Crohn's disease--an IG-IBD study.
Annese V, Lombardi G, Perri F, D'Inca R, Ardizzone S, Riegler G, Giaccari S, Vecchi M, Castiglione F, Gionchetti P, Cocchiara E, Vigneri S, Latiano A, Palmieri O, Andriulli A

Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):84-92.
BACKGROUND: Three major variants of the CARD15 gene confer susceptibility to Crohn's disease (CD). Whether or not these variants correlate with specific clinical features of the disease is under evaluation. AIM: We investigated the possible association of CARD15 variants with specific clinical characteristics, including the occurrence of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA), in a large cohort of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients and their unaffected relatives. METHODS: Three hundred and sixteen CD patients (156 with positive family history), 408 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients (206 with positive family history), 588 unaffected relatives, and 205 unrelated healthy controls (HC) were studied. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) R702W, G908R, and L1007finsC of the CARD15 gene were investigated and correlated to age at diagnosis, gender, family history, localization, extraintestinal manifestations, previous resective surgery, stenosing/fistulizing pattern, ANCA, and ASCA. RESULTS: Compared to HC, the frequencies of all three variants in CD were significantly increased: 8.7% versus 4.1% for R702W (p < 0.006), 7.3% versus 2.7% for G908R (p < 0.002), 9.3% versus 0.7% for L1007finsC (p < 0.00001). At least one risk allele was found in 38.2% (p < 0.0001, compared to HC), 13.7% (NS), and 15.1% of CD, UC, and HC, respectively. The L1007finsC risk allele was also significantly increased in unaffected relatives of familial (9.5%; p < 0.00001), and sporadic CD (9%; p < 0.00001), compared to HC (0.7%). Sixteen healthy relatives, carriers of two risk alleles, were asymptomatic after 5-8 yr of follow-up. CD carriers of at least one variant were younger (p= 0.03), more likely to have ileal localization (p= 0.0001), stenosing pattern (p= 0.01), previous resective surgery (p= 0.0001), and presence of ASCA (p= 0.0001). No difference in SNPs frequency between familial and sporadic cases of CD was found. CONCLUSION: In our population, both familial and sporadic CD patients carrying at least one major variant of CARD15 had an aggressive clinical course.

What next after infliximab?
Baidoo L, Lichtenstein GR
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):80-3.

The use of infliximab (Remicade) has revolutionized the care of Crohn's disease (CD) patients who have proved refractory to standard treatment. The use of infliximab is very well tolerated in the majority of patients but in a small subset of patients may lead to the production of antibodies (termed "antibodies to infliximab"-ATI). The production of these antibodies has been associated with the development of both acute and delayed infusion reactions, although even in patients who develop ATIs, these reactions are relatively uncommon. Nonetheless, these reactions may occasionally be severe enough to lead to intolerance to infliximab. Another group of patients, after initially having excellent responses to infliximab, experience an attenuated response or loss of response over time. What is the cause of this loss of efficacy? ATIs may play a role in some patients but other potential reasons for this phenomenon have provoked much debate. The importance of other cytokines after TNF-alpha has been neutralized may be relevant as (this has been shown to be the case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the idea of beneficial autoimmunity production to TNF-alpha. (Wildbaum G, Nahir MA, Karin N. Beneficial autoimmunity to proinflammatory mediators restrains the consequences of self-destructive immunity. Immunity 2003;19:679-88.) It has been shown that during the course of an autoimmune condition, the immune system mounts a beneficial autoantibody response to proinflammatory mediators. This response counteracts, to a certain degree, the autoimmune pathology. This natural counteraction has been illustrated in animal models of autoimmunity, and there has been evidence demonstrated that this occurs in human RA. Whether this occurs in Crohn's is unknown; infliximab is a chimeric monoclonal antibody containing an approximately 25% murine region. It had been hoped that the development of humanized or fully human monoclonal antibodies would provide therapeutic antibodies that did not induce an immune response. While this has unfortunately not proven to be the case-these products still have significant immunogenicity-these products do present an alternative therapy when infliximab cannot be used. In light of this, adalimumab (Humira) a human monoclonal antibody used for treating rheumatologic conditions has been investigated as an alternate treatment for patients with CD who after initially responding to infliximab experience intolerance or loss of efficacy. Is this a viable alternative?

Safety and efficacy of adalimumab (D2E7) in Crohn's disease patients with an attenuated response to infliximab.
Papadakis KA, Shaye OA, Vasiliauskas EA, Ippoliti A, Dubinsky MC, Birt J, Paavola J, Lee SK, Price J, Targan SR, Abreu MT
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):75-9.

OBJECTIVES: Although infliximab is highly effective in the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD), attenuated response to infliximab may develop over time in a subgroup of patients. The aim of our study was to examine the safety and efficacy of adalimumab (D2E7), a fully humanized anti-TNF-alpha Ab, in CD patients who had experienced an attenuated response to infliximab. METHODS: Fifteen patients with active CD who experienced an attenuated response to infliximab were treated with adalimumab over a 6-month period. Patients, received a loading dose of 80 mg subcutaneously followed by 40 mg every 2 wk. The clinical response to adalimumab was classified as complete response, partial response, or nonresponse. RESULTS: Two patients received the loading dose of adalimumab but did not have adequate follow-up evaluations. Of the remaining 13 patients, 7 (54%) had a complete response, 4 (31%) had a partial response, and 2 (15%) were nonresponders. In six patients, the maintenance dose was increased in order to maintain clinical response. Eight of 11 (73%) patients on concurrent corticosteroids were able to discontinue or significantly decrease the dose of the steroids. Adalimumab was well tolerated without signs or symptoms of allergic reaction except in two patients who developed an injection site reaction. CONCLUSIONS: Our preliminary data suggest that adalimumab may be a safe and effective therapy for patients with CD who have experienced an attenuated response to infliximab.

A STAT need for human immunologic studies to understand inflammatory bowel disease.
Plevy S
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):73-4.

In this issue of The American Journal of Gastroenterology, Mudter et al. present a study elucidating a potential role for STAT proteins in the pathogenesis of the human inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). The importance of this study lies in the methodology, as molecular biology was applied to humans to describe expression and activation of STATs in intestinal mucosal cells from IBD patients. The speculative roles for the family members/STAT1 and STAT3 suggest a divergence between human IBD and immunologic hypotheses derived from murine models. This work provides an example of why technology and experiments to understand human immunology are ultimately our best strategy to develop therapies and biomarkers for IBD.

Prevalence of adenomas among young individuals at average risk for colorectal cancer.
de Jong AE, Morreau H, Nagengast FM, Mathus-Vliegen EM, Kleibeuker JH, Griffioen G, Cats A, Vasen HF
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;100(1):139-43.

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the prevalence and characteristics of adenomas in a young population not genetically predisposed for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: The databases of the Dutch Hereditary Colorectal Cancer Registry were used. The study population included patients (n = 444) who had regular endoscopy until mutation analysis revealed they did not carry the (Adenomatous Polyposis Coli (APC)/Mismatch Repair) gene defect identified in their family. RESULTS: At first colonoscopy (n = 342; 50% males, mean age 37 yr) a total of 19 adenomas (10 males, mean age 50 yr, range 24-91 yr) and two CRCs (2 males, age 49 and 72 yr) were identified, and at first sigmoidoscopy (n = 102; 53% males, mean age 29 yr) three adenomas (2 males, age 8, 40, and 41 yr) were found. A second colonoscopy was performed in 14 patients with, and in 162 patients without an adenoma. Three of 14 patients (21%) developed a new adenoma (all >50 yr) and 8 of 162 (5%) patients developed their first adenoma during follow-up. In the colonoscopy group, the cumulative proportion of patients free of adenomas at age 50 yr was 86%. Of all adenomas diagnosed during colonoscopy (n = 49), 65% were located distal from the flexura lienalis. Of the adenomas detected during all endoscopies (n = 53), 9.8% were > or =7 mm, 7.5% showed high-grade dysplasia, and 7.5% showed tubulovillous features. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of our findings during colonoscopy we conclude that the risk of developing adenomas/CRC in young individuals without genetic risk factors is low. Adenoma surveillance programs should focus on young individuals with a positive family (or personal) history for adenomas/CRC, or on individuals >50 yr.

The Familial Mediterranean Fever (MEVF) Gene as a Modifier of Crohn's Disease.
Fidder H, Chowers Y, Ackerman Z, Pollak RD, Crusius JB, Livneh A, Bar-Meir S, Avidan B, Shinhar Y
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):338-43.

OBJECTIVES: Crohn's disease (CD) has been reported to be more frequent among non-Ashkenazi Jewish patients suffering from familial Mediterranean fever (FMF). Interestingly, functional similarities between the CD susceptibility gene (NOD2/CARD15) and the FMF gene (MEFV) have been described: both belong to the death domain containing protein family, important in the regulation of apoptosis, cytokine processing and inflammation. AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of MEFV mutations in Jewish non-Ashkenazi CD patients and its putative effect on CD presentation. MATHODS: Germline DNA of 105 Israeli CD patients of non-Ashkenazi and mixed Ashkenazi-non-Ashkenazi ethnic background was analyzed for three most common MEFV mutations: M694V, V726A, and E148Q. Five patients (4.7%) with a clinical diagnosis of FMF were included. Data obtained from each patient included: age of onset, disease location, and behavior, the presence of extraintestinal manifestations of CD and therapeutic regimens. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of mutation carriers among non-FMF-CD patients was 13% (13/100). A stricturing disease pattern was observed in 56% (10/18) of all carriers, FMF-CD, and non-FMF-CD patients, and in 25% (22/87) of noncarriers (OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-10.5, p= 0.015). The prevalence of fistulas was comparable in both groups. Extraintestinal manifestations were significantly more frequent among carriers than noncarriers (65%vs 32%, OR 3.9, 95% CI = 1.3-11.5, p= 0.015). No differences were observed in disease location and disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: MEFV mutations are not associated with CD susceptibility, yet the presence of these mutations appears to be associated with a stricturing disease pattern and extraintestinal disease manifestations of CD. (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1-6).

Effectiveness of devices purported to reduce flatus odor.
Ohge H, Furne JK, Springfield J, Ringwala S, Levitt MD
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):397-400.

OBJECTIVE: A variety of charcoal-containing devices are purported to minimize problems with odoriferous rectal gas; however, the evidence supporting the efficacy of these products is virtually all anecdotal. We objectively evaluated the ability of these devices to adsorb two malodorous, sulfide gases (hydrogen sulfide and methylmercaptan) instilled at the anus. MATHODS: Via a tube, 100 ml of nitrogen containing 40 ppm of sulfide gases and 0.5% H(2) was instilled at the anus of six healthy volunteers who wore gas impermeable Mylar((R)) pantaloons over their garments. Since H(2) is not adsorbed by charcoal, the fraction of the sulfide gases removed could be determined from the concentration ratio of sulfide gas: H(2) in the pantaloon space relative to the ratio in instilled gas. RESULTS: Measurements with no device in place showed that subjects' garments removed 22.0 +/- 5.3% of the sulfide gases, and results obtained with each device were corrected for this removal. The only product that adsorbed virtually all of the sulfide gases was briefs constructed from an activated carbon fiber fabric. Pads worn inside the underwear removed 55-77% of the sulfide gases. Most cushions were relatively ineffective, adsorbing about 20% of the gases. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of charcoal-containing devices to adsorb odoriferous rectal gases is limited by incomplete exposure of the activated carbon to the gases. Briefs made from carbon fiber are highly effective; pads are less effective, removing 55-77% of the odor; cushions are relatively ineffective. (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1-4).

Calcium supplements to prevent colorectal adenomas.
Sandler RS
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):395-6.

Calcium supplements have been shown to decrease the risk of colorectal adenomas. In this issue of the Journal, Shaukat et al. report the results of a systematic review and metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials of calcium supplementation. The authors statistically combined the data from the three trials that met strict eligibility criteria. The overall relative risk was 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-0.93) and the number needed to treat was 14. The results of this metaanalysis support a preventive role for calcium supplements. (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:395-396).

Role of supplemental calcium in the recurrence of colorectal adenomas: a metaanalysis of randomized controlled trials.
Shaukat A, Scouras N, Schunemann HJ
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):390-4.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal adenomas are neoplastic growths that are important targets for chemoprevention. Dietary calcium is thought to play an important role in chemoprevention. However, the role of calcium supplementation for preventing recurrence of adenomas is controversial. We performed a systematic review and metaanalysis to study the role of calcium supplementation in preventing recurrence of adenomas. METHODS: We searched electronic bibliographic databases (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE) and contacted authors to identify potentially eligible studies. RESULTS: We identified three trials including 1,485 subjects with previously removed adenomas who were randomized to calcium versus placebo supplementation. The study endpoint was recurrence of adenomas at the end of 3-4 yr in 1,279 patients who completed the trials. We found that the recurrence of adenomas was significantly lower in subjects randomized to calcium supplementation (RR: 0.80, CI: 0.68, 0.93; p-value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and metaanalysis suggest that calcium supplementation prevents recurrent colorectal adenomas. (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:390-394).

Infliximab for the treatment of chronic anemia in Crohn's disease.
Domenech E, Manosa M, Masnou H, Navarro M, Garcia-Planella E, Bernal I, Gassull MA
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):496.

Protein Microarray Analysis of Disease Activity in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease Demonstrates Elevated Serum PLGF, IL-7, TGF-beta1, and IL-12p40 Levels in Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis Patients in Remission versus Active Disease.
Kader HA, Tchernev VT, Satyaraj E, Lejnine S, Kotler G, Kingsmore SF, Patel DD
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):414-23.

A Polymorphism in the TNF-alpha Promoter Gene is Associated with Pediatric Onset and Colonic Location of Crohn's Disease.
Levine A, Karban A, Eliakim R, Shaoul R, Reif S, Pacht A, Wardi J, Yakir B, Silver EL
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):407-13.

[When is standard stool culture justified in adults with nosocomial diarrhea?]
Mathieu A, Tachet A, Pariente A
Presse Med 2005 Jan;34(2 Pt 1):81-4.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the diagnostic efficacy, cost and possible corrective measure of the indications for routine stool cultures in nosocomial diarrhoea in adults. METHODS: A retrospective study over a 10-month period of 660 standard stool cultures, 256 of which were conducted after the 3rd day of hospitalisation, conducted in 528 patients at the hospital centre in Pau. RESULTS: The positivity rate of the stool cultures was of 26/336 patients (7.7%), and of 37/404 examinations (9%) within the first three days of hospitalisation, versus 2/192 patients (1%) and 3/256 examinations (1%) after the 3rd day of hospitalisation (p<0.05). In 83 patients a stool culture was repeated, and was only positive in one patient with an initially negative culture. If a stool culture had not been performed after the 3rd day, 2 infections would not have been diagnosed (1 salmonella and 1 K. oxytoca) and 256 stool cultures could have been economised (estimated cost: 6 144 ). Moreover, by eliminating repeated stool cultures, 3 infections would not have been diagnosed (2 salmonella, and 1 K. oxytoca) and 321 stool cultures would have been avoided (estimated cost: 7 704 ). If the stool cultures had been conducted after the 3rd day of hospitalisation only in those aged over 64 with comorbidity, immunosuppression or within the context of an epidemic, no false negative would have been observed and 149 stool cultures would have been economised (estimated cost: 3 576 ). The positivity rate of the search for C. difficile, only conducted on explicit request from the practitioners, was of 5/23 (22%) and 4/28 (14%) before and after the 3rd day of hospitalisation (non-significant difference). CONCLUSION: Restriction of standard stool cultures after the 3rd day of hospitalisation to patients aged over 64 with comorbidity, to the immunodepressed, and within an epidemic context would economise around 4 300 per month in a medium-sized general hospital. No systematic restriction should be applied to the search for C. difficile.

Chromosomal instability in flat adenomas and carcinomas of the colon.
Postma C, Hermsen M, Coffa J, Baak J, Mueller J, Mueller E, Bethke B, Schouten J, Stolte M, Meijer G
J Pathol 2005 Jan 31;.

Flat adenomas are flat or slightly elevated dysplastic lesions of the colorectal mucosa, mostly with a tubular architecture. Compared with polypoid adenomas of similar size, flat adenomas show a higher frequency of high-grade dysplasia and rapid submucosal invasion. The aim of this study was to survey whether flat colorectal lesions differ in their pattern of chromosomal aberrations from their polypoid counterparts. Six flat adenomas and 12 flat carcinomas were analysed by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the pattern of chromosomal aberrations was compared with a previously published series of 112 polypoid adenomas and 82 polypoid carcinomas. In addition, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) for identifying DNA copy number changes of 25 individual genes on chromosome 20 was performed on 14 flat and 15 polypoid tumours. With CGH, flat adenomas showed on average 1.8 gains (range 1-4) and 3.2 losses (range 0-4), and the flat carcinomas 4.5 gains (range 0-8) and 3.5 losses (range 1-6). In both adenomas and carcinomas, high frequencies of 20q gain (83% and 92%, respectively) and 18q loss (83% and 92%, respectively) were found. This correlation between 20q gain and 18q loss had previously been observed in a subgroup of polypoid colorectal tumours. Both flat and polypoid colorectal tumours with 20q gains by CGH showed similar patterns of copy number ratios for the individual genes tested. TOP1, BCL2L1, and E2F1 had median copy number ratios of 2 or higher, while ZNF217 had a ratio around 3. In conclusion, flat adenomas and carcinomas of the large intestine show a similar pattern of chromosomal aberrations to that observed in a specific subgroup of polypoid lesions. The transcription factor ZNF217 is an important candidate for driving the 20q gain. Copyright (c) 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

[Primary anorectal melanoma.]
Haddad F, Nadir S, Benkhaldoun L, Alaoui R, Cherkaoui A
Presse Med 2005 Jan;34(2 Pt 1):85-8.

OBJECTIVE: To specify the clinical and therapeutic aspects of anorectal melanoma. METHODS: Nine cases of malignant anorectal melanoma were managed in the department of gastroenterology of the Ibn Rochd university hospital in Casablanca between 1984 and 2002. RESULTS: There were 5 men and 4 women, with a mean age of 61 years. Clinical symptoms were dominated by rectal bleeding (7 cases) and rectal syndrome (5 cases). The tumor was blackish in 4 cases. Extension staging showed metastases in the liver in one patient and in the bones in another. One patient had undergone abdominoperineal resection, two transanal tumor resection, and in one patient radiotherapy was applied. Five patients refused any treatment. The outcome was marked by remission in 2 cases with an event free survival respectively of 10 and 21 months. Three patients died because of visceral metastases. Four patients were lost to follow-up. DISCUSSION: The prognosis of anorectal melanoma is frightening because of late diagnosis and high malignancy potential. Treatment is based essentially on surgery.

Colorectal cancer.
Eustace K
Lancet 2005 Jan 8;365(9454):166.

Colorectal cancer.
Weitz J, Koch M, Debus J, Hohler T, Galle PR, Buchler MW
Lancet 2005 Jan 8;365(9454):153-65.

Every year, more than 945000 people develop colorectal cancer worldwide, and around 492000 patients die. This form of cancer develops sporadically, in the setting of hereditary cancer syndromes, or on the basis of inflammatory bowel diseases. Screening and prevention programmes are available for all these causes and should be more widely publicised. The adenoma-carcinoma sequence is the basis for development of colorectal cancer, and the underlying molecular changes have largely been identified. Prognosis depends on factors related to the patient, treatment, and tumour, and the expertise of the treatment team is one of the major determinants of outcome. New information on the molecular basis of this cancer have led to the development of targeted therapeutic options, which are being tested in clinical trials. Further clinical progress will largely depend on the broader implementation of multidisciplinary treatment strategies following the principles of evidence-based medicine.

Pancreatic autoantibodies in Crohn's disease: a feasible diagnostic tool?
Torok HP, Folwaczny C
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Jan;17(1):37-9.

Potential implications of antibody markers in Crohn's disease: Diagnostic markers, alone or in conjunction with other antibodies? Delineation of clinical phenotypes? Markers of disease behaviour? Markers of (genetic) susceptibility? Identification of genetically homogenous subgroups? Bridge between basic science and clinic? The exact role of serum antibodies in inflammatory bowel disease remains a matter of ongoing debate. Although a direct implication in the disease pathogenesis is unlikely, their diagnostic potential in cases of an undetermined colitis or in defining clinical phenotypes in Crohn's disease has been shown in several studies. Serum antibodies might also be helpful in predicting the disease behaviour and are thus valuable tools in the choice of medical or surgical therapy.

Sentinel lymph node mapping in colon cancer.
Tuech JJ, Pessaux P, Regenet N, Bergamaschi R, Colson A
Surg Endosc 2004 Oct 26;.

BACKGROUND: By systematically reviewing the literature on sentinel lymph node mapping of colon cancers, this study aimed to evaluate this technique as it applies to colon cancers. METHODS: Human studies on lymphatic mapping for colon cancers were reviewed. Multiple publications of the same studies, abstracts, and case reports were excluded. Current Contents, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were investigated. RESULTS: Lymphatic mapping appears to be readily applicable to colon cancers, identifying lymph nodes most likely to harbor metastases. Identification of sentinel lymph nodes varied from 58% to 100% and carried a false-negative rate of approximately 10% in larger studies, but potentially rose 4% to 25% among patients representing a range from node-negative to node-positive (micrometastases) conditions. The prognostic implication of these micrometastases requires further evaluation. Lymphatic mapping in 6% to 29% of cases identified aberrant lymphatic drainage that altered the extent of the lymphadenectomy. CONCLUSIONS: Further follow-up evaluation to assess the prognostic significance of micrometastases for colon cancers is required before the staging benefits of sentinel node mapping can have therapeutic implications. Lymphatic mapping offers the possibility of improving staging by identifying patients with early disseminated disease who should be considered for adjuvant treatment or included in trials of adjuvant treatment to speed up the breakthrough of more effective adjuvant regimens. Large studies are needed to determine whether the sentinel node concept is as valid for colon cancers as studies so far have shown it is for malignant melanoma and breast cancer.

Ciclosporin use in acute ulcerative colitis: a long-term experience.
Campbell S, Travis S, Jewell D
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Jan;17(1):79-84.

BACKGROUND: Within a lifetime, approximately 15% of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients will have a severe relapse necessitating admission to hospital. Despite intravenous steroid treatment, approximately 25% will require either surgery or ciclosporin (CsA) rescue therapy. Initial response rates to CsA have been encouraging, but remission rates have been disappointing. There is a paucity of long-term data on UC patients who have been brought into remission with CsA. OBJECTIVES: To report our 7 year experience on the use of CsA in acute UC and to highlight long-term follow-up data on these patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective database of 76 UC patients requiring CsA between 1996 and 2003 was constructed. CsA was started on the basis of their C-reactive protein (CRP) and/or stool frequency after 3 days or after 5-7 days of i.v. hydrocortisone. The patients (33 female, 43 male, mean age 44.5 years) were followed up for a median 2.9 years (range 0.2-7.0 years). Fifty-four patients received i.v. CsA (4 mg/kg), while 22 received oral CsA (5 mg/kg). Long-term outcome was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis: time to first relapse and time to surgery. RESULTS: Median disease duration was 6.6 years. Median CRP and stool frequency at day 3 was 20 mg/l and 6 per day, respectively. Fifty-six patients (74%) achieved initial remission. CsA was discontinued in only four patients due to side effects. Duration of i.v. steroids or the addition of AZA did not improve time to first relapse or time to surgery. Comparison between i.v. CsA and oral CsA revealed a statistically significant difference in time to first relapse (P < 0.01) and time to surgery (P < 0.05) in favour of oral CsA. CONCLUSIONS: These data describe the long-term outcome of the largest series of patients so far reported that have had treatment with CsA for severe refractory UC. If patients achieved initial remission with CsA, after 1 year, 65% had relapsed and after 3 years 90% had relapsed. After 7 years, 58% had come to colectomy. Minor side effects were frequent, but none were life threatening. There was no increase in post-operative complications in those who came to colectomy.

Association of antibodies to exocrine pancreas with subtypes of Crohn's disease.
Klebl FH, Bataille F, Huy C, Hofstadter F, Scholmerich J, Rogler G
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Jan;17(1):73-7.

OBJECTIVES: The Vienna classification of Crohn's disease (CD) subdivides patients according to their age at diagnosis, disease location, and disease behaviour. This study tested whether antibodies against exocrine pancreatic tissue (PAbs) are associated with Vienna classification subtypes of CD. METHODS: PAbs were examined by indirect immunofluorescence in sera of patients with CD (n = 208), or ulcerative colitis (n = 47), and in normal controls (n = 50). Presence of PAbs was compared to the Vienna classification, disease activity, and drug therapy. RESULTS: PAbs were present in 60 CD patients (28.8%), but in no patient with ulcerative colitis or in controls (P < 0.001). There was no significant association between PAbs and disease activity, or drug therapy. Complete classification into Vienna subtypes was possible in 168 patients. There was significant heterogeneity in PAb prevalence in these CD subtypes (P < 0.01). Variation was found in the behaviour category (B1, non-stricturing, non-penetrating CD: 14.0% PAb-positive; B2, stricturing CD: 41.7%; B3, penetrating CD: 31.5%; P = 0.02), but not age or location categories. PAbs were associated with long disease duration (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: This study confirms that PAbs are highly specific for CD. The small differences in their prevalence in CD subtypes do not suggest that PAb detection is useful in discrimination of CD phenotypes.

Antibiotics for inflammatory bowel disease: do they work?
Guslandi M
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Feb;17(2):145-7.

A growing amount of evidence indicates that the intestinal flora plays a pathogenic role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): hence, the use of anti-bacterial agents as ancillary treatment in patients with ulcerative colitis, or Crohn's disease. While the results with anti-tubercular agents remain inconclusive, antibiotic treatment in IBD is usually carried out with either metronidazole or ciprofloxacin, or both. Controlled trials are scarce and, although both antibiotics appear to provide clinical benefit, definitive conclusions cannot be drawn and precise therapeutic guidelines cannot be suggested. The best results are achieved in the long-term treatment of Crohn's disease and in the management of pouchitis, or of perianal Crohn's disease. Long-term tolerability of antibiotic treatment may be poor due to the appearance of systemic side-effects. The use of non-absorbable anti-bacterial agents such as rifaximin deserves further investigation.

Colonic perforation in collagenous colitis: an unusual complication.
Bohr J, Larsson LG, Eriksson S, Jarnerot G, Tysk C
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Jan;17(1):121-4.

Collagenous colitis is generally regarded as a benign disease with few serious complications. We report two women with collagenous colitis who presented with colonic perforation, one spontaneously and one 7 days after a barium enema, and a review of the literature. Including the present cases, 13 patients with collagenous colitis and colonic perforation have been reported, in two patients spontaneously and in 11 patients after a colonoscopy or barium enema. All were operated on except one patient who recovered after medical treatment. The pathogenesis of this complication is unknown. We propose that there might be a connection between mucosal tears and colonic perforation in collagenous colitis.

Evaluation of the learning curve in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis surgery.
Tekkis PP, Fazio VW, Lavery IC, Remzi FH, Senagore AJ, Wu JS, Strong SA, Poloneicki JD, Hull TL, Church JM
Ann Surg 2005 Feb;241(2):262-8.

SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: We define the learning curve required to attain satisfactory training in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) and identify possible differences in the learning curve for stapled and hand-sewn IPAA surgery. Various studies have addressed the differences in failure rate between stapled and hand-sewn IPAA, but there is no literature that evaluates the differences in attaining satisfactory training in each of these techniques. METHODS: Data were collected from 1965 patients undergoing IPAA surgery by 12 surgeons in a single center between 1983 and 2001. Using ileoanal pouch failure as the primary end point, a parametric survival model was used to adjust for case mix (patient comorbidity, preoperative diagnosis, manometric findings, and prior anal pathology). A risk-adjusted cumulative sum (CUSUM) model was used for monitoring outcomes in IPAA surgery. RESULTS: The 5-year ileal pouch survival was 95.6% (median patient follow-up of 4.2 years; range 0-19 years). Fifty percent of trainee staff demonstrated a learning curve in IPAA surgery. Having adjusted for case mix, trainee staff undertaking stapled IPAA surgery showed an improvement in the pouch failure rate following an initial training period of 23 cases versus 40 cases for senior staff. The learning curve for hand-sewn IPAA surgery was quantified only for senior staff who attained adequate results following an initial period of 31 procedures. CONCLUSIONS: The CUSUM method was a useful tool for objectively measuring performance during the learning phase of IPAA surgery. With adequate training, supervision, and monitoring, the learning curve in IPAA surgery may be reduced even further.

The use of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for investigation of submucosal and extrinsic masses of the colon and rectum.
Sasaki Y, Niwa Y, Hirooka Y, Ohmiya N, Itoh A, Ando N, Miyahara R, Furuta S, Goto H
Endoscopy 2005 Feb;37(2):154-60.

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Ensdoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been reported as a useful technique for histological diagnosis of submucosal or extrinsic gastrointestinal and pancreatic lesions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of EUS-FNA for the diagnosis of lesions either within or adjacent to the wall of the colon and rectum. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 22 patients with a lesion within the wall of, or adjacent to, the colon or rectum underwent EUS-FNA. They were divided into two groups: patients who had previously had a malignancy (the "previous +ve" group, n = 11), and patients who had not previously had a malignancy (the "previous -ve" group, n = 11). In the four patients who had lesions located proximal to the sigmoid colon, EUS-FNA was performed using a guide wire and overtube. The success rates for adequate tissue sampling and for detecting malignant and benign masses by EUS-FNA were evaluated and the success rate for detection was compared with the success rate of EUS and computed tomography. Results: Sufficient tissue for evaluation was obtained from 21 of the 22 patients (95.5 %). The overall rate of detection of malignant and benign masses was 95.5 % (21/22) for EUS-FNA and 81.8 % (18/22) for pre-EUS-FNA imaging investigations. Of the 11 patients in the previous +ve group, ten were diagnosed with recurrences of primary malignancies; of the 11 patients in the previous -ve group, four were diagnosed with primary malignancies and seven were diagnosed with benign lesions. There were no complications related to the EUS-FNA procedure. CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA is a safe technique which is useful in the planning of treatment for patients who have a mass within the wall or adjacent to the wall of the entire length of the colon or rectum.

Determination of the peritoneal reflection using intraoperative proctoscopy.
Najarian MM, Belzer GE, Cogbill TH, Mathiason MA
Dis Colon Rectum 2004 Dec;47(12):2080-5.

PURPOSE: Rectal carcinomas are amenable to transanal excision in 3 to 5 percent of cases. Location below the peritoneal reflection is one requirement for transanal excision and transanal endoscopic microsurgery. The location of the peritoneal reflection has not been extensively studied in living patients. METHODS: This study investigated the location of the peritoneal reflection in 50 patients undergoing laparotomy. The distance from the anal verge to the peritoneal reflection was measured in each patient via simultaneous intraoperative proctoscopy and intra-abdominal visualization of the peritoneal reflection. The mean distance to the peritoneal reflection, range of measurements, and complications of proctoscopy were recorded. RESULTS: Intraoperative proctoscopy was performed on 50 patients after informed consent. The mean lengths of the peritoneal reflection were 9 cm anteriorly, 12.2 cm laterally, and 14.8 cm posteriorly for females, and 9.7 cm anteriorly, 12.8 cm laterally, and 15.5 cm posteriorly for males. The lengths of the anterior, lateral, and posterior peritoneal measurements were statistically different from one another, regardless of gender (P < 0.01). There were no complications of proctoscopy. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicated that the peritoneal reflection is located higher on the rectum than reported in autopsy studies, and that there is no difference between males and females. Knowledge of the location and position of a rectal carcinoma in relationship to the peritoneal reflection will help the surgeon optimize the use of transanal techniques of resection.

Interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging for locally advanced rectal carcinoma after preoperative chemoradiation therapy.
Kuo LJ, Chern MC, Tsou MH, Liu MC, Jian JJ, Chen CM, Chung YL, Fang WT
Dis Colon Rectum 2005 Jan;48(1):23-8.

Selecting patients for flexible sigmoidoscopy.
Ramakrishnan K, Scheid DC
Cancer 2005 Jan 26;.

BACKGROUND: Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) is an effective method to prevent and reduce mortality from colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Incomplete depth of insertion (IDI) during FS may result in missed polyps and carcinomas. To determine whether it is possible to predict IDI, the authors analyzed factors that affected the depth of insertion in FS. METHODS: For the current study, FS results were recorded prospectively over a 5-year period. A questionnaire was administered to the patient by the investigator prior to FS to collect data, including age, gender, weight, comorbid illnesses, history of prior abdominal and pelvic surgeries, family history of colon carcinoma or polyps, and prior FS or colonoscopies. The depth of insertion of the flexible sigmoidoscope from the anal verge, which was defined as the reading on the outside of the instrument at its maximal insertion, was measured in centimeters. IDI was defined as a depth of insertion < 50 cm. Classification and regression tree analysis was used to develop a model that included variables predictive of IDI. RESULTS: The best classification tree included gender, age < 69 years (in women), and a history of hysterectomy. Men had a < 5% risk of an IDI and women age < 69 years without a hysterectomy fared as well (6.6%). Older women and younger women who underwent hysterectomy had higher rates of IDI (29.2% and 22.3%, respectively.) CONCLUSIONS: The authors developed a model based on age, gender, and hysterectomy status that, after further validation, may be useful for predicting which patients likely will have an incomplete examination. In those patients who have a high probability of IDI, the choice can be made to offer colonoscopy or perform FS under sedation, with analgesia, or with the help of distraction techniques. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

Incidental lesions found on CT colonography: their nature and frequency.
Xiong T, Richardson M, Woodroffe R, Halligan S, Morton D, Lilford RJ
Br J Radiol 2005 Jan;78(925):22-29.

CT colonography has been used to detect colonic polyps and cancers, but its effect in practice will also be influenced by the frequency with which extracolonic lesions of various types are detected. We performed a systematic review of the types of incidental lesions found on CT colonography. This is necessary to model the benefits and harms of detecting extracolonic lesions. Primary clinical studies of extracolonic findings on CT colonography were identified from electronic databases, scanning reference lists and hand searches of relevant journals and conference proceedings. A data collection proforma was used to collect information on extracolonic findings. 17 discreet studies were identified, involving 3488 patients. In total 40% of patients were recorded to have abnormalities and many had more than one abnormality. Nearly 14% of patients had further investigations and 0.8% were given immediate treatment. Extracolonic cancers were detected in 2.7% (0.9% had N0M0 cancers) and 0.9% had an aortic aneurysm. The number of extracolonic findings was high in all studies. While only a small population were judged "important", the prevalence of serious lesions outside the colon was nevertheless higher than in many other screening programs.

Technetium-99m-HMPAO Labeled Leukocyte Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography (SPECT) for Assessing Crohn's Disease Extent and Intestinal Infiltration.
Biancone L, Schillaci O, Capoccetti F, Bozzi RM, Fina D, Petruzziello C, Geremia A, Simonetti G, Pallone F
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):344-54.

OBJECTIVES: Scintigraphy using radiolabeled leukocytes is a useful technique for assessing intestinal infiltration in Crohn's disease (CD). However, limits of planar images include overlapping activity in other organs and low specificity. To investigate the usefulness of (99m)Tc-HMPAO (hexametyl propylene amine oxime) labeled leukocyte single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) for assessing CD lesions, in comparison with planar images. MATHODS: Twenty-two inflammatory bowel disease patients (19 CD; 2 ulcerative colitis, UC; 1 ileal pouch) assessed by conventional endoscopy or radiology were enrolled. Leukocytes were labeled with (99m)Tc-HMPAO. SPECT images were acquired at 2 h and planar images at 30 min and 2 h. Bowel uptake was quantitated in nine regions (score 0-3). RESULTS: Both SPECT and planar images detected a negative scintigraphy (score 0) in the UC patient with no pouchitis and a positive scintigraphy (score 1-3) in the 21 patients showing active inflammation by conventional techniques. SPECT showed a higher global score than planar images (0.71 +/- 0.09 vs 0.30 +/- 0.05; p < 0.001), and in particular in the right iliac fossa (p= 0.003), right and left flank (p < 0.001; p= 0.02), hypogastrium (p= 0.002), and mesogastrium (p < 0.001). SPECT provided a better visualization and a higher uptake than planar images in patients with ileal and ileocolonic CD (6.45 +/- 0.82 vs 2.8 +/- 0.55, p < 0.001; 5.5 +/- 1.6 vs 2.6 +/- 0.7, p= 0.03), and with perianal CD (6.6 +/- 1.6 vs 3.4 +/- 1.2; p= 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: (99m)Tc-HMPAO labeled leukocyte SPECT provides a more detailed visualization of CD lesions than planar images. This technique may better discriminate between intestinal and bone marrow uptake, thus being useful for assessing CD lesions within the pelvis, including perianal disease. (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:1-11).

Is endoscopy necessary for the measurement of disease activity in ulcerative colitis?
Higgins PD, Schwartz M, Mapili J, Zimmermann EM
Am J Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;100(2):355-61.

OBJECTIVES: Many disease activity indices are used to measure ulcerative colitis. Invasive indices incorporate an endoscopic score, while noninvasive indices do not require endoscopy. In clinical practice, many patients are treated based on their symptoms without endoscopic evaluation. However, invasive indices are commonly used in clinical research. Our objective was to determine whether endoscopy is necessary for the assessment of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Sixty-six consecutive ulcerative colitis patients were evaluated with invasive indices: the St. Mark's index and the Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UCDAI); and noninvasive indices: the Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) and the Seo index. The correlations between the indices were measured. The contribution of the endoscopic items was measured with linear regression modeling. The overlap of endoscopy with other items in the standard indices was determined through factor analysis. RESULTS: The two noninvasive indices correlated well with the invasive St. Mark's Index (SCCAI 0.86, Seo 0.70). After adjusting for the three noninvasive UCDAI items, the UCDAI endoscopy item predicted only 0.04% of the variance in the St. Mark's index. Factor analysis demonstrated that this is because the endoscopy items in the invasive indices correlate with stool frequency and stool blood items. CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopy items contribute little additional information to indices of disease activity in ulcerative colitis. The clinical practice of treating patients based on reported symptoms is appropriate. The use of noninvasive indices in clinical trials could lower study costs and may increase subjects' willingness to participate. (Am J Gastroenterol 2005;100:355-361).

Analysis of air contrast barium enema, computed tomographic colonography, and colonoscopy: prospective comparison.
Rockey DC, Paulson E, Niedzwiecki D, Davis W, Bosworth HB, Sanders L, Yee J, Henderson J, Hatten P, Burdick S, Sanyal A, Rubin DT, Sterling M, Akerkar G, Bhutani MS, Binmoeller K, Garvie J, Bini EJ, McQuaid K, Foster WL, Thompson WM, Dachman A, Halvorsen
Lancet 2005 Jan 22;365(9456):305-11.

BACKGROUND: The usefulness of currently available colon imaging tests, including air contrast barium enema (ACBE), computed tomographic colonography (CTC), and colonoscopy, to detect colon polyps and cancers is uncertain. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of these three imaging tests. METHODS: Patients with faecal occult blood, haematochezia, iron-deficiency anaemia, or a family history of colon cancer underwent three separate colon-imaging studies--ACBE, followed 7-14 days later by CTC and colonoscopy on the same day. The primary outcome was detection of colonic polyps and cancers. Outcomes were assessed by building an aggregate view of the colon, taking into account results of all three tests. FINDINGS: 614 patients completed all three imaging tests. When analysed on a per-patient basis, for lesions 10 mm or larger in size (n=63), the sensitivity of ACBE was 48% (95% CI 35-61), CTC 59% (46-71, p=0.1083 for CTC vs ACBE), and colonoscopy 98% (91-100, p<0.0001 for colonoscopy vs CTC). For lesions 6-9 mm in size (n=116), sensitivity was 35% for ACBE (27-45), 51% for CTC (41-60, p=0.0080 for CTC vs ACBE), and 99% for colonoscopy (95-100, p<0.0001 for colonoscopy vs CTC). For lesions of 10 mm or larger in size, the specificity was greater for colonoscopy (0.996) than for either ACBE (0.90) or CTC (0.96) and declined for ACBE and CTC when smaller lesions were considered. INTERPRETATION: Colonoscopy was more sensitive than other tests, as currently undertaken, for detection of colonic polyps and cancers. These data have important implications for diagnostic use of colon imaging tests.