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Basic Sciences, Miscellaneus

Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: postoperative antibiotics decrease incidence of seroma-related cellulitis.
Edwards C, Angstadt J, Whipple O, Grau R
Am Surg. 2005 Nov;71(11):931-5; discussion 935-6.

Seroma formation has been documented as a common complication in laparoscopic ventral herniorraphy. However, there are no recent studies documenting the incidence of or protective strategies against seroma-related cellulitis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate 65 laparoscopic ventral herniorraphies and to determine if seroma-related cellulitis can be prevented by the routine use of postoperative prophylactic antibiotics. A retrospective case review of 65 laparoscopic ventral herniorraphies was done at our institution from February 2002 to January 2004. All were performed using either Gore-Tex DualMesh or Bard Composix mesh and performed under the direct supervision of a single surgeon. Twenty patients received only preoperative third-generation cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones. All other patients received either 7 days of postoperative oral cephalosporins or fluoroquinolones in addition to preoperative antibiotics. Sixty-five patients underwent laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. There were 45 patients in the postoperative antibiotic group and 20 patients in the preoperative-only antibiotic group. Twenty-one patients developed seromas. Twelve of these developed cellulitis. The rates of seroma formation were similar in the two groups with 30 per cent in the preoperative only group and 33 per cent in the postoperative antibiotic group. However, 100 per cent of the seromas in the preoperative antibiotic group developed seroma-related cellulitis. Only 40 per cent of seromas in the postoperative antibiotic group developed cellulitis. In addition, two seromas in the preoperative antibiotics-only group progressed to frank mesh infection necessitating operative removal. There were no complications related to antibiotic administration. Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair is a safe and effective procedure. Our seroma rate is 30 per cent and compares equally with prior reported studies. Seroma-related cellulitis is a common problem that can lead to mesh infection, postoperative morbidity, and further need for operative care. The administration of 7 days of postoperative prophylactic antibiotics appears to be a safe and effective means to limit seroma-related cellulitis.

[Transverse fracture of the sacrum: value of imaging. A case report]
Karray M, Rajhi H, Kouki S, Mnif N, Bouzidi R, Zlitni M, Hamza R
J Radiol. 2005 Jul-Aug;86(7-8):951-3.

Transverse fractures of the sacrum with major displacement are rare and often misdiagnosed. A case of transverse fracture of the sacrum with cauda equina injury is reported. The diagnosis was not recognized initially. Conventional radiographs of the pelvis failed to demonstrate the fracture. True lateral sacral views and CT scan with reconstructions allowed analysis of the different sagittal fracture lines to facilitate surgical planning. These examinations should be considered in all patients with history of high energy trauma and clinical signs indicating lumbosacral injury.

The efficacy of ginger for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting: a meta-analysis.
Chaiyakunapruk N, Kitikannakorn N, Nathisuwan S, Leeprakobboon K, Leelasettagool C
Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Jan;194(1):95-9.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to specifically determine the impact of a fixed dose of ginger administration, compared with placebo, on the 24-hour postoperative nausea and vomiting. STUDY DESIGN: The design was a systematic review and metaanalysis of trials revealed by searches. Randomized controlled trials comparing ginger with placebo to prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting from Medline, IPA, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, HealthStar, Current Contents, bibliographies of retrieved articles, contact of authors, and experts in the field. Two reviewers selected studies for inclusion and independently extracted data. RESULTS: Five randomized trials including a total of 363 patients were pooled for analysis of preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting. The summary relative risks of ginger for postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting were 0.69 (95% confidence interval 0.54 to 0.89) and 0.61 (95% confidence interval 0.45 to 0.84), respectively. Only one side effect, abdominal discomfort, was reported. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis demonstrates that a fixed dose at least 1 g of ginger is more effective than placebo for the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting and postoperative vomiting. Use of ginger is an effective means for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

Vaginal reconstruction with vertically oriented rectus abdominus myocutaneous (VRAM) flap following APR for locally advanced rectal cancer.
Segre D, Landra M
Tech Coloproctol. 2005 Dec;9(3):267.

Posterior perineal hernia--an unusual surgical complication!
Nunoo-Mensah JW, Memory YM, Jeyagopal NS, Richards DM
Surgery. 2006 Jan;139(1):126-8.

Incidence and management of perineal hernia after laparoscopic proctectomy.
de Campos FG, Habr-Gama A, Araujo SE, Sousa AH Jr, Nahas CR, Lupinacci RM, Nahas SC, Kiss DR, Gama-Rodrigues J
Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 2005 Dec;15(6):366-70.

Perineal hernia (PH) is formed by the protrusion of intra-abdominal viscera through a defect in the pelvic floor. This is a rare complication after conventional abdominoperineal resection, pelvic exanteration, proctectomy, and other pelvic procedures. The purpose of the present paper is to report 4 cases of PH after laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for rectal cancer and to review literature data about the incidence, predisposing factors, and treatment of this challenging problem. When added to other 3 cases previously reported in the Brazilian series of laparoscopic surgery, this group of 7 cases comprises a PH incidence of 3.5% after rectal resection procedures. Surgical treatment is indicated only in symptomatic patients with no signs of cancer recurrence. Proposed methods of surgical repair include abdominal, perineal, or combined approaches to the hernia in association with the use of autologous tissues or prosthetic meshes. Preventive measures are represented by closure of the pelvic peritoneum whenever possible, primary perineal suture and wound care to avoid infection.

Paradoxical inflammatory reaction to Seprafilm: case report and review of the literature.
David M, Sarani B, Moid F, Tabbara S, Orkin BA
South Med J 2005 Oct;98(10):1039-41.

This report describes a paradoxical inflammatory reaction to Seprafilm caused by extensive adhesion formation early in the postoperative period. A female patient had development of small bowel obstruction immediately after an uneventful low anterior resection for rectal carcinoma with placement of Seprafilm. The obstruction did not improve with nonoperative therapy. At laparotomy, extensive adhesions necessitating bowel resection and ileostomy were noted. Pathology results showed a giant cell foreign body reaction to Seprafilm. A literature search yielded only two other instances of adverse reactions to Seprafilm. The information provided by this and other atypical reports suggests that further studies aimed at identifying the incidence and pathophysiological mechanisms for such paradoxical reactions are needed.

Umbilical cord stem cells.
Moise KJ Jr
Obstet Gynecol 2005 Dec;106(6):1393-407.

Until recently, blood that remained in the umbilical cord and placenta after delivery was routinely discarded. Now that this blood is known to contain both hematopoietic stem cells and pluripotent mesenchymal cells, there has been a substantial increase in the clinical use and research investigation of umbilical cord blood in hematopoietic transplantation and regenerative medicine. Until now, standards for collection and processing were not well established. The debate continues regarding the private banking of autologous blood for "biologic insurance" versus public banking for access by the general population. Obstetricians should support the acquisition of cord units for public banking in their geographic location where cord blood banks have established collection procedures. Issues related to cost, quality control, and the need for ethnic diversity in public banks preclude the universal collection of units from all obstetric deliveries. Directed donation of cord blood should be considered when there is a specific diagnosis of a disease within a family known to be amenable to stem cell transplantation.

Adenocarcinoma of the cervix metastatic from a colon primary and diagnosed from a routine pap smear in a 17-year-old woman: a case report.
Sozen I, Small L, Kowalski M, Mayo SW, Hurwitz CA
J Reprod Med 2005 Oct;50(10):793-5.

BACKGROUND: Carcinoma metastatic to the uterine cervix is very rare. The most frequent nongenital primary sites are the stomach and colon. CASE: A 17-year-old woman presented to the office for an annual gynecologic examination. The Pap smear and cervical biopsy of a 1.5-cm lesion were positive for adenocarcinoma. Subsequent surgery revealed a sigmoid tumor with extensive abdominal and pelvic carcinomatosis. Following 2 cycles of ineffective chemotherapy, the patient died 4 months after her initial visit to the gynecologist. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this was the youngest patient in the literature with colon cancer metastatic to the cervix. This case focuses attention on the diagnostic challenge posed by an incidental finding of a cervical adenocarcinoma in the presence of an asymptomatic primary tumor.

Incisional Hernia: Early Complication of Abdominal Surgery.
Burger JW, Lange JF, Halm JA, Kleinrensink GJ, Jeekel H
World J Surg 2005 Nov 26;.

It has been suggested that early development of the incisional hernia is caused by perioperative factors, such as surgical technique and wound infection. Late development may implicate other factors, such as connective tissue disorders. Our objective was to establish whether incisional hernia develops early after abdominal surgery (i.e., during the first postoperative month). Patients who underwent a midline laparotomy between 1995 and 2001 and had had a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen during the first postoperative month were identified retrospectively. The distance between the two rectus abdominis muscles was measured on these CT scans, after which several parameters were calculated to predict incisional hernia development. Hernia development was established clinically through chart review or, if the chart review was inconclusive, by an outpatient clinic visit. The average and maximum distances between the left and right rectus abdominis muscles were significantly larger in patients with subsequent incisional hernia development than in those without an incisional hernia (P < 0.0001). Altogether, 92% (23/25) of incisional hernia patients had a maximum distance of more than 25 mm compared to only 18% (5/28) of patients without an incisional hernia (P < 0.0001). Incisional hernia occurrence can thus be predicted by measuring the distance between the rectus abdominis muscles on a postoperative CT scan. Although an incisional hernia develops within weeks of surgery, its clinical manifestation may take years. Our results indicate perioperative factors as the main cause of incisional hernias. Therefore, incisional hernia prevention should focus on perioperative factors.

When is Onuf's nucleus involved in multiple system atrophy? A sphincter electromyography study.
Yamamoto T, Sakakibara R, Uchiyama T, Liu Z, Ito T, Awa Y, Yamamoto K, Kinou M, Yamanishi T, Hattori T
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2005 Dec;76(12):1645-8.

BACKGROUND: External anal sphincter (EAS) electromyography (EMG) abnormalities can distinguish multiple system atrophy (MSA) from Parkinson's disease in the first five years after disease onset. However, the prevalence of the abnormalities in the early stages of MSA is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To present EAS-EMG data in the various stages of MSA. METHODS: 84 patients with "probable" MSA were recruited (42 men, 42 women; mean age 62 years (range 47 to 78); mean disease duration 3.2 years (0.5 to 8.0; <1 year in 25%); 50 cerebellar form (MSA-C), 34 parkinsonian form (MSA-P)). EAS motor unit potential (MUP) analysis and EMG cystometry were carried out in all patients. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of neurogenic change of the EAS MUP was 62%-52% in the first year after disease onset, increasing to 83% by the fifth year (p<0.05); it also increased with severity of gait disturbance (p<0.05), storage and voiding disorders, and detrusor sphincter dyssynergy (NS). The neurogenic change was not correlated with sex, age, MSA-P/C, postural hypotension, constipation, erectile dysfunction in men, underactive or acontractile detrusor, or detrusor overactivity. In 17 incontinent patients without detrusor overactivity or low compliance, urinary incontinence was more severe in those with neurogenic change than in those without (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Involvement of Onuf's nucleus in MSA is time dependent. Before the fifth year of illness, the prevalence of neurogenic change does not seem to be high, so a negative result cannot exclude the diagnosis of MSA.

Cellular telephone interference with medical equipment.
Tri JL, Severson RP, Firl AR, Hayes DL, Abenstein JP
Mayo Clin Proc 2005 Oct;80(10):1286-90.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the potential electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects that new or current-generation cellular telephones have on medical devices. MATERIAL AND METHODS: For this study, performed at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minn, between March 9, 2004, and April 24, 2004, we tested 16 different medical devices with 6 cellular telephones to assess the potential for EMI. Two of the medical devices were tested with both new and old interface modules. The 6 cellular telephones chosen represent the different cellular technology protocols in use: Code Division Multiple Access (2 models), Global System for Mobile communications, Integrated Digital Enhanced Network, Time Division Multiple Access, and analog. The cellular telephones were tested when operating at or near their maximum power output. The medical devices, connected to clinical simulators during testing, were monitored by observing the device displays and alarms. RESULTS: Of 510 tests performed, the incidence of clinically important interference was 1.2%; EMI was Induced in 108 tests (21.2%). Interference occurred in 7 (44%) of the 16 devices tested. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular telephones can interfere with medical equipment. Technology changes in both cellular telephones and medical equipment may continue to mitigate or may worsen clinically relevant interference. Compared with cellular telephones tested in previous studies, those currently in use must be closer to medical devices before any interference is noticed. However, periodic testing of cellular telephones to determine their effects on medical equipment will be required.

[The physics of vacuum therapy]
Maier D, Beck A, Kinzl L, Bischoff M
Zentralbl Chir 2005 Oct;130(5):463-8.

BACKGROUND: Vacuum therapy is a routine and successful method for wound treatment and for the temporary covering of soft-tissue defects. It is an occlusive method that can be used for treating acute, chronic and infected wounds. To date, no data are available regarding secretion transit times and pressure conditions in lesions treated with vacuum therapy. The present study had as its objectives to examine the mechanisms of vacuum therapy and determine the effects of physical forces on the wound surface with the purpose of formulating recommendations for pressure settings using the various available vacuum pumps. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using an appropriate model, we measured secretion transit times and pressures using two different vacuum therapy pads. We then conducted pressure measurements during dressing change in eight patients with wound surfaces greater than 20 cm(2). RESULTS: The secretion transit times remained unchanged with the polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) pad and a negative pressure of 40 kPa, but decreased by about 50 % when the black polyurethane (PU) pad was used. Pressure measurements showed that, at this negative pressure, there was only a slight positive external pressure of 31 mmHg on the wound surface. CONCLUSION: When the PVA pad is used, negative pressures greater than 40 kPa should be applied in order to effect a maximum transit of wound secretion and prolongation of the use of the vacuum dressing. When the PU pad is used, the applied negative pressure can be lower due to the pad's larger pores, as recommended by Argenta and Morykwas. An excessive external pressure on the wound surface does not occur.

Pelvic, abdominal, and chest wall reconstruction with AlloDerm in patients at increased risk for mesh-related complications.
Butler CE, Langstein HN, Kronowitz SJ
Plast Reconstr Surg 2005 Oct;116(5):1263-75; discussion 1276-7.

BACKGROUND: The use of polypropylene mesh in the reconstruction of trunk defects increases complication rates when the mesh is placed directly over viscera or the operative site has been irradiated or contaminated with bacteria. An alternative is AlloDerm (decellularized human cadaveric dermis), which becomes vascularized and remodeled into autologous tissue after implantation. When used for fascial reconstruction, AlloDerm forms a strong repair, causes minimal abdominal adhesions, and resists infection. METHODS: We did a retrospective study of cancer patients at increased risk for mesh-related complications who underwent trunk reconstruction with AlloDerm over a 1-year period. Risk factors included unavoidable placement of mesh directly over the bowel or lung, perioperative irradiation, and/or bacterial contamination of the defect. The indications, defect characteristics, reconstructive techniques, complications, and surgical outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirteen patients were included in the study. Indications for reconstruction were oncologic resection, resection of enterocutaneous fistula, and/or ventral hernia repair. Seven patients had bacterial contamination at the operative site and seven patients received perioperative radiation. The mean musculofascial defect size was 435 cm. AlloDerm was placed directly over the bowel or lung in all patients. Nine patients required flap reconstruction, including 14 pedicled and two free flaps. The mean follow-up was 6.4 months. Complications occurred in six patients, however, there were no clinically evident mesh infections, hernias, or bulges. CONCLUSIONS: AlloDerm successfully can be used in reconstructions for large, complex pelvic, chest, and abdominal wall defects even when placed directly over viscera and when the operative field is irradiated and/or contaminated with bacteria.

Lower urinary tract symptoms after total and subtotal hysterectomy: results of a randomized controlled trial.
Gimbel H, Zobbe V, Andersen BJ, Sorensen HC, Toftager-Larsen K, Sidenius K, Moller N, Madsen EM, Vejtorp M, Clausen H, Rosgaard A, Villumsen J, Gluud C, Ottesen BS, Tabor A
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Jul-Aug;16(4):257-62.

The aim of this Danish multicenter trial was to compare the proportion of women with lower urinary tract symptoms after total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) and subtotal abdominal hysterectomy (SAH) for benign uterine disorders. A total of 319 women were randomized to TAH (n = 158) or SAH (n = 161). Women were followed up for 1 year by strict data collection procedures, including postal questionnaires. Results were analyzed by intention-to-treat analyses. Urinary incontinence was found less often among TAH women than among SAH women. This was due to a larger reduction of the number of women with stress and urinary incontinence in the TAH group. No other differences were found between the two operation methods. The number of women with urinary incontinence and frequency was reduced from study entry for follow-up, while double/triple voiding was increased. Incontinent women had significantly lower quality of life scores than continent women

Coincidence of connective tissue growth factor expression with fibrosis and angiogenesis in postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation.
Thaler K, Mack JA, Berho M, Grotendorst G, Wexner SD, Abramson SR
Eur Surg Res 2005 Jul-Aug;37(4):235-41.

Purpose: To investigate the relationship between connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibrosis and angiogenesis in postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation. Methods: Adhesions were performed in 35 rats by creation of a peritoneal patch. Animals were sacrificed at 7 different time-points over 3 weeks. Adhesions and uninjured peritoneum from all animals were assessed by Northern blotting for CTGF and collagen-I mRNA and by immunohistochemistry for CTGF localization, degree of fibrosis and angiogenesis. Results: Persistent adhesions formed in all animals. CTGF and collagen-I mRNA were increased in adhesions compared to uninjured peritoneum (p < 0.05 for both). The temporal expression pattern depicted delayed peak levels of collagen-I mRNA with increasing tendency for both transcripts at the end of the observation period. Fibrosis within adhesions correlated positively with time after surgery (r = 0.85; p < 0.001) and showed typical signs of chronic tissue fibrosis at later time points. Angiogenesis was detected in adhesions but not in uninjured peritoneum (p = 0.001) and coincided with the spatial and temporal expression of CTGF protein in fibroblasts and vascular endothelial cells. Conclusions: The co-expression of CTGF with increasing fibrosis and angiogenesis in postoperative peritoneal adhesions suggests a role for CTGF as critical molecule in fibrous adhesive disease and target for future adhesion prevention.

Preservation of bowel and urinary continence in the management of locally recurrent rectal cancer.
Wasserberg N, Kaiser AM, Nunoo-Mensah JW, Biernacki P, Kleisli T, Beart RW Jr
J Surg Oncol 2005 Oct 1;92(1):76-81.

BACKGROUND: The management of locally recurrent rectal cancer should achieve local tumor control and potentially improving disease-free and overall survival. Radical pelvic resection has traditionally been associated with permanent fecal and urinary diversion. However, as advanced techniques have evolved to allow restoration of intestinal and urinary continence, we reviewed the use of these techniques in patients with recurrent rectal cancer. METHODS: Patients with recurrent rectal cancer who underwent a resection at Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center between 1993 and 1999 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included demographic data, surgical and oncological history, patterns of recurrence, treatment modalities, and outcome. Follow-up data was obtained from the last clinic visit and/or tumor registry. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients with locally recurrent rectal cancer (male/female 45/22, age 32-81 years) were included in the analysis. Continence was re-established in 22 (33%) patients, urinary continence was restored in 12 patients, and intestinal continuity in 14 patients (both in 4 patients). A temporary diverting ostomy was necessary in 5 out of 14 (36%) patients. Mortality was zero and morbidity was low and included two urinary leaks and one fecal leak all of which could be managed non-operatively. At a median follow-up of 16 months (range 5-55), 11 (50%) patients were still alive, 7 (31%) without evidence of disease. Comparison of the groups of patients either with or without continence preservation showed no statistically significant difference in disease-free survival and overall survival rates. High quality of life was achieved with restoration of continuity, no patient with restored continuity expressed a desire for a diversion. CONCLUSION: If an oncologically adequate resection of the recurrent rectal cancer can be performed without impairment of the pelvic floor integrity, continence preservation is feasible and results in good functional and oncological outcome.

The Potential of Wash-and-Dry Toilets to Improve the Toileting Experience for Nursing Home Residents.
Cohen-Mansfield J, Biddison JR
Gerontologist 2005 Oct;45(5):694-9.

PURPOSE: We investigated the feasibility of using a "wash-and-dry" toilet in the nursing home. DESIGN AND METHODS: We used a controlled comparison baseline-versus-treatment design with 22 female nursing home residents aged 75 and older living in a 562-bed, not-for-profit nursing home facility in Maryland. The Luscence Luxury Lavage wash-and-dry toilet-bidet system was installed in the bathrooms of the experimental group. Measurements included staff and resident toilet experiences and toilet reaction questionnaires, utilization logs, Minimum Data Set information, Mini-Mental State Examination scores, and urine cultures. RESULTS: About half of the residents and staff members reported the toilet to have a positive effect on toileting. We saw a positive trend in resident affect for the experimental group that was not apparent for the comparison group. Nursing staff reported that the toilet functions did clean the residents, but that cleaning was not complete. Bacterial content of urine decreased in the experimental group and increased in the comparison group during the trial. Toilet installation was more complex than anticipated. IMPLICATIONS: These results show that a wash-and-dry toilet shows promise for improved resident comfort in toileting and cleanliness, although further research is needed to verify the findings. Improved toilet design, design of nursing homes, and design of care activities would all improve the utility of these toilets in the nursing home population.

Effects of pregnancy and child birth on urinary symptoms and urodynamics in women with multiple sclerosis.
Durufle A, Petrilli S, Nicolas B, Robineau S, Guille F, Edan G, Gallien P
Int Urogynecol J Pelvic Floor Dysfunct 2005 Oct 5;:1-4.

OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to study the impact of pregnancy and delivery on vesicourethral disorders in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN AND SETTING: We performed a retrospective chart review of records of women diagnosed with MS who were referred to the clinic. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 102 women with MS (mean age of 44.7+/-11.4 years at the time of the study and mean age of 30.0+/-9.6 years at the onset of MS) participated in the study. The mean duration of disease was 15+/-10 years. The mean Expanded Disability Status Scale score was 5.4+/-1.8. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: For each patient, demographic data, disease characteristics, urological and obstetrical history and urodynamic data were collected. Urinary disorders were classified as irritative (urinary urgency and frequency) or as obstructive (hesitancy of micturition, reduced or interrupted urinary stream and sensation of incomplete bladder emptying). Urodynamic study consisted of cystometry with continuous recording of urethral sphincter electromyography in 77 (76%) cases. Intravesical and intraurethral pressures were recorded. Bladder dysfunctions were classified into neurogenic detrusor overactivity or detrusor underactivity. RESULTS: Pregnancies and deliveries did not influence symptoms. Moreover, the only statistical difference from a urodynamic point of view was a decrease in maximal urethral closure pressure. CONCLUSION: No interaction between pregnancy, delivery and urinary symptoms was found in this study. The effects of pregnancy and delivery seemed to be the same in women with MS and in healthy women, with a tendency towards a decrease in urethral pressure in women with MS.

Intertrigo and common secondary skin infections.
Janniger CK, Schwartz RA, Szepietowski JC, Reich A
Am Fam Physician 2005 Sep 1;72(5):833-8.

Intertrigo is inflammation of skinfolds caused by skin-on-skin friction. It is a common skin condition affecting opposing cutaneous or mucocutaneous surfaces. Intertrigo may present as diaper rash in children. The condition appears in natural and obesity-created body folds. The friction in these folds can lead to a variety of complications such as secondary bacterial or fungal infections. The usual approach to managing intertrigo is to minimize moisture and friction with absorptive powders such as cornstarch or with barrier creams. Patients should wear light, nonconstricting, and absorbent clothing and avoid wool and synthetic fibers. Physicians should educate patients about precautions with regard to heat, humidity, and outside activities. Physical exercise usually is desirable, but patients should shower afterward and dry intertriginous areas thoroughly. Wearing open-toed shoes can be beneficial for toe web intertrigo. Secondary bacterial and fungal infections should be treated with antiseptics, antibiotics, or antifungals, depending on the pathogens.

Excess Deaths Associated With Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity.
Flegal KM, Graubard BI, Williamson DF, Gail MH
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005 Sep;60(9):593-595.

This study was an attempt to estimate deaths associated with being underweight (body mass index [BMI] less than 18.5 kg/m), overweight (BMI 25-29 kg/m), and obese (BMI 30 or higher kg/m). Relative mortality risks associated with different BMI levels were estimated from 3 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) trials covering the years 1971-1975 (NHANES I), 1976-1980 with follow up through 1992 (NHANES II), and 1988-1994 with follow up through 2000 (NHANES III), respectively. Relative risk estimates were applied to the distribution of BMI and other covariates from NHANES 1999-2002 to estimate mortality risk while adjusting for possible confounding factors, including age. Deaths in the NHANES I, II, and III trials totalled 3923, 2133, and 2793, respectively.Obesity was associated with an increased mortality risk, especially for younger subjects. Relative risk was low in overweight individuals. Relative risk figures for underweight persons generally exceeded unity. A similar pattern was evident for each of the 3 surveys. Although a BMI of 35 kg/m or above was relatively infrequent, these individuals accounted for a majority of obesity-related excess deaths in the year 2000. The relative mortality risk associated with obesity was higher in NHANES I than in the other 2 trials. Compared with normal-weight subjects, those who were overweight had a slight reduction in mortality. Of the 111,909 excess deaths associated with obesity, a majority occurred in persons less than 70 years of age. The opposite was the case for underweight persons.In NHANES surveys dating back to 1971, both underweight and obesity-especially a high degree of obesity-are associated with increased mortality compared with normal-weight persons. Possibly better medical care and improved public health measures have lessened the effect of obesity on mortality. The findings are in accord with increased life expectancy in the United States and with decreasing mortality from ischemic heart disease.

Transvaginal laparoscopy.
Gordts S, Puttemans P, Gordts S, Brosens I, Campo R
Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol 2005 Aug 5;.

Transvaginal laparoscopy (TvL) offers an alternative to standard diagnostic laparoscopy in subfertile patients without obvious pelvic pathology. With a specially developed needle-trocar system, access to the pouch of Douglas is gained through a needle puncture of the posterior fornix. Performed under local anaesthesia or sedation with the patient in a dorsal decubitus position and using prewarmed Ringer lactate as a distension medium, TvL allows complete exploration of the tubo-ovarian structures without supplementary manipulation. The combination of transvaginal sonography and transvaginal endoscopy, including minihysteroscopy, TvL, salpingoscopy and chromopertubation test, permits the most complete exploration of the reproductive tract and can be used as a first-line investigation of female fertility in a one-stop infertility clinic. As the transvaginal route offers easy access to the tubes, ovaries and fossa ovarica, some operative procedures are possible. However, in the absence of a panoramic view, these will be limited to minor interventions.

Well leg compartment syndrome after pelvic and perineal surgery in the lithotomy position.
Simms MS, Terry TR
Postgrad Med J 2005 Aug;81(958):534-6.

OBJECTIVE: Lower limb compartment syndrome after prolonged surgical procedures performed in the lithotomy position is a rare but potentially devastating complication. It is recognised after urological, colorectal, and gynaecological procedures. Sixteen cases of compartment syndrome after urological surgery have been reported. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of this complication in urological practice and identify risk factors for its development. DESIGN: A postal survey of UK consultant urologists was conducted. RESULTS: Replies were received from 261 consultants. In total there were 65 cases of compartment syndrome. Compartment syndrome occurred after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion in 51 cases and was rare in procedures lasting less than four hours. The incidence of compartment syndrome after cystectomy was estimated at around 1 in 500 cases. Risk factors for its development included perioperative blood loss, peripheral vascular disease, and obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Compartment syndrome after use of the lithotomy position may be more common than is generally appreciated and has been underreported in the past. All staff should be aware of this serious complication and adopt strategies for its avoidance.

Chronic inflammation of the peritoneum and vagina: review of its significance, immunologic pathogenesis, investigation and rationale for treatment.
Thomson JC
J Reprod Med 2005 Jul;50(7):507-12.

Chronic inflammation is not an infrequent histologic finding in symptomatic gynecologic patients. It is present in 14.6% of peritoneal biopsies in women with chronic pelvic pain in whom no other cause of pain is evident. It is found in almost all vaginal biopsies in noninfected women with dyspareunia and discharge of vaginal mucosal origin. It represents a local immunologically activated inflammatory disorder. When investigations are car ried out as to whether it is a local representation of a systemic disorder, numerous systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders are discovered. A study of chronic pain reveals that the immune system is intimately involved in the production, conduction and exacerbation of pain and of its clinicalfeatures, such as hyperalgesia and allodynia. Immune modification using local steroids and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, such as hydroxychloroquine, are known to inhibit inflammatory cells and cytokines, such as interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor, which are responsible for pain and tissue damage. These drugs are found to be effective in the treatment of chronic pelvic pain when of an inflammatory nature and for symptomatic chronic inflammation of the vagina.

Comparative investigation of alloplastic materials for hernia repair with improved methodology.
Kapischke M, Prinz K, Tepel J, Tensfeldt J, Schulz T
Surg Endosc 2005 Jul 14;.

BACKGROUND: A variety of alloplastic materials are used for hernia repair. We discuss the long-term stability and possible shrinkage of these materials. In the past, measurement of pore sizes was used to study the physical properties of alloplastic meshes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the measurement of pore sizes with regard to its correlation to possible mesh alteration. METHODS: The water absorption of different polypropylene (PP) and polyester (PE) mesh materials under defined conditions was studied. For shrinkage studies, meshes were stored in formaldehyde, distilled water, saline solution, trypsin solution, urea solution, and hydrogen peroxide. The measurement of the relation between material and pore was evaluated to investigate the potential shrinking and enlargement processes. This material-pore index (MPI) before as well as 1, 7, and 14 days after incubation was measured. RESULTS: In comparison to measuring single pore sizes, MPI determination is the more efficient method to evaluate the possible shrinking or enlargement processes of alloplastic materials. With this technique, incorrect determination of pore sizes due to the dynamic textile structure of meshes and to shrinkage or enlargement, is excluded. All tested alloplastic materials showed an insignificant increase in water absorption under the condition of rehydration up to 0.4%. We did not observe variances in the material in shrinking or enlargement. CONCLUSIONS: MPI was found to be more reliable than measuring single pores to investigate possible external influences on polymer materials. Biomaterials such as PP and PE proved to be absolutely inert under various in vitro conditions.

Kugel herniorrhaphy: clinical results of 124 consecutive operations.
Misawa T, Sakurai M, Kanai H, Matsushima M, Yamazaki Y, Yanaga K
Surg Today 2005;35(8):639-44.

PURPOSE: Due to its recent clinical application, the results of Kugel herniorrhaphy have not yet been well documented. We analyzed our experience in performing 124 consecutive Kugel herniorrhaphies at a single institute. METHODS: Since the first introduction of Kugel herniorrhaphy in Japan in September 2001, a total of 117 patients (124 hernias) have undergone this procedure at our institute. The operative technique of Kugel herniorrhaphy was directly obtained through two hands-on training courses that were given by Dr. Kugel. The clinical results of the 124 hernias were analyzed, and to understand the feasibility of performing Kugel herniorrhaphy for various types of hernias, the operation time and the necessity for dividing the hernia sac were compared among each type based on the Nyhus classification. RESULTS: The operation times in types 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, and 4 were 48.5 +/- 19.5, 45.9 +/- 19.9, 54.2 +/- 24.8, 52.5 +/- 10.6, and 64.4 +/- 56.7 min, respectively, and the differences between each group were not statistically significant. In type 3A, no patient required a division of the hernia sac (0%), in contrast to 43% in type 3B. Peritoneal injury during operation and local hematoma/seroma were the most common complications (8.1% and 8.9%, respectively). Postoperatively the patients' quality of life factors, such as the analgesics needed, number of days before a return to normal activity, number of days before a return to work, and the recurrence rate of 0.9%, were comparable with other tension-free herniorrhaphy findings reported in the past. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that Kugel herniorrhaphy is equally feasible for all types of Nyhus classifications, including femoral and recurrent hernias.

Posterior urethral valves in a newborn with imperforate anus: clinical presentation and management.
Banever GT, Moriarty KP
J Pediatr Surg 2005 Aug;40(8):1332-4.

Anorectal malformations are frequently associated with urinary tract abnormalities, which generally consist of vesicoureteral reflux, renal agenesis, and bladder dysfunction. Posterior urethral valves associated with anorectal malformations are exceedingly rare. We report the third case described in literature and the unique management.

Atresia of the colon.
Etensel B, Temir G, Karkiner A, Melek M, Edirne Y, Karaca I, Mir E
J Pediatr Surg 2005 Aug;40(8):1258-68.

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Colonic atresia (CA) is one of the rarest causes of neonatal intestinal obstructions, and no large series can be reported. Therefore, we did perform a retrospective clinical trial to delineate our CA cases and carry out a literature survey. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of CA cases treated in our center between 1992 and 2002. We aimed to collect all reported cases in Medline, and personal communications with the authors of published series were used to reach the missing data. RESULTS: The chart review revealed 9 newborns with CA treated in our center (6 cases of type III, 2 cases of type II, and 1 case of type IV). These accounted for 3.7% of all gastrointestinal atresias managed in our center. Of the CA cases, 3 were isolated and 6 had at least one or more associated congenital anomalies. The preferred surgical technique at the initial treatment of CA was performing a proximal stoma and distal mucous fistula in an average of postnatal 59.4 hours. The literature survey enabled us to reach 224 cases of CA, including our cases. CONCLUSIONS: Because of the low incidence of CA, delay in diagnosis and treatment may occur. The mortality is statistically higher when the surgical management is performed after 72 hours of age. However, the prognosis of CA is satisfactory if diagnosis and surgical management could be made promptly and properly.

Lyme disease.
Postgrad Med 2005 Jun;117(6):47-8.

Sjogren's syndrome.
Fox RI
Lancet 2005 Jul 23-29;366(9482):321-31.

Sjogren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder of the exocrine glands with associated lymphocytic infiltrates of the affected glands. Dryness of the mouth and eyes results from involvement of the salivary and lacrimal glands. The accessibility of these glands to biopsy enables study of the molecular biology of a tissue-specific autoimmune process. The exocrinopathy can be encountered alone (primary Sjogren's syndrome) or in the presence of another autoimmune disorder such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or progressive systemic sclerosis. A new international consensus for diagnosis requires objective signs and symptoms of dryness including a characteristic appearance of a biopsy sample from a minor salivary gland or autoantibody such as anti-SS-A. Exclusions to the diagnosis include infections with HIV, human T-lymphotropic virus type I, or hepatitis C virus. Therapy includes topical agents to improve moisture and decrease inflammation. Systemic therapy includes steroidal and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, disease-modifying agents, and cytotoxic agents to address the extraglandular manifestations involving skin, lung, heart, kidneys, and nervous system (peripheral and central) and haematological and lymphoproliferative disorders. The most difficult challenge in diagnosis and therapy is patients with symptoms of fibromyalgia (arthralgia, myalgia, fatigue) and oral and ocular dryness in the presence of circulating antinuclear antibodies.

[Unclear per anum bleeding during pregnancy.]
Kuhne HP, Goller T, Schneider I, Bozkurt T, Becker HP
Chirurg 2005 Jun 22;.

A 30-year-old, 7-months pregnant woman presented with per anum bleeding. Rectoscopy showed the cause to be a polyp the size of a fingertip 9 cm from the anus. Since the bleeding stopped spontaneously and therefore the need for radical intervention, and due to the advanced pregnancy stage, no biopsy was done. About 1 year later, the same patient experienced sharp pains and anal bleeding during defecation. A poorly defined neuroendocrine carcinoma was diagnosed. Seeking a prognosis optimal for the newborn child, the interdisciplinary decision was made for primary surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy. Other options for this malignancy during and after pregnancy are also discussed.

Relationships between symptoms and venous disease: the San Diego population study.
Langer RD, Ho E, Denenberg JO, Fronek A, Allison M, Criqui MH
Arch Intern Med 2005 Jun 27;165(12):1420-4.

BACKGROUND: The associations between symptoms and venous disease of the lower extremities are poorly characterized. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to evaluate relationships between symptoms associated with venous disease and prevalent disease in 2408 men and women aged 29 to 91 years who were employees, retirees, or spouses at a large state university. Index participants were randomly selected within strata by age, sex, and ethnicity. A structured interview assessed the prevalence of aching, itching, heaviness, tired legs, cramping, swelling, and nighttime restless legs. A comprehensive standardized examination determined the prevalence of visible disease (normal, telangiectasias, varicose veins, and trophic changes) and functional disease (normal, superficial, and deep disease). We related symptoms to disease with attention to modification by sex, ethnicity, and age. RESULTS: Aching, itching, heaviness, tired legs, cramping, and swelling were related to both superficial and deep functional disease. The same symptoms were related to varicose veins and trophic changes. Swelling and heaviness were related to telangiectatic disease. Except for restless legs and trophic changes, the prevalence of symptoms across each category was greater in women than men. Aching was the most common symptom but was relatively nonspecific. Swelling was the most specific marker for prevalent visible and functional disease. Heaviness and itching also helped to distinguish prevalent disease. CONCLUSIONS: Venous symptoms were more prevalent in study participants with both visible and functional disease and in women. Swelling was the most specific predictor; heaviness, itching, and aching also helped to distinguish cases.

Preoperative Antibiotics and Mortality in the Elderly.
Silber JH, Rosenbaum PR, Trudeau ME, Chen W, Zhang X, Lorch SA, Kelz RR, Mosher RE, Even-Shoshan O
Ann Surg 2005 Jul;242(1):107-114.

OBJECTIVE AND BACKGROUND: It is generally thought that the use of preoperative antibiotics reduces the risk of postoperative infection, yet few studies have described the association between preoperative antibiotics and the risk of dying. The objective of this study was to determine whether preoperative antibiotics are associated with a reduced risk of death. METHODS: We performed a multivariate matched, population-based, case-control study of death following surgery on 1362 Pennsylvania Medicare patients between 65 and 85 years of age undergoing general and orthopedic surgery. Cases (681 deaths within 60 days from hospital admission) were randomly selected throughout Pennsylvania using claims from 1995 and 1996. Models were developed to scan Medicare claims, looking for controls who did not die and who were the closest matches to the previously selected cases based on preoperative characteristics. Cases and their controls were identified, and charts were abstracted to define antibiotic use and obtain baseline severity adjustment data. RESULTS: For general surgery, the odds of dying within 60 days were less than half in those treated with preoperative antibiotics within 2 hours of incision as compared with those without such treatment: (odds ratio = 0.44; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.60), P < 0.0001). For orthopedic surgery, no significant mortality reduction was observed (OR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.32; P < 0.464). INTERPRETATION: Preoperative antibiotics are associated with a substantially lower 60-day mortality rate in elderly patients undergoing general surgery. In patients who appear to be comparable, the risk of death was half as large among those who received preoperative antibiotics.

Quality of US outpatient care: temporal changes and racial/ethnic disparities.
Ma J, Stafford RS
Arch Intern Med 2005 Jun 27;165(12):1354-61.

BACKGROUND: The current national measure set for the quality of health care underrepresents the spectrum of outpatient care and makes limited use of readily available national ambulatory care survey data. METHODS: We examined 23 outpatient quality indicators in 1992 and again in 2002 to measure overall performance and racial/ethnic disparities in outpatient care in the United States. The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey yielded information about ambulatory services provided in private physician offices and hospital outpatient departments, respectively. Quality indicator performance was defined as the percentage of applicable visits receiving appropriate care. RESULTS: In 2002, mean performance was 50% or more of applicable visits for 12 quality indicators, 7 of which were in the areas of appropriate antibiotic use and avoiding unnecessary routine screening. The performance of the remaining 11 indicators ranged from 15% to 42%. Overall, changes between 1992 and 2002 were modest, with significant improvements in 6 indicators: treatment of depression (47% vs 83%), statin use for hyperlipidemia (10% vs 37%), inhaled corticosteroid use for asthma in adults (25% vs 42%) and children (11% vs 36%), avoiding routine urinalysis during general medical examinations (63% vs 73%), and avoiding inappropriate medications in the elderly (92% vs 95%). After adjusting for potential confounders, race/ethnicity did not seem to affect quality indicator performance, except for greater angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use for congestive health failure among blacks and less unnecessary antibiotic use for uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections among whites. CONCLUSIONS: Measurable quality deficits and modest improvements across time call for greater adherence to evidence-based medicine in US ambulatory settings. Although significant racial disparities have been described in a variety of settings, we observed that similar, although less than optimal, care is being provided on a per-visit basis regardless of patient racial/ethnic background.

Support of evidence-based guidelines for the annual physical examination: a survey of primary care providers.
Prochazka AV, Lundahl K, Pearson W, Oboler SK, Anderson RJ
Arch Intern Med 2005 Jun 27;165(12):1347-52.

BACKGROUND: Current evidence does not support an annual screening physical examination for asymptomatic adults, but little is known about primary care provider (PCP) attitudes and practices regarding an annual physical examination. METHODS: We conducted a postal survey (32 items) of attitudes and practices regarding the annual physical examination (in asymptomatic patients 18 years or older) of a random sample of PCPs (specializing in internal medicine, family practice, and obstetrics/gynecology) from 3 geographic areas (Boston, Mass; Denver, Colo; and San Diego, Calif). RESULTS: Respondents included 783 (47%) of 1679 PCPs. Overall, 430 (65%) of 664 agreed that an annual physical examination is necessary. Three hundred ninety-three (55%) of 712 disagreed with the statement that national organizations do not recommend an annual physical examination, and 641 (88%) of 726 perform such examinations. Most PCPs agreed that an annual physical examination provides time to counsel patients about preventive health services (696/739 [94%]), improves patient-physician relationships (693/737 [94%]), and is desired by most patients (572/737 [78%]). Most also believe that an annual physical examination improves detection of subclinical illness (545/738 [74%]) and is of proven value (461/736 [63%]). Many believed that tests should be part of an annual physical examination, including mammography (44%), a lipid panel (48%), urinalysis (44%), testing of blood glucose level (46%), and complete blood cell count (39%). CONCLUSIONS: Despite contrary evidence, most PCPs believe an annual physical examination detects subclinical illness, and many report performing unproven screening laboratory tests. Primary care providers do not appear to accept recommendations that annual physical examinations be abandoned in favor of a more selective approach to preventing health problems.

Restless legs syndrome prevalence and impact: REST general population study.
Allen RP, Walters AS, Montplaisir J, Hening W, Myers A, Bell TJ, Ferini-Strambi L
Arch Intern Med 2005 Jun 13;165(11):1286-92.

BACKGROUND: Restless legs syndrome (RLS), a common sensorimotor disorder, has a wide range of severity from merely annoying to affecting sleep and quality of life severely enough to warrant medical treatment. Previous epidemiological studies, however, have failed to determine the prevalence of those with clinically significant RLS symptoms and to examine the life effects and medical experiences of this group. METHODS: A total of 16 202 adults (aged >/=18 years) were interviewed using validated diagnostic questions to determine the presence, frequency, and severity of RLS symptoms; respondents reporting RLS symptoms were asked about medical diagnoses and the impact of the disorder and completed the Short Form-36 Health Survey (SF-36). Criteria determined by RLS experts for medically significant RLS (frequency at least twice a week, distress at least moderate) defined "RLS sufferers" as a group most likely to warrant medical treatment. RESULTS: In all, 15 391 fully completed questionnaires were obtained; in the past year, RLS symptoms of any frequency were reported by 1114 (7.2%). Symptoms occurred at least weekly for 773 respondents (5.0%); they occurred at least 2 times per week and were reported as moderately or severely distressing by 416 (2.7%). Of those 416 (termed RLS sufferers), 337 (81.0%) reported discussing their symptoms with a primary care physician, and only 21 (6.2%) were given a diagnosis of RLS. The SF-36 scores for RLS sufferers were significantly below population norms, matching those of patients with other chronic medical conditions. CONCLUSION: Clinically significant RLS is common (prevalence, 2.7%), is underdiagnosed, and significantly affects sleep and quality of life.

Quantification of motion characteristics and forces applied to tissues during suturing.
Dubrowski A, Sidhu R, Park J, Carnahan H
Am J Surg 2005 Jul;190(1):131-6.

BACKGROUND: The quantification of movement processes describes how a movement is generated. These process measures have been shown to be effective sources of feedback to facilitate motor learning and can thus be applied to teach fundamental technical skills in surgery. The aim of this study was to determine, through detailed analyses, whether specific process measures of hand motions and forces imposed on tissues during suturing were sensitive to (1) practice and (2) levels of surgical expertise. METHODS: Six junior surgical residents (PGY-1) and 7 faculty surgeons were required to perform 20 simulated sutures on an artificial artery model, during which time the performers' hand movements were tracked by electromagnetic markers and the quantity of force they applied was measured by a force platform holding the arterial suturing models. The amount of wrist rotation and peak hand velocity produced during the suturing movement, peak and average forces applied to the tissue, the temporal difference between force and wrist rotation onsets, and the total suturing time were evaluated. RESULTS: Surgeons showed greater wrist rotation, higher average forces, shorter force-rotation initiation times, and shorter suturing times than did junior residents. Only the amount of wrist rotation and the time elapsed between force and wrist rotation onsets improved with practice for the junior group. CONCLUSIONS: Although all 4 variables measured can be used to distinguish between expert and novice performances, only the process measures (wrist rotation and force-rotation initiation time) changed as a result of practice for the junior residents. Thus, these measures can be used to facilitate skills learning by serving as a source of detailed structured feedback to trainees.

Attitudes regarding surgeons' attire.
Major K, Hayase Y, Balderrama D, Lefor AT
Am J Surg 2005 Jul;190(1):103-6.

BACKGROUND: No studies to date exist regarding the attire of physicians on a surgical service. The objective of this study was to determine patient, surgeon, and nonhospitalized public (NHP) attitudes and preferences regarding surgeons' attire and mannerisms. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed to survey each group. The Internet was used as a novel avenue to survey the NHP. Eight questions were presented to each group, and each question had three possible responses: agree, disagree, or no opinion. Total responses and percentages were determined for each group's answers, and statistical analysis was performed using chi-square test. RESULTS: Thirty-eight surgical inpatients, 38 surgeons, and 334 NHP participated in the study. All groups agreed that surgeons should wear nametags while they are seeing patients. Inpatients agreed with surgeons that surgeons should wear white coats while seeing patients (P > .05). Surgeons considered scrubs and clogs to be acceptable attire, which differed from all other groups (P < .05). Although 31% of the NHP considered blue jeans acceptable, only 10% of surgeons (P < .05) and 22% of patients (P > .05) considered them acceptable. All groups believed that a surgeon's appearance influences their perceptions and impressions regarding the quality of medical care they received (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Based on the agreement of all groups that a surgeon's appearance and mannerisms affects perceptions of the quality of medical care received, surgeons should respond to these perceptions and dress accordingly while seeing surgical patients.

Surgeons: employees or professionals?
Fischer JE
Am J Surg 2005 Jul;190(1):1-3.

"Practice makes perfect"...or does it?
Neubauer RL
Ann Intern Med 2005 Jul 5;143(1):87; author reply 88.

Oestrogen receptor-related receptor alpha (ERRalpha) and oestrogen receptors (ERalpha and ERbeta) exhibit different gene expression in human colorectal tumour progression.
Cavallini A, Notarnicola M, Giannini R, Montemurro S, Lorusso D, Visconti A, Minervini F, Caruso MG.
Eur J Cancer 2005 Jun 8;.

We have investigated the presence of oestrogen receptor-related (ERR) mRNA in human colorectal tumour tissues and adjacent
normal mucosa by reverse transcriptase and nested-polymerase chain reaction. ERRalpha was found in 100% of the patients and ERRgamma in approximately 30% while ERRbeta was not detected at all. The multiplex PCR analysis showed elevated levels of ERRalpha mRNA in tumour tissue compartment as compared to normal mucosa, whereas ERRgamma mRNA was found in lower levels but in both tissue compartments. In contrast, oestrogen receptor (ERalpha and ERbeta) mRNA levels were shown to be decreased in tumour tissues. A positive correlation was observed between ERalpha and ERbeta and between ERalpha and ERRalpha, respectively, in normal mucosa but not in tumour tissue. ERRalpha expression in tumour tissues significantly increased from TNM stages II to IV, whereas both ERs progressively declined. These findings suggest that ERRalpha, as well as the two ERs, might play a critical role in the progression of the colorectal cancer.

Predicting bacteriuria in urogynecology patients.
Rahn DD, Boreham MK, Allen KE, Nihira MA, Schaffer JI.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;192(5):1376-8.

OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine whether reagent strip testing can predict bacteriuria in urogynecology patients. STUDY DESIGN: All women undergoing urodynamic evaluations from June 1997 to October 2001 were identified by using a computerized database. Urine culture results were compared with reagent strip testing. Significant bacteriuria was defined as greater than 10(5) colony-forming units per milliliter. RESULTS: Bacteriuria prevalence was 8.6% (n = 51). Sensitivity and specificity of nitrites were 0.51, (95% CI, 0.31-0.66) and 0.991, (95% CI, 0.974-0.998), respectively. Blood had a lower sensitivity (0.35, 95% CI, 0.20-0.54) and specificity (0.80, 95% CI, 0.75-0.84). Leukocyte esterase was similar to blood with a sensitivity of 0.28 (95% CI, 0.14-0.45) and specificity of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.78-0.87). No combination of tests offered improved sensitivity or specificity over nitrites alone. CONCLUSION: Nitrite dipstick testing has excellent specificity for bacteriuria in urogynecologic patients. These results support the treatment of women with positive nitrites who are preparing to undergo urodynamics without obtaining culture.

The incidence of urinary tract injury during hysterectomy: a prospective analysis based on universal cystoscopy.
Vakili B, Chesson RR, Kyle BL, Shobeiri SA, Echols KT, Gist R, Zheng YT, Nolan TE.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;192(5):1599-604.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of urinary tract injury due to hysterectomy for benign disease. STUDY DESIGN: Patients were enrolled prospectively from 3 sites. All patients undergoing abdominal, vaginal, or laparoscopic hysterectomy for benign disease underwent diagnostic cystourethroscopy. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-one patients participated. Ninety-six percent (24/25) of urinary tract injuries were detected intraoperatively. There were 8 cases of ureteral injury (1.7%) and 17 cases of bladder injury (3.6%). Ureteral injury was associated with concurrent prolapse surgery (7.3% vs 1.2%; P = .025). Bladder injury was associated with concurrent anti-incontinence procedures (12.5% vs 3.1%; P = .049). Abdominal hysterectomy was associated with a higher incidence of ureteral injury (2.2% vs 1.2%) but this was not significant. Only 12.5% of ureteral injuries and 35.3% of bladder injuries were detected before cystoscopy. CONCLUSION: The incidence of urinary tract injury during hysterectomy is 4.8%. Surgery for prolapse or incontinence increases the risk. Routine use of cystoscopy during hysterectomy should be considered.

Incidence of perioperative complications of urogynecologic surgery in elderly women.
Stepp KJ, Barber MD, Yoo EH, Whiteside JL, Paraiso MF, Walters MD.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2005 May;192(5):1630-6.

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for perioperative complications in elderly women who undergo urogynecologic surgery. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients > or = 75 years old who underwent urogynecologic surgery between January 1999 and December 2003 was performed. Demographics, comorbidities, and significant perioperative complications were recorded. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification were calculated to summarize the patients' overall perioperative risk. Logistic regression was used to identify independent risk factors for perioperative complications. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty-seven patients who were > or = 75 years old met the inclusion criteria; 25.8% of the patients had a significant perioperative complication. The most common perioperative complication was blood transfusion or significant blood loss, pulmonary edema, and postoperative congestive heart failure. Independent risk factors that were predictive of a patient having a perioperative complication were the length of surgery, coronary artery disease, and peripheral vascular disease. The Charlson Comorbidity Index and American Society of Anesthesiologists classification did not predict perioperative complications in this population. CONCLUSION: Pre-existing cardiovascular disease increases the risk of a significant perioperative complication in elderly women who undergo urogynecologic surgery. However, the overall perioperative morbidity rate in elderly women who undergo urogynecologic surgery is low.

[Urological manifestations of acute appendicitis]
Tundidor Bermudez AM, Amado Dieguez JA, Montes de Oca Mastrapa JL
Arch Esp Urol 2005 Apr;58(3):207-12.

OBJECTIVES: To identify the most frequent urinary tract symptoms of acute appendicitis. To determine the findings in urine analysis. To establish statistically the relationships between age, sex, duration of abdominal pain, appendix position and the evolution stage with the findings on clinical history and urine analysis. METHODS: We studied 500 consecutive patients undergoing surgery for acute appendicitis registering all data specified in the objectives . The chi-square test was used to establish statistical relationships . RESULTS: One third of the patients showed some urinary symptoms; right flank pain and dysuria were the most frequent symptoms. Urinary sediment showed pyuria > 10 cells per high-power field in 1/7 patients, and more than 3 red blood cells per high-power field in 1/6. 1/7 patients presented proteinuria; and 1/77 presented casts. Urinary symptoms, proteinuria, and urinary casts appeared more frequently in patients older than 59 years; pyuria in the group between 15-19 years; and microhematuria in females. Pelvic and retrocecal appendix positions were associated with a higher incidence of voiding symptoms. Duration of abdominal pain and evolution stage did not have any statistical relationship with either symptoms or urine analysis findings. CONCLUSIONS: Urinary tract symptoms are frequent in acute appendicitis; their presence should not exclude the diagnosis of this disease. Urine analysis is not useful to rule out the existence of acute appendicitis.

The impact of operative complexity on patient risk factors.
Aust JB, Henderson W, Khuri S, Page CP.
Ann Surg 2005 Jun;241(6):1024-7; discussion 1027-8.

OBJECTIVE: The VA National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) formula for risk factors was applied to the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA)/University Hospital (UH) database. Its applicability to a civilian organization was established. Logistic regression analysis of the UH database revealed that operative complexity was significantly related to mortality only at high complexity levels. Patient risk factors were the major determinants of operative mortality for most civilian surgical cases. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Since 1994, the NSQIP has collected preoperative risk factors, intraoperative data, 30-day morbidity, and mortality within the VA health system. The VA formula to predict 30-day postoperative mortality was applied to our UH patients (N = 8593). The c-index of .907, a statistical measure of accuracy, compared favorably to the VA patient c-index of .89. The UH database did not include a surrogate for operative complexity. We were elated by the predictive accuracy but had concern that operative complexity needed further evaluation. METHODS: Operative complexity was ascribed to each of the 8593 UH cases, and logistic regression analyses were compared with and without operative complexity. Operative complexity was graded on a scale of 1 to 5; 5 was the most complex. RESULTS: Without operative complexity, a c-index was .915. With operative complexity: an even higher c-index of .941 was reached. The large volume of level 2-3 operative cases obscured to a degree the effect of operative difficulty on mortality. CONCLUSION: Operative complexity played a major role in risk estimation, but only at the extreme. The dominance of cases of midlevel complexity masked the effect of higher complexity cases on mortality. In any individual case, operative complexity must be added to estimate operative mortality accurately. Patient risk factors alone accounted for operative mortality for operations less than level 4 (95% of patients).

Human papillomaviruses of the mucosal type are present in some cases of extragenital Bowen's disease.
Zheng S, Adachi A, Shimizu M, Shibata SI, Yasue S, Sakakibara A, Sugiura M, Nagasaka T, Tomita Y.
Br J Dermatol 2005 Jun;152(6):1243-7.

Summary Background Bowen's disease in the genital area is generally considered to be caused by mucosal high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs). However, the detection rate and spectrum of HPVs in extragenital Bowen's disease are various and it is not clear to what extent HPV is involved in its pathogenesis. Objectives To assess the degree of association of HPV in extragenital cases by examining detection rates, types, quantities and localization of HPV. Methods A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach that we had previously established, which can give sensitive detection of a broad range of HPVs from cutaneous [including epidermodysplasia verruciformis-related HPVs (EV-HPVs)] to mucosal HPVs, was applied to samples from 41 patients with extragenital Bowen's disease and normal skin samples from 48 individuals. Semiquantitative L1-PCR and tyramide-based in situ hybridization (ISH) were also employed for positive cases. Results HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group were detected in three patients with Bowen's disease (7%; two HPV 16 and one HPV 33), with 10(1)-10(3) copy equivalents per diploid amount of cellular DNA. They were distributed among most nuclei of tumour cells but in none of the cells of adjacent normal skin. HPVs belonging to the cutaneous group were detected in two patients (5%; HPV 27 and HPV 76) at 10(-2)-10(-3) copy equivalents, the same level as in a normal skin specimen positive for type 23 EV-HPV. No positive signals were observed by ISH. Conclusions HPVs belonging to the mucosal high-risk group may participate in the development of extragenital Bowen's disease.

Psoriasis: dysregulation of innate immunity.
Bos JD, de Rie MA, Teunissen MB, Piskin G.
Br J Dermatol 2005 Jun;152(6):1098-107.

Summary The current understanding of the function of natural killer (NK) T cells in innate immunity and their potential to control acquired specific immunity, as well as the remarkable efficacy of antitumour necrosis factor-alpha biological treatments in psoriasis, forces us to refine the current T-cell hypothesis of psoriasis pathogenesis, and to give credit to the role of innate immunity. Psoriasis might be envisioned to be a genetically determined triggered state of otherwise dormant innate immunity. This aggravated state of innate immunity is represented by the activity of NK T cells, dendritic cells, neutrophils and keratinocytes, leading to the recruitment and activation of preferentially type 1 T cells, possibly in an antigen-independent way. Keratinocytes in psoriasis then are sensitive to the effects of T-cell activation and cytokine production, interferon (IFN)-gamma, by responding with psoriasiform hyperplasia. The chronic inflammation of psoriatic lesions suggests that this might be due to a deficiency in downregulation processes (e.g. a defect in the regulatory T-cell repertoire) and/or the persistence of an unknown trigger resulting in an exaggerated innate immune response.

Infliximab treatment results in significant improvement in the quality of life of patients with severe psoriasis: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Feldman SR, Gordon KB, Bala M, Evans R, Li S, Dooley LT, Guzzo C, Patel K, Menter A, Gottlieb AB.
Br J Dermatol 2005 May;152(5):954-60.

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a chronic disease that significantly diminishes the health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Infliximab is a chimeric, tumour necrosis factor alpha monoclonal antibody that has been shown to improve the signs and symptoms of plaque psoriasis. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of infliximab induction therapy on the HRQOL of patients with severe plaque psoriasis. METHODS: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 249 patients were randomly assigned to receive intravenous infusions of 3 or 5 mg kg(-1) of infliximab or placebo and were treated at weeks 0, 2 and 6. Patients completed the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) at baseline and week 10. RESULTS: Infliximab induction therapy resulted in a substantial improvement in HRQOL. At week 10, patients in the infliximab 3- and 5-mg kg(-1) groups showed a median percentage improvement in DLQI scores of 84.0% and 91.0%, respectively, compared with 0% in the placebo group (P < 0.001). The median decrease from baseline in DLQI score at week 10 was 8.0 and 10.0 for the 3 and 5 mg kg(-1) infliximab groups, respectively, compared with 0 in the placebo group (P < 0.001). Thirty-three per cent and 40% of patients in the 3 and 5 mg kg(-1) infliximab groups, respectively, had a DLQI score of 0 at week 10, compared with 2% in the placebo group (P < 0.001). There was a strong correlation between the percentage change from baseline at week 10 in Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) scores and the percentage change in DLQI scores during the same period (Spearman's correlation, 0.61, P < 0.001). When the infliximab and placebo treatment groups were combined, patients with at least 75% improvement in PASI scores between baseline and week 10 had a greater mean improvement in DLQI scores (81%) than those with 50-75% improvement in PASI during the same period (60%). CONCLUSIONS: Infliximab induction therapy resulted in significant improvement in HRQOL in patients with severe psoriasis.

Current severe psoriasis and the rule of tens.
Finlay AY.
Br J Dermatol 2005 May;152(5):861-7.

This review addresses the problems of defining severity of psoriasis. Concepts of severity depend on the timescale perspective from which judgement is made. Measurement needs to include assessment of signs, impact on the patient's life and the history of the disease. The concept of severity in relationship to quality of life measurement scores has been defined, so it is now possible to postulate a standard, easily remembered concept to help define 'severe psoriasis' in the clinic. The proposed Rule of Tens for current severe psoriasis from the clinician's viewpoint is: 'Current Severe Psoriasis = Body Surface Area involved > 10% or Psoriasis Area and Severity Index score > 10 or Dermatology Life Quality Index score > 10'.

Short stricture of the rectum regressing on discontinuation of hormone replacement therapy: endoscopic appearance, multiple biopsies and clinical improvement insufficient for diagnosis.
Hoff G, Wiig J, Reed W, Hole KH, Scheistroen M, Henriksen H
Scand J Gastroenterol 2005 Mar;40(3):365-7.

A short, benign-looking stricture of the rectum presented itself clinically as subileus in a middle-aged woman after 5 years on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and 8 years after curative surgery for cancer of the ovaries. Radiological work-up and multiple, repeated biopsies supported the endoscopically appearing benign nature of the lesion, and the stricture subsided after discontinuation of HRT. Re-introduction of HRT again caused subileus. At surgery, there was no suspicion of malignant disease. Histological examination of the resection specimen did, however, show metastasis from the ovarian cancer.

Breast cancer.
Veronesi U, Boyle P, Goldhirsch A, Orecchia R, Viale G.
Lancet 2005 May;365(9472):1727-41.

Breast cancer remains a public-health issue on a global scale. We report new information about the disease from the past 5 years. Early age at first birth, increasing parity, and tamoxifen use are related to long-term lifetime reduction in breast-cancer risk. Ductal carcinomas in situ has been suggested to be renamed ductal intraepithelial neoplasia to emphasise its non-life-threatening nature. An alternative approach, the progenitor/stem cell theory, predicts that only some tumour cells cause cancer progression and that these should be targeted by treatment. Mammography and ultrasonography are still the most effective for women with non-dense and dense breast tissues, respectively. Additionally, MRI, lymphatic mapping, the nipple-sparing mastectomy, partial breast irradiation, neoadjuvant systemic therapy, and adjuvant treatments are promising for subgroups of breast-cancer patients. Although tamoxifen can be offered for endocrine-responsive disease, aromatase inhibitors are increasingly used. Assessment of potential molecular targets is now important in primary diagnosis. Tyrosine-kinase inhibitors and other drugs with anti-angiogenesis properties are currently undergoing preclinical investigations.

Insulin independence after living-donor distal pancreatectomy and islet allotransplantation.
Matsumoto S, Okitsu T, Iwanaga Y, Noguchi H, Nagata H, Yonekawa Y, Yamada Y, Fukuda K, Tsukiyama K, Suzuki H, Kawasaki Y, Shimodaira M, Matsuoka K, Shibata T, Kasai Y, Maekawa T, Shapiro J, Tanaka K
Lancet 2005 May 7;365(9471):1642-4.

Rising demand for islet transplantation will lead to severe donor shortage in the near future, especially in countries where cadaveric organ donation is scarce. We undertook a successful transplantation of living-donor islets for unstable diabetes. The recipient was a 27-year-old woman who had had brittle, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus for 12 years. The donor, who was a healthy 56-year-old woman and mother of the recipient, underwent a distal pancreatectomy. After isolation, 408 114 islet equivalents were transplanted immediately. The transplants functioned immediately and the recipient became insulin-independent 22 days after the operation. The donor had no complications and both women showed healthy glucose tolerance. Transplantation of living-donor islets from the distal pancreas can be sufficient to reverse brittle diabetes.

[Pathophysiology of infection on orthopedic biomaterials]
Ader F, Bernard L.
Presse Med 2005 Apr 9;34(7):533-6.

Orthopedic biomaterials are foreign bodies and the molecular architecture of their surfaces provides a point of attachment for bacteria. This adherence is made possible through the interaction of the protein interface and the bacterial adhesions. Bacterial colonies use slime and biofilms as means of protection. The development of bacteria towards a reversible state of stationary growth or microcolony variants permits their survival. Microparticles released by biomaterials cause the chronic inflammation associated with the aseptic loosening of prostheses. Some bacterial sub-populations develop transitory resistance to bactericidal antibiotics in the presence of these materials.

[Adipositas. A somatic or psychic disorder?]
Hauner H.
Chirurg 2005 Jun 11;.

Obesity, defined as a body mass index of >/=30 kg/m(2), is a modern epidemic and is increasing worldwide. Depending on genetic make-up, lifestyle factors such as nutrition, physical activity, and psychosocial conditions are the main determinants of its manifestation and severity. Numerous epidemiological studies show consistently that obesity is associated with many comorbidities and, moreover, reduces life expectancy. For this reason, there is a need for evidence-based treatment considering the individual risk. For patients with extreme obesity exceeding a BMI of 40 kg/m(2), surgical intervention is the most effective treatment, not only to improve most somatic and psychological comorbidities significantly but also to prolong life.

[Social and political aspects of adipositas.].
Pudel V, Ellrott T.
Chirurg 2005 May 20;.

There is a consensus in the scientific community on the diagnostic, health, and economic implications of overweight and obesity, but therapeutic results - with a negative energy balance as the main concept of pathogenesis - are limited. Latest scientific studies did change the paradigm: instead of attributing obesity to patients' lack of willpower, genetic disposition and environmental factors are now recognized as the main contributors to this epidemic. In consequence, unsuccessful preventive strategies have to be replaced by setting orientated those that focus much more on environmental changes promoting more physical activity and less energy intake. This could even be done by changing relevant laws. Such changes could facilitate individual behaviour changes despite evolutionary predisposition. Acknowledging obesity as a chronic disease would be the first important step.

[In-vitro study of the cellular response of human fibroblasts cultured on alloplastic hernia meshes Influence of mesh material and structure.]
Langer C, Schwartz P, Krause P, Mohammadi H, Kulle B, Schaper A, Fuzesi L, Becker H.
Chirurg 2005 May 20;.

BACKGROUND: The biocompatibility of meshes in hernia surgery seems to be influenced markedly by the amount of the selected material and its structure. Fibroblasts play a major key role during the process of mesh incorporation. This study was performed to investigate differences in cell morphology and proliferation of human fibroblasts cultured on different polypropylene meshes.METHODS: In the present in vitro study the cellular response of human fibroblasts was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), comparing three different polypropylene meshes: a newly constructed low-weight and microporous mesh (NK1), a low-weight and macroporous mesh with absorbable polyglactin filaments (Vypro), and a heavy-weight and microporous mesh (BiomeshP1). Human fibroblasts (1,5.10(5) cells) were incubated with the meshes (each 12 mm(2)) for 6 hours, 5 days, 2, 4, 6, and 12 weeks. Computer-assisted morphometry of the fibroblast/mesh surface ratio served to reflect the biological cell response.RESULTS: The Vypro mesh showed the significantly highest fibroblast density during the first 6 weeks, but cell growth was nearly exclusively limited to the polyglactin filaments. At 3 months, after reabsorption of the polyglactin, the fibroblast-coated polypropylene mesh surface was only 50% compared to NK1 and BiomeshP1. The morphologic aspect of the fibroblasts on the BiomeshP1 mesh was much more degenerative and unphysiological, compared to NK1 and Vypro, with isolated, single cells instead of a broad, connective growth. The BiomeshP1 showed a significantly higher fibroblast proliferation around the nodes of the mesh compared to the straight filaments. On the NK1 mesh fibroblasts exclusively proliferated on the filaments but not on the pressed mesh surface.CONCLUSIONS: The polymer surface and structure appears to be of major importance for the biocompatibility of meshes: human fibroblasts preferably grow on low-weight meshes, thin filaments, and mesh nodes. Heavy-weight meshes induce degenerative cell reactions. Polyglactin seems to further improve cell proliferation whereas a pressed mesh surface without pores hinders fibroblast growth.

Role of interleukin-18 in allergy and autoimmunity: An explanation for the hygiene hypothesis.
Mojtahedi Z, Ghaderi A.
Med Hypotheses 2005;65(2):305-7.

The possibility that the hygiene hypothesis is the most reasonable explanation for the increased prevalence of both allergy (in which the immune response is dominated by Th2 cells) and Th1-mediated autoimmunity is supported by the observations that exposure of humans to microbial agents in early life can exert protection against these disorders later. However, there still remains a question about how environmental microbes can decrease both Th1 and Th2 immune-mediated disorders, the two opposite spectrums of the immune responses. Cytokines are considered the main determining factors in the initial differentiation of T cells to Th1 and Th2 subsets. IL-18 as a multifunctional cytokine is capable of polarizing the immune response to both of these distinct subsets depending on the genetic background and cytokine milieu. It is hypothesized that the reduced exposure to microbial agents in early life leads to the aberrant production of IL-18, which in turn influences individuals quite differently depending on their genetic background. In genetically predisposed individuals to allergy, it augments Th2 responses and in genetically predisposed individuals to Th1-autoimmunity it accelerates Th1 responses.

Perineal hamartoma with accessory scrotum, anorectal anomaly, and hypospadias-a rare association with embryological significance: case report.
Ramzisham AR, Thambidorai CR.
Pediatr Surg Int 2005 Jun;21(6):478-81.

A rare case of a newborn male with a perineal hamartoma, accessory scrotum, anorectal anomaly, hypospadias, and bifid scrotum is reported, with discussion of its embryological significance. Only three other cases with such a combination of anomalies have been reported in the English literature. malformation

Congenital pouch colon with prune belly syndrome and megalourethra.
Bangroo AK, Tiwari S, Khetri R, Sahni M
Pediatr Surg Int 2005 May 3;.

Congenital pouch colon (CPC), an unusual high anorectal malformation in which a varying length of colon is replaced by a dilated pouch, has appeared in a number of case reports and series published in the English literature. There is only one case report of its association with prune belly syndrome (also known as triad syndrome, Eagle-Barrett syndrome, and abdominal muscle deficiency syndrome). We report the description and management of this rare association in a male neonate with CPC, prune belly syndrome, and congenital megalourethra.

Geometric analysis of the V-Y advancement flap and its clinical applications.
Andrades PR, Calderon W, Leniz P, Bartel G, Danilla S, Benitez S
Plast Reconstr Surg 2005 May;115(6):1582-90.

BACKGROUND: Geometry is fundamental in the comprehension of local flap design. The purpose of this study was to discuss the differences between the V-Y advancement flap and other local flaps, understand its geometry, and analyze its clinical applications. METHODS: The analysis was based on qualitative measurements of an injury, taking into consideration the following dimensions: largest diameter, shortest diameter, and depth. Standardization of the flap design consisted of directing its advancement over the shortest diameter and making the V base match the size of the largest diameter. The flap was analyzed in two planes: the horizontal plane includes the V-Y design and the vertical plane includes the flap pedicle. The height of the flap can be obtained by simple trigonometry, taking into consideration the largest diameter and alpha angle in the horizontal plane. In the vertical plane, where the pedicle and pivot plane are positioned, for known shortest diameter and depth, the final depth of the pivot plane can be calculated using Pythagoras' principles. RESULTS: This analysis was applied to 25 patients with adequate skin coverage at follow-up. A correction factor was added to reduce the overdeepening of the vertical plane calculations. The final concepts for clinical application in the classic deep pedicle V-Y flap design are to calculate the length of the V by modifying the alpha angle and to move the pivot plane deeper to accomplish optimal flap movement. CONCLUSIONS: Using these principles, tension-free closure of the Y and appropriate advancement of the flap are obtained.

Institutional practice guidelines on management of pelvic fracture-related hemodynamic instability: do they make a difference?
Balogh Z, Caldwell E, Heetveld M, D'Amours S, Schlaphoff G, Harris I, Sugrue M
J Trauma 2005 Apr;58(4):778-82.

BACKGROUND: The management of patients with hemodynamic instability related to pelvic fracture is a major challenge, with high morbidity and mortality. Evidence-based institutional practice guidelines (PG) were developed as a strategy to optimize the care of these patients. The aims of this study were to evaluate the adherence to the new PG and compare the outcomes before and after their implementation. METHODS: Major blunt trauma patients (Injury Severity Score [ISS] > 15) with hemodynamic instability (initial base deficit > 6 mEq/L or received > 6 units of packed red blood cells [PRBCs] during the first 12 hours) related to pelvic fracture were investigated. Patients presenting with ongoing bleeding from other regions or with severe head injury (Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9) were excluded. The pre-PG group (n = 17) were patients managed during the 18 months ending on December 31, 2001. The post-PG group (n = 14) consisted of patients managed during the subsequent 18 months. Demographics, ISS, shock severity, resuscitation, and outcome data were prospectively collected. The adherence to the key steps of PG was evaluated retrospectively in the pre-PG and prospectively in the post-PG group, including abdominal clearance (AC) with diagnostic peritoneal aspiration/lavage or ultrasound (<15 minutes), noninvasive pelvic binding (PB) (<15 minutes), pelvic angiography (PA) (<90 minutes after admission), and minimally invasive orthopedic fixation (MIOF) (<24 hours). Data are presented as mean +/- SEM or percentages. RESULTS: The pre-PG and post-PG groups were similar regarding age (40 +/- 4 years vs. 42 +/- 6 years), gender (both 71% male), ISS (39 +/- 3 vs. 37 +/- 4), admission base deficit (9 +/- 1 vs. 10 +/- 1) admission systolic blood pressure (116 +/- 7 vs. 112 +/- 6 mm Hg), Glasgow Coma Scale score (12 +/- 1 vs. 12 +/- 1), and PRBC transfusion in the first 12 hours (9 +/- 2 U vs. 9 +/- 2 U). The adherence to the guidelines in the post-PG period was as follows: AC, 100%; PB, 86% (p < 0.05 based on t test or chi test); PA, 93% (p < 0.05 based on t test or chi test); and MIOF, 86%. In the pre-PG period, adherence to the guidelines was as follows: AC, 65%; PB, 0%; PA, 30%; and MIOF 52%. In the post-PG period, the 24-hour PRBC transfusion decreased from 16 +/- 2 U to 11 +/- 1 U and the mortality decreased from 35% to 7% (p < 0.05 based on t test or chi test for both). CONCLUSION: The adherence to the PG as a reflection of optimal management was significantly improved. PG focusing particular on timely hemorrhage control reduced the 24-hour transfusion requirements and the mortality rate in the post-PG group.

Iliac vein injuries in hemodynamically unstable patients with pelvic fracture caused by blunt trauma.
Kataoka Y, Maekawa K, Nishimaki H, Yamamoto S, Soma K
J Trauma 2005 Apr;58(4):704-8; discussion 708-10.

BACKGROUND: Major pelvic venous injuries secondary to blunt trauma can be a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. This study aimed to elucidate the clinical significance of iliac vein injuries demonstrated by venography in patients with blunt pelvic injuries who remained unstable even after transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE). METHODS: We reviewed the records of 72 patients with unstable pelvic fracture who presented with shock at our center after blunt trauma from 1999 through 2003. The average Injury Severity Score was 34.3 in this study population. RESULTS: TAE was the first method of choice to control bleeding from pelvic fracture in 61 patients. Thirty-six patients recovered from shock after TAE. Eighteen of 25 who did not recover from shock died. In 11 of these 25, transfemoral venography with a balloon catheter was performed, revealing significant venous extravasation in 9: common iliac vein in 5, internal iliac vein in 3, and external iliac vein in 1. The average Injury Severity Score of patients with iliac vein injury was 45.8. Treatments for venous injuries were laparotomy for hemostasis (n = 1, survivors = 0), retroperitoneal gauze packing (n = 3, survivors = 1), and endovascular stent placement (n = 3, survivors = 3). Two patients suffered from cardiac arrest before treatment for venous injury. External fixations were performed after TAE according to fracture type. CONCLUSION: The iliac vein injury is the principal cause of hemorrhagic shock in some patients with unstable pelvic fractures after blunt trauma. Venography is useful for identifying iliac vein injuries.

A fatal case of necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens.
Curtis CE, Chock S, Henderson T, Holman MJ
Am Surg 2005 Mar;71(3):228-30.

A patient with a history of type II diabetes mellitus (DM), end stage renal disease (ESRD), and congestive heart failure (CHF) developed necrotizing fasciitis caused by Serratia marcescens after scraping his leg on rocks in a river while fishing. Aggressive management with surgical debridement, antibiotics, and pressure support was unsuccessful.

Anal melanoma in the era of sentinel lymph node mapping: a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge.
Olsha O, Mintz A, Gimon Z, Gold Deutch R, Rabin I, Halevy A, Reissman P
Tech Coloproctol 2005 Apr;9(1):60-2.

Melanoma of the anal canal is a rare malignancy that often has an atypical presentation. Locoregional metastases, which are often present at the initial presentation, may occur in both groin and pelvic lymph nodes, but the utility of lymph node dissection remains unknown. We explored the possibility of applying the technique of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping to anal melanoma. SLN mapping was performed in 2 patients with anal melanoma. Radioactive tracer and blue dye were injected around the lesions. The SLN was identified pre-operatively by lymphoscintigraphy, and at surgery with a hand-held gamma detector and by visualization of the dye. The SLN was identified in both patients, only in the groin in one and only in the presacral region in the other. One patient had a wide local excision of the anal lesion with house flap anoplasty, while the other had abdominoperineal resection with total mesorectal excision. There were no SLN metastases in either patient. The technique of SLN mapping and biopsy is easily adapted to surgery for malignant melanoma of the anus. SLN mapping and biopsy could aid in planning surgical strategy, but definitive conclusions may only be reached after more experience has been acquired.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome-related diarrhea.
Kwan AC, Chau TN, Tong WL, Tsang OT, Tso EY, Chiu MC, Yu WC, Lai TS
J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2005 Apr;20(4):606-10.

Abstract Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an emerging infectious disease and diarrhea has been reported in up to 76% of cases. The purpose of the present paper was to carry out a retrospective study of the clinical and demographic data of SARS patients with diarrhea in Princess Margaret Hospital. Methods: From 1 to 31 March 2003, hospital records from 240 patients with confirmed SARS were studied. Patients with watery stool of >/=3 times/day for at least 3 consecutive days were defined as the diarrhea group. Clinical and demographic data were compared between the diarrhea and non-diarrhea groups. Chest X-ray (CXR) scores during the peak of diarrhea period were recorded by a respiratory physician. These CXR scores were correlated with the peak frequency of diarrhea by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Results: Diarrhea occurred in 20.4% of patients after admission. Female patients were predominant with a female to male ratio of 6:1 (P < 0.001) and 69.4% of patients were living in Amoy Gardens Estate (P = 0.01). The proportions of patients requiring ventilatory care and mortality in the diarrhea group were 8.2% and 2%, respectively, which were significantly lower than those in the non-diarrhea group (27.6% and 16.2%, P < 0.005). The CXR scores during the peak of diarrhea were not correlated with the maximum frequency of diarrhea (r = -0.09, P = 0.5). Conclusions: A total of 20.4% of SARS patients had the complication of diarrhea after hospital admission. Both female sex and being a resident of Amoy Gardens Estate were associated with diarrhea. The diarrhea group had a better prognosis.

Does paying for obesity therapy make cents?

Klein S
Gastroenterology 2005 Mar;128(3):530.

Deep vein thrombosis.
Kyrle PA, Eichinger S
Lancet 2005 Apr;365(9465):1163-74.

Deep vein thrombosis and its sequelae pulmonary embolism and post-thrombotic syndrome are some of the most common disorders. A thrombus either arises spontaneously or is caused by clinical conditions including surgery, trauma, or prolonged bed rest. In these instances, prophylaxis with low-dose anticoagulation is effective. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis relies on imaging techniques such as ultrasonography or venography. Only about 25% of symptomatic patients have a thrombus. Thus, clinical risk assessment and D-dimer measurement are used to rule out deep vein thrombosis. Thrombus progression and embolisation can be prevented by low-molecular-weight heparin followed by vitamin K antagonists. Use of these antagonists for 3-6 months is sufficient for many patients. Those with antithrombin deficiency, the lupus anticoagulant, homozygous or combined defects, or with previous deep vein thrombosis can benefit from indefinite anticoagulation. In cancer patients, low-molecular-weight heparin is more effective than and is at least as safe as vitamin K antagonists. Women seem to have a lower thrombosis risk than men, but pregnancy or use of oral contraceptives or hormone replacement therapy represent important risk factors.

Dietary fiber and body weight.
Slavin JL
Nutrition 2005 Mar;21(3):411-8.

OBJECTIVE: This review provides an update of recent studies of dietary fiber and weight and includes a discussion of potential mechanisms of how dietary fiber can aid weight loss and weight maintenance. METHODS: Human studies published on dietary fiber and body weight were reviewed and summarized. Dietary fiber content of popular low-carbohydrate diets were calculated and are presented. RESULTS: Epidemiologic support that dietary fiber intake prevents obesity is strong. Fiber intake is inversely associated with body weight and body fat. In addition, fiber intake is inversely associated with body mass index at all levels of fat intake after adjusting for confounding factors. Results from intervention studies are more mixed, although the addition of dietary fiber generally decreases food intake and, hence, body weight. Many mechanisms have been suggested for how dietary fiber aids in weight management, including promoting satiation, decreasing absorption of macronutrients, and altering secretion of gut hormones. CONCLUSION: The average fiber intake of adults in the United States is less than half recommended levels and is lower still among those who follow currently popular low-carbohydrate diets, such as Atkins and South Beach. Increasing consumption of dietary fiber with fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and legumes across the life cycle is a critical step in stemming the epidemic of obesity found in developed countries. The addition of functional fiber to weight-loss diets should also be considered as a tool to improve success.

Upper Level of the Spina Bifida Defect: How Good Are We?
Bruner JP, Tulipan N, Dabrowiak ME, Luker KS, Walters K, Burns P, Reed G
Obstet Gynecol Surv 2005 Apr;60(4):214-215.

Whether prenatal or postnatal surgery is performed to repair spina bifida, the most important predictor of neurologic function is the upper level of the myelomeningocele lesion. This retrospective study was designed to determine how accurately sonography estimates this level. Included were 171 consecutive cases of spina bifida that were repaired in utero. Most diagnoses were made during a midtrimester obstetric ultrasound examination. The upper level of the lesion was assigned by community physicians before referral in the second trimester and by the investigators at Vanderbilt University Medical Center during a preoperative workup. In 111 cases, the level was established by a plain film x-ray examination or magnetic resonance image after delivery. Corresponding levels were available for comparison from 35 community examinations and from 111 examinations done at Vanderbilt. All 3 assigned levels were available in 35 cases.Community-assigned levels agreed perfectly with the postdelivery findings in 26% of cases. In 66% of cases, the findings agreed within 1 level and in 80% within 2 levels. In 38% of cases, levels assigned at Vanderbilt agreed exactly with the postdelivery level. Agreement within 1 level was achieved in 78% of cases and within 2 levels in 96%. Upper levels assigned at Vanderbilt were significantly more accurate than community-assigned levels. In cases assigned a level at Vanderbilt, however, accuracy improved over time, indicating a significant learning effect. Only in later cases were the Vanderbilt findings substantially more accurate than those obtained by community physicians.Prenatal estimation of the upper level of spina bifida lesions is far from perfect even under the best conditions. Physicians will require continuing education in proper techniques of ultrasonography.

Delays and difficulties in the diagnosis of lower urologic injuries in the context of pelvic fractures.
Ziran BH, Chamberlin E, Shuler FD, Shah M
J Trauma 2005 Mar;58(3):533-7.

BACKGROUND: This article describes the characteristics of missed lower urologic injuries at a level 1 trauma center using advanced trauma life support protocols. Between 1991 and 1996, 635 patients were treated for traumatic pelvic fractures. For the 43 patients with missed urologic diagnoses, the pelvic fracture pattern, initial evaluation, average delay to diagnosis and treatment, reason for the delay, and manner in which the lower urinary tract injury was discovered and treated were identified. RESULTS: Of 43 patients with pelvic fracture, 10 (23%) with concomitant urologic injury had initially missed diagnoses. Delay in diagnosis and treatment averaged 19 hours for missed intraperitoneal bladder ruptures and 6.7 days for missed extraperitoneal bladder ruptures. CONCLUSION: The findings show that 23% of all bladder and urethral disruptions associated with pelvic fractures were missed at initial evaluation. The pelvic fracture pattern, in addition to physical examination, should direct the urologic evaluation for trauma patients.

When is it safe to discharge asymptomatic patients with abdominal stab wounds?
Alzamel HA, Cohn SM
J Trauma 2005 Mar;58(3):523-5.

BACKGROUND: This study sought to determine the time from hospital presentation to surgical intervention for hemodynamically stable patients with abdominal stab wounds. The objective was to identify the optimal time for observation of these asymptomatic patients before safe hospital discharge. METHODS: The authors reviewed a prospectively collected trauma database at their level 1 trauma center. The time from admission to surgery was noted in their patient population. All stab wound patients who underwent either peritoneal lavage or immediate surgery were excluded from the study. RESULTS: During a 7-year period, 650 asymptomatic patients with abdominal stab wounds were admitted for serial examination. The study showed that 567 of these patients had no abdominal surgical intervention, whereas 68 underwent abdominal surgery (15 left the center against medical advice). No patients were identified as requiring surgery more than 12 hours after presentation. CONCLUSION: It appears that asymptomatic patients with abdominal stab wounds may be discharged from the hospital after 12 hours of observation with little likelihood of missed injury.

Meta-analysis: a unifying meta-likelihood approach framing unobserved heterogeneity, study covariates, publication bias, and study quality.
Bohning D
Methods Inf Med 2005;44(1):127-35.

OBJECTIVES: This contribution provides a unifying concept for meta-analysis integrating the handling of unobserved heterogeneity, study covariates, publication bias and study quality. It is important to consider these issues simultaneously to avoid the occurrence of artifacts, and a method for doing so is suggested here. METHODS: The approach is based upon the meta-likelihood in combination with a general linear nonparametric mixed model, which lays the ground for all inferential conclusions suggested here. RESULTS: The concept is illustrated at hand of a meta-analysis investigating the relationship of hormone replacement therapy and breast cancer. The phenomenon of interest has been investigated in many studies for a considerable time and different results were reported. In 1992 a meta-analysis by Sillero-Arenas et al. concluded a small, but significant overall effect of 1.06 on the relative risk scale. Using the meta-likelihood approach it is demonstrated here that this meta-analysis is due to considerable unobserved heterogeneity. Furthermore, it is shown that new methods are available to model this heterogeneity successfully. It is argued further to include available study covariates to explain this heterogeneity in the meta-analysis at hand. CONCLUSIONS: The topic of HRT and breast cancer has again very recently become an issue of public debate, when results of a large trial investigating the health effects of hormone replacement therapy were published indicating an increased risk for breast cancer (risk ratio of 1.26). Using an adequate regression model in the previously published meta-analysis an adjusted estimate of effect of 1.14 can be given which is considerably higher than the one published in the meta-analysis of Sillero-Arenas et al. In summary, it is hoped that the method suggested here contributes further to a good meta-analytic practice in public health and clinical disciplines.

Cutaneous melanoma.
Thompson JF, Scolyer RA, Kefford RF
Lancet 2005 Feb 19;365(9460):687-701.

Episodic exposure of fair-skinned individuals to intense sunlight is thought to be responsible for the steadily increasing melanoma incidence worldwide over recent decades. Rarely, melanoma susceptibility is increased more than tenfold by heritable mutations in the cell cycle regulatory genes CDKN2A and CDK4. Effective treatment requires early diagnosis followed by surgical excision with adequately wide margins. Sentinel lymph node biopsy provides accurate staging, but no published results are yet available from clinical trials designed to assess the therapeutic efficacy of early complete regional node dissection in those with metastatic disease in a sentinel node. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy is one technique under investigation for non-invasive, in-situ assessment of sentinel nodes. Localised metastatic disease is best treated surgically. No postoperative adjuvant therapy is of proven value for improving overall survival, although numerous clinical trials of vaccines and cytokines are in progress. Medical therapies have contributed little to the control of established metastatic disease, but molecular pathways recently identified as being central to melanoma growth and apoptosis are under intense investigation for their potential as therapeutic targets.

Body piercing affecting laparoscopy: perioperative precautions.
Jacobs VR, Morrison JE Jr, Paepke S, Kiechle M
J Am Assoc Gynecol Laparosc 2004 Nov;11(4):537-41.

Piercing is an increasingly popular fashion trend mainly among adolescents. Umbilical piercing in particular can cause perioperative problems during laparoscopic procedures. We describe how to deal with this fashion trend in our institutions. First, any piercing needs to be documented during preoperative physical examination. During preoperative informed consent, patients are told that all pierced jewelry needs to be removed, preferably by the patient before the procedure. For the operation, patients may be offered the use of sterile "sleepers," which are substitutes made of plastic to avoid closure of the wound canal perioperatively. Postoperatively, most pierced jewelry can be put back into position after anesthesia has completely worn off. Only jewelry for piercings close to wounds (e. g., navel piercings) should not be reinserted until the skin is closed. Careful observation and increased hygienic effort to prevent local infection is necessary. To date, we have not seen any severe umbilical infection after laparoscopy. However, in several patients the umbilical pierced jewelry was back in the navel on the same day of surgery, sometimes immediately after waking from anesthesia. Hospital staff should know how to remove and substitute piercing jewelry as well as how to optimize hygienic care perioperatively to prevent umbilical wound infections. Time and effort for patient teaching and hygienic care are slightly increased.

Validating the functional capacity index: a comparison of predicted versus observed total body scores.
Schluter PJ, Neale R, Scott D, Luchter S, McClure RJ
J Trauma 2005 Feb;58(2):259-63.

BACKGROUND: The Functional Capacity Index (FCI) was designed to predict physical function 12 months after injury. We report a validation study of the FCI. METHODS: This was a consecutive case series registered in the Queensland Trauma Registry who consented to the prospective 12-month telephone-administered follow-up study. FCI scores measured at 12 months were compared with those originally predicted. RESULTS: Complete Abbreviated Injury Scale score information was available for 617 individuals, of whom 587 (95%) could be assigned at least one FCI score (range, 1-17). Agreement between the largest predicted FCI and observed FCI score was poor (kappa = 0.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.00-0.10) and explained only 1% of the variability in observed FCI. Using an encompassing model that included all FCI assignments, agreement remained poor (kappa = 0.05; 95% confidence interval, -0.02-0.12), and the model explained only 9% of the variability in observed FCI. CONCLUSION: The predicted functional capacity poorly agrees with actual functional outcomes. Further research should consider including other (noninjury) explanatory factors in predicting FCI at 12 months.

Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation.
Payette JR, Kohlenberg E, Leonardi L, Pabbies A, Kerr P, Liu KZ, Sowa MG
Plast Reconstr Surg 2005 Feb;115(2):539-46.

The objective of this study was to compare two noninvasive techniques, laser Doppler and optical spectroscopy, for monitoring hemodynamic changes in skin flaps. Animal models for assessing these changes in microvascular free flaps and pedicle flaps were investigated. A 2 x 3-cm free flap model based on the epigastric vein-artery pair and a reversed MacFarlane 3 x 10-cm pedicle flap model were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups, with groups 1 (n = 6) and 2 (n = 4) undergoing epigastric free flap surgery and groups 3 (n = 3) and 4 (n = 10) undergoing pedicle flap surgery. Groups 1 and 4 served as controls for each of the flap models. Groups 2 and 3 served as ischemia-reperfusion models. Optical spectroscopy provides a measure of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and blood volume, and the laser Doppler method measures blood flow. Optical spectroscopy proved to be consistently more reliable in detecting problems with arterial in flow compared with laser Doppler assessments. When spectroscopy was used in an imaging configuration, oxygen saturation images of the entire flap were generated, thus creating a visual picture of global flap health. In both single-point and imaging modes the technique was sensitive to vessel manipulation, with the immediate post operative images providing an accurate prediction of eventual outcome. This series of skin flap studies suggests a potential role for optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in the clinical assessment of skin flaps.

Diet, Anaerobic Bacterial Metabolism, and Colon Cancer: A Review of the Literature.
McGarr SE, Ridlon JM, Hylemon PB
J Clin Gastroenterol 2005 Feb;39(2):98-109.

Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated variations in the incidence of colon cancer between populations and socioeconomic groups. Differences in dietary habits have been implicated in the risk of developing colon cancer. Diet appears to influence our colonic microflora. Such variations may allow for future utilization of the fecal flora as markers for screening and diagnosis of colon cancer. The composition of the diet not only dictates the available substrates for the flora but also helps to establish predictable and competitive relationships between intestinal bacteria. To appreciate the significance of populations deemed high and low risk based on host flora, an understanding of several dynamic microbial relationships and metabolites produced is necessary. In this review, we explore the critical relationships between bile acid 7alpha-dehydroxylation, sulfidogenesis, methanogenesis, and how they relate to carbohydrate and bile acid metabolism. We summarize the chemopreventative, anticarcinogenic, and detoxifying activity of probiotics and prebiotics, as well as potential mechanisms for protection against colon cancer.

Defense mechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease.
Hyphantis TN, Triantafillidis JK, Pappa S, Mantas C, Kaltsouda A, Cherakakis P, Alamanos Y, Manousos ON, Mavreas VG
J Gastroenterol 2005 Jan;40(1):24-30.

BACKGROUND: Although psychiatric disturbances and personality features are possibly involved in inflammatory bowel disease, little attention has been given to the potential role of defense mechanisms in the formation, course, or prognosis of the disease. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether certain defense styles and ego mechanisms of defense are associated with inflammatory bowel disease, including both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. METHODS: Seventy-six consecutive unselected outpatients participated in the study. The sample consisted of 39 patients with Crohn's disease, 33 with ulcerative colitis, and 4 with an intermediate form of inflammatory bowel disease. The Symptom Distress Checklist (SCL-90-R), Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ), and Hostility and Direction of Hostility Questionnaire (HDHQ) were used. RESULTS: Crohn's disease patients presented a more immature defensive profile than ulcerative colitis patients, using a "maladaptive action" style, as well as "consumption" and "pseudo-altruism" defense mechanisms more often. These differences were statistically significant and they were independent of age, sex, educational level, disease extension, and pharmacologic treatment. A significant positive correlation was also found between disease activity and defensive profiles in both ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease patients in terms of psychiatric symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Crohn's disease patients presented a different and more immature defensive profile than patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition, the more psychologically mature inflammatory bowel disease patients had lower rates of relapses and surgical operations, providing evidence that these aspects of personality are likely to influence the patients' adaptation to the disease.

[Post-traumatic intramural hematoma of the colon.]
Crema M, Arrive L, Monnier-Cholley L, Tubiana J
J Radiol 2004 Dec;85(12 Pt 1):2039-41.

Intramural hematoma of the colon is a rare complication of blunt abdominal trauma. We report the case of a 32-year-old man who presented with abdominal pain related to blunt trauma. The initial diagnosis of post-traumatic intramural hematoma of the colon was performed at CT scan and proven at colonoscopy. Although the majority of cases warrant surgery, conservative therapy was proposed in the present case with spontaneous resolution of the hematoma demonstrated by CT scan.

Outcome of transvaginal excision of large rectal adenomas.
Fu T, Liu B, Zhang L, Wen Y
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Jan 26;.

PURPOSE: The purpose is to recommend a new approach-transvaginal excision-for large rectal adenomas and audit its results after being performed by dedicated surgeons at a specialized colorectal unit. METHODS: The surgical outcome of 11 patients undergoing transvaginal excision between July 1995 and March 2000 was reviewed. Data were collected retrospectively and no patients were lost to follow-up. RESULTS: Eleven patients underwent the procedure during the study period. Follow-up ranged from 7 to 75 months. There were complications in two patients. One had urinary retention, the other developed a rectal stenosis, which was resolved with multiple balloon dilatations. There was only one recurrence detected. None of the patients died. CONCLUSIONS: Transvaginal local excision is an alternative and feasible technique for the treatment of selected large sessile rectal adenomas that carries low mortality and complication rates.

IgA nephropathy in association with Crohn's disease.
Forshaw MJ, Guirguis O, Hennigan TW
Int J Colorectal Dis 2005 Jan 25;.

BACKGROUND: Urological complications of inflammatory bowel disease are seen in up to 25% of patients, but renal parenchymal disease is rarely reported. CASE REPORT: The authors describe a case of a 29-year-old man with clinical and radiological features of ileocaecal Crohn's disease. He had previously been investigated for painless macroscopic haematuria and a renal biopsy had revealed IgA nephropathy. Despite medical treatment, regular exacerbations of Crohn's disease were associated with deterioration in renal function and the development of haematuria. The patient eventually underwent surgical resection of the terminal ileum and caecum. His renal disease has remained quiescent for the last 5 years following resection.

Transgluteal Approach for Draining Pelvic Fluid Collections in Pediatric Patients.
Cahill AM, Baskin KM, Kaye RD, Fitz CR, Towbin RB
Radiology 2005 Jan 21;.

PURPOSE: To evaluate a transgluteal approach for draining pelvic fluid collections in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Institutional review board approval and informed consent for interventional procedures were obtained. From September 1995 to December 2002, 140 abdominopelvic fluid collections were drained at two institutions. Retrospective analysis of a prospectively gathered procedural database revealed that a transgluteal approach was used to drain 53 of these 140 collections (38%) in 51 patients (29 female, 22 male; mean age, 11.2 years; age range, 0.2-19 years). All patients received antibiotics before the procedure. A retrospective analysis was conducted of the patients' medical records and diagnostic imaging and interventional procedure findings, including the reason for referral; location, volume, and character of collections; method and equipment used for evacuation; duration of therapy; evidence of complications; results of microbiologic examination of specimens; and success rates. RESULTS: Transgluteal drainage was performed with computed tomographic (CT) guidance in 45 of the 53 collections (85%), with fluoroscopic guidance in three (6%), and with a combination of both modalities in five (9%). A drainage catheter was successfully placed in 49 collections; four small collections were aspirated without drain placement. Infected fluid was obtained from 41 collections, and serosanguineous fluid was obtained from 12 collections. The mean volume aspirated was 80 mL (2-600 mL). A positive culture was obtained at 28 of the 53 procedures. The mean duration of catheter placement was 4 days (range, 2-14 days). There were no major complications. CONCLUSION: The transgluteal approach to the drainage of abdominopelvic fluid collections with imaging guidance is safe and effective. (c) RSNA, 2005.

Effect of melatonin on wound healing in normal and pinealectomized rats.
Bulbuller N, Dogru O, Yekeler H, Cetinkaya Z, Ilhan N, Kirkil C
J Surg Res 2005 Jan;123(1):3-7.

Melatonin usage is increasing gradually, but reports of its effects on wound healing are inconsistent. It has been shown that the hormone is synthesized in and secreted from the gastrointestinal system independently of the pineal gland. We have investigated, by means of a comparative study on the healing of incision and anastomotic wounds, whether melatonin has an effect on wound healing independent of the pineal gland. Rats were divided in five groups (n = 10), all of which were subjected to small intestine anastomosis. The first group (control) was otherwise untreated. Exogenous melatonin was given to the rats in second group. The calvaria was opened then closed in the third group (sham operated), whereas the fourth group was pinealectomized and the fifth group were pinealectomized and then treated with melatonin. After anastomosis bursting pressures and incision wound breaking strength were measured on the 7th postoperative day, tissue hydroxyproline levels were determined, and histopathological investigation was performed. It was found that while collagen deposition and epithelization increased concurrently in incision wounds after pinealectomy, only collagen deposition increased at the anastomosis line. Exogenous melatonin decreased collagen synthesis and epithelium proliferation and had negative effects on wound healing in both normal and pinealectomized rats.

Current concepts of percutaneous abscess drainage in postoperative retention.
Theisen J, Bartels H, Weiss W, Berger H, Stein HJ, Siewert JR
J Gastrointest Surg 2005 Feb;9(2):280-3.

In recent years, percutaneous abscess drainage (PAD) of intraabdominal abscesses has become an important tool with regard to the treatment of intraabdominal sepsis. The aim of this study is to assess the value of PAD in the treatment of postoperative retentions. Between 1995 and 1999, the postoperative course of 3346 patients undergoing major abdominal surgery was analyzed. Mortality, morbidity, and comparison of different locations of intraabdominal abscesses were assessed. PAD was considered successful when the patient improved clinically within 24 hours, a decrease in the size of the abscess formation was noted, and complete recovery without further surgical intervention occurred. Out of 3346 operated patients, 174 (5.2%) were diagnosed as having an intraabdominal abscess formation and were treated by PAD. In 63 patients the abscess developed within the upper quadrants, in 66 patients the abscess developed within the lower quadrants, and in the remaining 45 patients the abscess developed within the retroperitoneal cavity or pelvis. The success rate of PAD was 85.6% with a morbidity rate of 4.6%. The least successful location for PAD was the left upper quadrant. Patients with abscess drainage in the right upper and lower quadrant experienced a high success rate. One patient died due to the PAD procedure. Unsuccessful PAD was closely related to an increase in mortality. In the case of intraabdominal abscess formation after visceral surgery, PAD should be the primary procedure. Attention should be paid to abscess formations in the left upper quadrant because there is an increased likelihood of complications caused by PAD.

Synchronous anal and penile cancers.
Wysocki WM, Komorowski AL, Kolodziejski LS, Wysocka J
Int J Urol 2004 Dec;11(12):1139-41.

Malignancies of the anogenital region have similar etiology, including viral infections, sexual
habits, social and educational factors. Condylomata acuminata represent precancerous lesions. In the available literature, we found no cases of synchronous cancers of anus and penis reported. We report a case of synchronous cancer of the penile foreskin and cancer of the anus in a 36 year-old man. The microscopic diagnosis of the anal lesion was squamous cell cancer, basaloid type. The penile lesion was squamous cell cancer, keratinizing type. Both cancers presented with the in situ component. Immunohistochemical staining (MIB-1) and histological features (koilocytosis, acanthosis and dyskeratosis) indirectly confirmed the past viral infection. Numerous etiological similarities in anogenital cancers entail careful clinical inspection in patients with a malignant lesion in this region and suggest searching for possible other concomitant cancers or precancerous lesions.